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Revasthoro

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Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes No Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives No Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No Yes Yes No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

 

Revasthoro
revasthoro
Type
agglutinative
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Revasthoro is a logic-based language created to showcase a never-before-seen grammatical structure.  This stucture is based purely in simplicity, elegance, and ease of speech.  Because it is based in logic instead of linguistics, when attempting to learn, please let go of all previous knowledge of languages and start anew.  SInce all parts of the language have been made to fit this structure even the vocabulary will be difficult to fully grasp unless you forget everything you know about how words interact with eachother.  Other that this small warning, enjoy yourself.  This language is very original and I hope it renews or reinforces your love of language as well as gives you a new way to look at languages.  Good luck and if you get caught, I would advise trying to further remove yourself from anything not in this text.  Be a child, embrace your inner curiosity and creativity.  [peace to you]

PhonologyEdit

Every language needs some type of method of communication by which people can pass ideas, descriptions, etc.  The easiest of these methods is writing and speaking.  So to start, we need to establish the most basic unit in both of these methods, sounds and their equivalents letters.  Being based on logic, what are we looking for in our most basic units.  Well, we are looking for simplicity and constructability.  We want sounds that are simple to speak, we want letters that are easy to write and differentiate between, both the script and the phonology should follow a simple system, and we want both the sounds and letters to be simple to combine for word formation.  Unlike many other languages including the one you are reading right now have many letters that can represent multiple sounds and combinations that change pronunciation, making spelling and word formation much more difficult than necessary.  To avoid this, we will make a system in which the sounds a letter represents never change.  If you see a letter, it is pronounced exactly as it would be no matter where it is found.  So when going through the phonology, pay close attention to what sound each letter makes and refer back to the correct pronunciation often to avoid mispronouncing words.

letter examples notes
k: cat - actor - back
g: guilt - again - egg always hard
t: torn - ate - beget
d: day - adore - head
p: pay - appear - ape
b: bat - able - cub
sh: shut - ashes - hush ch= t+sh
zh: genre - gauge - cage think first sound in "genre"
s: sat - recess - ace
z: zoo - hazel - ease
th: think - ether - thumb think: three vs. thee
th': the - either - there think: thee vs. three
f: fun - after - deaf
v: van - even - cave
n: name - any - pen
m: man - yummy - gem
y: yes - yeti - you only used when diphthong not possible
w: we - way - want only used when diphthong not possible
h: help - hat - tahoe
l: lay - lake - like always clear (spanish)
r: caro - ser - cargar always tapped (spanish) (not trilled)
i: eat - read - happy
o: oat - hope - ago
u: uber - boot - grew when at start of words you don't add "y"
e: end - hen - lead
a: ought - on - father
#: under - honey - gum (schwa sound)


ConsonantsEdit

All consonants are grouped by place of articulation and closure.  Place of articulation simply means where the sound is created.  For all serious linguists, I know that I am not using the official names and I know that not all of be grouped together under the generic chart.  For non-linguists, just know that "back" consonants are produced near the back of the mouth, "middle" consonants are produced in the middle of the mouth, "dental" consonants are produced using the teeth, and "front" consonants are made using the lips.  Again don't take this too seriously, it isn't an exact place of sound creation but just a region of articulation used to group some similar sounds.  Closure is just defined as how much the airflow is restricted when making the designated sound.  Closed consonants simply means that the airflow is stopped (basically you can't make these sounds for very long).  Open consonants are the opposite, these sounds are much less restricted (basically you can make these sounds until you run out of breath).  Semi-vowels are much like "open" consonants except they are more similar to vowels and most can be found in the sounds of a vowel or diphthong.  And vowels are sounds with unrestricted airflow (that's what a vowel is).  Don't read to much into this stuff it's just a way of grouping sounds.  All consonants are found in this grid in the order: unvoiced - voiced - (nasal).  Voiced vs. unvoiced is like the difference between humming and whispering and nasal consonants include airflow through the nose as well as the mouth.  Ex. "f" is unvoiced because the vocal cords are not vibrating (it sounds like whispering) - "v" is created in the same place and is also "open" but it is voiced and thus the vocal cords are vibrating (sounds like humming) - and "m" is also created in the same region and is also open but there is airflow through the nose so it is nasal.

back middle dental front
closed --- k g t d p b
open sh zh s z th th' (n) f v (m)


VowelsEdit

Vowels are also grouped by place of articulation and closure.  They are classified either front middle or back for place of articulation.  Just like consontants, the "back" vowels are created in the back of the mouth, "middle" in the middle, and "front in the front.  A vowel can either be open or closed as far as closure.  This is just the difference whether the sound ends in a "y" or "w" sound or an "h" sound.  If you pronounce a "open" vowel and trail off continuing the sound it will stop being the vowel and start being the "y" or "w" semivowel.  Try pronouncing the "i" sound, say the word "eek!"  If you prolong the first phoneme in this word all you are really doing is pronouncing "y" and holding it.  The "o" and "u" sounds trail off into a "w" sound.  Likewise, all closed vowels trail off into an "h" for example, the "a" in father trails of into a long "h" sound.  Note that closed vowels are not like closed consonants which cannot be pronounced for extented periods of time it is just a classification.  The following chart shows the vowels in their respective categories.

back middle front
closed but (#) bot (a) bet (e)
open boot (u) boat (o) beat (i)



Semivowels:Edit

Semivowels are not quite consonants not quite vowels but as the name suggests they can act as both.  Most people don't know that "l" and "r" can actually act as a vowel.  An example would be the word "bubble" no one actually says bubble with a true vowel in the last syllable -bubbul- we all say -bubbl- the vowel is the "l"  


Alphabet

back middle dental front
closed con. --- k g t d p b
vow. #  -h- a  -h- -r-  -l- e  -h-
open con. sh zh s z th th' (n) f v (m)
vow. u  -w- o  -w- --- i  -y-

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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