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|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
|Bilabial||Labio- dental||Dental||Alveolar||Palatal||Velar||Labio- velar||Glottal|
|Nasal||m||n||ɲ <ñy>||ŋ <ñ/ñq>||ŋw <ñw>|
|Plosive||p b||t d||c ɟ <c j>||k g||kw gw||ʔ <'>|
|mp mb||nt nd||ɲc ɲj <ñc ñj>||ŋk ŋg <ñk ñg>||ŋkw ŋgw <ñkw ñgw>|
|Fricative ~ Approximant||f v~ʋ <f v>||θ ð <th dh>||s z||ç ʝ~j <x y>||x ɣ~ɰ <h q>||xw ɣw~w <xw w>|
|Flap or tap||ɾ <r>|
|Lateral app.||l||ʎ <ly>|
- voiced fricatives are approximants when between vowels but not at the begining of the word
- velar nasal can be writen ñ or ñq
- if posible, nasals and dental fricatives have to be writen as in IPA
- the ñ in any nasal or prenasalized consonant can be writen as n for simplification, in wich case, velar nasal is writen nq.
- when glottal stop is the first letter of the word, the ' is not writed but still pronounced
|Mid||e̞ <e>||ë||o̞ <o>|
- /a/ is pronounced [ɑ] in back-falling diphtongs and after a labio-velar consonant, and [a] in front-falling diphtongs and after a palatal consonant, [ä] elsewhere
Diphtongs: there are ony falling diphtongs
|Close||uj <ui>||iw <iu>|
|Mid||e̞j ëj o̞j <ei ëi oi>||e̞w ëw o̞w <eu ëu ou>|
|Open||aj <ai>||ɑw <au>|
- front-falling diphtongs can't be after a palatal consonant, in the same syllable
- back-falling diphtongs can't be after a labio-velar consonant, in the same syllable
- ai is pronounces [äj] in labio-velar syllables; au is pronounced [äw] in palatal syllables
A M P B F V E N T D Θ Δ I R L Ë Ï Ŋ K G H Q O Ɲ C J X Y U W S Z
a m p b f v e n t d θ ð i r l ë ï ŋ k g h q o ɲ c j x y u w s z
Latin alphabet mode:
A M P B F V E N T D TH DH I R L Ë Ï Ñ K G H Q O C J X Y U W S Z
a m p b f v e n t d th dh i r l ë ï ñ k g h q o c j x y u w s z
Uppercase is used to write foreign words and proper names only, writing the whole word in uppercase.
Begin and end of paragraph
End of sentence
|: colon||. period||¡ ! exclamation mark||¿ ? question mark|
- exclamation and question marks are set at the begin and end of the sentence deeper than the colon/period marks:
: this is a sentence . this is another one . ¡this is also one! :
: ¿is this other paragraph? :
The syllable structure is very simple: CV. Words can have up to three syllables.
C can be any consonant, and V can be a vowel or a diphtong
- mono-syllabic words can't have prenasalized or presibilantized consonants
Stressed syllable is determined by the weight of syllables. The heavier syllables is stressed.
The weight is determined by the consonant and the presence/absence of diphtong:
|Weight level||Manner of articulation|
|1||fricatives, liquids r, rr, l and ly|
|0||no consonant (glottal stop)|
- if the syllable has a diphtong, its weight is increased by 2 if front-falling or 1 if back-falling
- if more than one are the syllables with the highests weight level, the one that has a front vowel is stressed; if two or more have front vowel the last of them is stressed
If stressed syllable is not the last in the word, its vowel has a circunflex ^ on it for easier read. ë and ï are writen í and é respectively.
- stress in last syllable: wiju [wi.ɟu'], reskwai [ɾe.skwaj'], ŋwoju [ŋwo.ɟu']
- stress not in last syllable: ŋwîfu [ŋwi'.fu], ɲâxe [ɲa'.çe], ŋkwé'e [ŋkwë'.ʔe]