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Basic Grammatical StructuresEdit
This section primarily covers all the parts of speech: nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs. It will also describe how to integrate the various parts of speech into a coherent sentence by using particles. By the end of this section, you should have an understanding of how basic sentences are constructed.
Declaring something is so and so using rü 르Edit
- oro; 人; person
- hoksang; 学生; student
- ongki; 健기; healthy
There is no verb for the state-of-being like the verb "to be" in English. You can, however, declare what something is by attaching rü 르 to a noun or adjective only. (We will learn about adjectives in the section on adjectives later.)
Conjugating to the negative state-of-beingEdit
- eke; 友; friend
In Rangyan, negative, past and future tenses are all expressed by conjugation. We can conjugate rü 르 to either its negative, past or future tense to say A is not B; A was B; or A will be B. This may be a bit hard to grasp at first but all these state-of-being conjugations are regular.
First, for the negative, embed -om- in rü to yield r-om-ü > romü 로므.
- 学生르。 > 学生로므。
hoksang rü > hoksang romü
Is student > Is not student.
- 友르。 > 友로므。
eke rü > eke romü
Is friend > Is not friend.
- 健기르。 > 健기로므。
ongki rü > ongki romü
Is healthy > Is not healthy.
Conjugating to the past state-of-beingEdit
We will now learn the past tense of the state-of-being. To say something was something, attach ruwei 루웨 (from rü with ü replaced by uwei) to the noun or adjective.
- 学生르。 > 学生루웨。
hoksang rü > hoksang ruwei
Is student > Was student.
- 友르。 > 友루웨。
eke rü > eke ruwei
Is friend > Was friend.
- 健기르。 > 健기루웨。
ongki rü > ongki ruwei
Is healthy > Was healthy.
In order to say the negative past (was not), embed -om- in ruwei to yield the negative past tense r-om-uwei > romuwei 로무웨.
- 学生루웨。 > 学生로무웨。
hoksang ruwei > hoksang romuwei
Was student > Was not student.
- 友루웨。 > 友로무웨。
eke ruwei > eke romuwei
Was friend > Was not friend.
- 健기루웨。 > 健기로무웨。
ongki ruwei > ongki romuwei
Was healthy > Was not healthy.
We've now learned how to express state-of-being in all six different situations. Next we will learn some particles, which will allow us assign roles to words. Here is a summary chart of the conjugations we learned in this section.