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Riktas

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Riktas
Riktas Rammay
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
1
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Riktas (/ˈɾik.tas/) is a small language family or dialect continuum spoken primarily in the archipelago of Sumpa Rammay. The language of trade and governance in the islands, described here as the standard variety, is a dialect most often called Riktas Rammay. 

The Speakers of Riktas are a culture of human beings who settled in Sumpa Rammay after crossing the ocean along a now-forgotten route from a continental landmass far to the west. Legend has it that they were forced to flee their original homeland by a nameless doom that was spreading across the continent, but ancient taboos against speaking of the time before the migration have led to most of the details being forgotten. 

The people usually identify themselves by a variety of local place names, or else refer to themselves simply as nu, "people" or "human beings." When differentiating themselves and their fellow Riktas speakers from the members of other cultural and linguistic groups, particularly the indiginous ʔulili speakers (called 'ikrakatrazmi, "those who do not have names"), they most commonly use the term Karikuwus, "people from the west" or "west wind people."

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ [ṇ]
Voiceless Plosive p t̪ [t] (t) ʈ [ṭ] k ʔ
Voiced Plosive b d̪ [d] (d) ɖ [ḍ] g
Glottalized Plosive p' t̪' [t'] (t') ʈ' [ṭ'] k'
Fricative ɸ [f] β [v] s z ʃ [š] (ʒ) [ž] h
Voiceless Affricate t͡s [c] t͡ʃ [č]
Voiced Affricate d͡z [j] (d͡ʒ) [ǰ]
Glottalized Affricate t͡s' [c'] t͡ʃ' [č']
Approximant j [y] w
Flap or tap ɾ [r]
Lateral app. l

Glottalized stops appear most commonly in loanwords, but have been "naturalized" as well, mostly through sound symbolism inherited from an 'ulili substratum.

The stops /ʈ/, /ɖ/, and /ʈ'/ are usually "apical post-alveolar, formed with the tip of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, but are realized as the alveolar stops /t/, /d/, and /t'/ in some pronunciations. The voiced palatal consonants /ʒ/ and /d͡ʒ/ are marginal allophones of /z/ and /d͡z/ occurring exclusively in diminutives.

Riktas also contrasts geminate stops (/pː, bː, tː, dː, ʈː, ɖː, kː, gː/), nasals (/mː, nː, ŋː/), and (more rarely) affricates (/t͡sː, t͡ʃː/) and the lateral approximant /lː/, with their "singleton" forms, as in the minimal pairs himi, "always" vs himmi, "still, yet" and kanan- "to be on the right" vs kannan- "to move or be moved to the right."

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i u
Open a

Allophony and Consonant MutationEdit

Many consonants in Riktas occur in regularly alternating pairs, as shown on the chart below.

Primary Secondary
/ɸ, β/ /p, b/
/ɾ/ /d/
/s, z/ /t͡s, d͡z/
/ʃ, ʒ/ /t͡ʃ d͡ʒ/
/h/ /k/

In noun roots and particles, these phones normally occur only as the "primary" allophone, but may be realied as the corresponding "secondary" allophone under certain circumstanes. /k/ is a notable exception, as /k/ and /h/ frequently contrast in even unmodified noun roots. /t͡s/ and /t͡ʃ/ also contrast with /s/ and /ʃ/ in noun roots, but only in the root-final syllables /t͡si/ and /t͡ʃi/.

There are basically two circumstances under which primary and secondary allophones alternate in noun roots. Firstly, secondary allophones occur in medial consonant clusters following nasal consonants (/m/, /n/, or /ŋ/), fricatives (/ɸ/, /β/, /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, or /ʒ/), and liquids (/l/ or /ɾ/) they take on their "secondary" form. This rule can be considered a relatively simple form of sandhi, as it occurs most freqently at morpheme boundaries when affixes are applied to a stem. Consonants in word-initial and word-final position may also shift based on surrounding words, but these alternations tend to be more irregular and idiosyncratic.

Secondly, in roots that can be inflected as nouns or verbs, primary allophones undergo mutation into their secondary forms when the root is inflected as a verb. Consonants likewise mutate when a noun stem is modified into a verb root with a verbalizing suffix.

Consonants in verb roots behave somewhat less regularly, in that they may occur in primary or secondary form in the "primary" stem form. When verb stems are modified to become "derived" stems, however, root consonants uniformly take on their secondary forms. However, when verb stems take a nominalizing suffix the stem consonants usually shift uniformly to their primary allophone, subject to the "sandhi" rules above.

"Diminuitive" forms of nouns (and, occasionally, verbs), which may be used to express affection, contempt, insignificance, pitifulness, or smallness, depending on the context, involve a different form of consonant mutation. In "diminished" roots and stems, the approximants /l/ and /w/ become the nasals /n/ and /ŋ/ and /s/ and /z/ are palatalized to /ʃ/ and /ʒ/. Plosives and affricates are typically also "hardened," with voiced stops becoming voiceless and voiceless stops becoming glottalized. However, this latter rule is not always consistently applied, and generally applies more regularly to those plosives which most commonly occur in noun roots. /k/ is always hardened, and /g/, /t/, and /tʲ/ are hardened almost as consistenly, but the behavior of /p/, /b/, /d/ and the affricates is more irregular.

Diminuitive nouns are also typically marked with the suffix "-nis.", but most speakers consider this optional when the noun root is audibly modified.

PhonotacticsEdit

The canonical syllable structure of Riktas is CV(C), where V is any vowel and C is any consonant, though the glottal consonants /ʔ/ and /h/ never occur in coda position. Furthermore, in Riktas Rammay nasal consonants never occur in word-final position, nor do the stops /t/ and /tʲ/, which have historically become the open syllables /t͡si/ and /t͡ʃi/, respectively.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No Yes Yes Yes
Nouns No Yes No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No Yes No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No Yes Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No Yes No No No No


SyntaxEdit

Sentence construction in Riktas is relatively flexible, as arguments are usually explicated through inflection rather than word order. In everyday usage, particularly in cases when nominal morphology leaves room for ambiguity, VSO order is the standard. Stative verbs may modify any of the nouns in a sentence, and are placed immediately before the nouns they modify in a manner similar to adjectives in English. They may only be separated from the corresponding noun by other stative verbs to which they are linked through conjunctions. For instance:

kawimilalu micciya yu hi'uya hu'iyasi ~ "I saw a beautiful and green tree"

Sentences normally require, at minimum, a verb and a subject noun, but simple equational sentences may be formed by pairing nouns in the nominative case without the use of a verb, expressing the meaning (noun a) is (noun b). For instance, yu=rakat Fatrik, "my name is Patrick."

NounsEdit

CaseEdit

Nouns in Riktas are declined with suffixes marking case, although the nominative case (indicating the subject of a clause) is a null or unmarked morpheme.

Suffix Case Function
nominative (subject)
-si oblique (direct or indirect object)
-tak impersonal locative in, at, on, to, toward
-mi personal locative near, in the presence of, to, toward
-ru ablative from
-su instrumental using, by means of
-ṭuk comitative together with, in company with
-wa causal on account of, because of
-wus attributive people/person from, of the

The causal and attributive cases are used only infrequently. The former occurs primarily in the construction tiṇ-wa, "therefore" or "because of that," while the latter is used primarily in conjunction with the locative case marker -tak in classifying groups of people, as in rag-tak-wus, "borderlands people" or "shoreline people."


"Thematic" SuffixesEdit

Thematic suffixes are special inflections that may be affixed to noun stems before case-marking suffixes in order to express various shades of meaning related to the meaning of the stem.

Suffix Formation Function
-niš diminutive little, minor, slightly
-lik augmentative big, important, very
-si ~ -sin* "one who has," "one who is characterized by"
-hu of or related to the sea
-nu of, related to, or close to the land or ground
  • The thematic suffix -si becomes -sin when it is followed by a case-marking suffix other than the nominative -Ø. On verbs in the nominative case it is potentially ambiguous with the oblique case marker, and this will typically be clarified by context and word order.


Verbalizing SuffixesEdit

Riktas includes two nominal inflections which may be applied to a noun stem in order to produce a related verb stem. The first is -ra, which functions similarly to the thematic suffix -si ~ -sin, creating verb stems meaning "to have" or "to be characterized by" the modified noun, as in nu-ra, "to contain or be associated with (many) people". The second verbalizing suffix is -ti, which creates verb stems meaning "to be" or "to behave like," as in nu-ti, "to be human."


NumeralsEdit

Cardinal Numerals in Riktas are treated as nouns and are inflected for case in agreement with any other noun they are "counting." Ordinal numerals ("first," "second," "third," etc) are treated as stative verbs formed with the verbalizing suffix -ti, as in kana-ti-, "to be first." Finally, numerals have a "distributive" form, corresponding to the English construction "apiece" or "by (number)s," which is marked by reduplication in the same manner as progressive verb stems (see below).

For instance, maka-mpi-ru wita-ru tiṇki kana-si wulu-si, "(I have heard that) they will come (in a while) and bring three birds", becomes maka-mpi-ru wita-ru tiṇki kanana-si wulu-si, "they will come and bring three birds each" or "they will come and bring birds three by three."


PronounsEdit

Pronouns in Riktas can take one of two forms. Most typically, they occur as enclitics following the first word in a clause, usually a verb. Pronominal enclitics take different forms marking voice and the nominative and oblique cases, the latter often directly following the former as in papka-ti-ki=lu=mas, "I have heard you."

Person Nominative Oblique
1st =lu =lus
2nd =ma =mas
3rd =ta =tas

Pronouns may also take the form of independent words, usually as a way of marking emphasis or providing specificity. Unlike regular nouns, pronouns mark person and number as well as case, and decline irregularly in the oblique case. First person plural pronouns also take on distinct forms depending on whether or not they are intended to include the listener or reader of a statement.

Person/Number Nominative Oblique
1st singular lu ri
1st plural (inclusive) tahu tahi
1st plural (exclusive) hu hi
2nd singular ma mari
2nd plural mahu mahi
  • Demonstratives (see below), declined in the appropriate case, are used interchangeably as 3rd-person independent pronouns.


DemonstrativesEdit

Demonstratives in Riktas (words analogous to the English "this," "that," "these," and "those") differentiate three degrees of distance, indicating whether the described object or person in closer to the speaker, closer to the listener, or distant from both. Like pronouns, demonstratives decline according to number as well as case, and as in English they may be used either pronominally or adnominally. Distal demonstratives are also used to mark definite articles; indefinite articles are never marked in Riktas.

Person/Number Nominative Oblique
Closer to speaker, singular tu tuni
Closer to speaker, plural tuntu tunti
Closer to listener, singular ta ti
Closer to listener, plural tata tati
Absent/Distant, singular ti ~ tin.* tiṇi
Absent/Distant, plural tiṇki* tiṇki*
  • ti becomes tiṇ when it takes a case-marking suffix other than the nominative . There is potential for ambiguity between the distal singular nominative and the listener-proximal singular oblique, as well as between the nominative and oblique forms of the distal plural. These ambiguities are usually resolved through context and word order.


PossessivesEdit

Possession is marked by a proclitic preceding the noun over which possession is claimed, which takes one of three forms based on person.

Riktas English
yu=wiru "my/our ball"
mu=wiru "your ball"
tu=wiru "his/her/their ball"

VerbsEdit

Verbal morphology in Riktas tends to be a good deal more complex than noun declensions, as verbs are inflected (mostly though suffixation) for aspect, mood, voice, and evidentiality. Verb roots themselves can be divided into roughly two types: dynamic verbs, which describe an action, and stative verbs, which describe a stat of being and often function similarly to English adjectives.


Stem FormationEdit

Before affixation, verb stems in Riktas generally take one of two forms derived from a basic lexical "root." In many cases verbal and nominal constructions will share a root form; for instance the root wiru can be analyzed as "ball" or "to play ball," depending on context and inflection. "Primary" verb stems are usually identical to this root form, though some nominal roots can or must be modified (for instance, though the use of the verbalizing suffixes -ra and -ti) in order to produce a grammatically correct verb stem. Prior to inflection, almost all primary stems have exactly two syllables.

Primary verb stems are used immediately preceding a suffix with the form "-CV," such as the reflexive -vu, the reciprocal -mu, and the active-causative -si. In all other verbal constructions, verb roots are modified to form a "derived" stem.

In derived verb stems, consonants in alernating pairs uniformly shift to their secondary allophones. In cases where the primary stem form of a verb ends in a vowel, the corresponding derived stem will usually be otherwise identical. When the primary stem ends in a consonant, it will be modified to produce a derived stem according to the following pattern:

Primary Stem Syllable Structure Derived Stem Syllable Structure
C1V1C2V2C3 C1V1C2C3V2
C1V1C2C2V2C3 C1V1C2C3V2

There are numerous exceptions to this general pattern which are noted in the lexicon, but a few alternative stem formations are regular enough to merit individual consideration. In all of these cases the resulting stems are considered to be "derived" forms, and the stem consonants shift to their secondary allophones, where applicable.

Stem-forming suffixes produce derived verb stems when affixed to the corresponding primary stem. Most are idiosyncratic to the stems they modify, but two remain semantically productive. -sV marks the iterative-distributive aspect in dynamic verbs, signifying an action that is performed repeatedly by one subject or which is performed individually by each of a group of subjects. It is differentiated from regular suffixes in that it consistently exhibits harmony with the second vowel of the primary stem it modifies, here represented as "V."

The stem-forming suffix -wi actually replaces the second vowel in the primary stem, as well as the onset consonant in the second syllable if the first syllable of the primary stem has a coda. It signifies the reversal of the dynamic verb stem it modifies; for instance, paṇli-, "to tie," becomes paṇwi, "to untie."

The other major exception to the regular pattern of stem formation involves the continuitive or progressive aspect, which marks dynamic verbs describing actions that are ongoing at the referenced point in time. The continuitive form of a verb stem is formed through partial reduplication of the stem, according to the following pattern:

Primary Stem Syllable Structure Derived Stem Syllable Structure
C1V1C2V2 C1V1C2V1C2V2
C1V1C2V2C3 C1V1C2V1C3V2
C1V1C2C2V2 C1V1C2C2V1C2V2
C1V1C2C2V2C3 C1V1C2C2V1C3V2
C1V1C2C3V2 C1V1C2C3V1C3V2

Primary InflectionEdit

A verb stem may be followed by as many as two suffixes that form its primary inflection, marking voice, comparison, and direction. If none of these suffixes are applied, an unmarked dynamic verb stem denotes the active voice.

Suffix Type Function
-n ~ -ni* passive to be, to become
-mpi passive-causative to cause to be, to cause to become
-si active-causative to cause to
-nu positional-causative to cause to be in a position/to be in a position to
-mi benefactive to do (something) for the benefit of or on behalf of another
-vu reflexive to do (something) to oneself
-mu reciprocal to do (something) to eachother
-ksi comparison to be very, to do very much
-ṇa andative to go to
-wu venitive to come to
  • The passive suffix -n becomes -ni before the singular imperative suffix -y or any suffix of the form "-CCV," such as the perfective -kti


Nominalizing SuffixesEdit

Four suffixes are regularly used in Riktas to transform a verb stem into a noun stem, each of which has distinct semantic properties. The first three are applied only to dynamic verb stems, while -zmi ~ -zmin* may be applied to a dynamic or stative verb stem or a verb stem with the passive suffix -ni.

Suffix Noun Root Meaning
-Ø ~ -n* the result or product of an action
-s that with which an action is performed
-mi ~ -min* a person or thing that an action is or has been performed upon
-zmi ~ -zmin* a person or thing that performs an action or is in or characterized by a state of being
  • -Ø becomes -n-mi becomes -min, and -zmi becomes -zmin when the resulting noun stem takes a suffix other than the nominative .

Secondary InflectionEdit

Secondary inflectional suffixes always follow the primary suffix(es) attached to a verb stem, if any. They mark aspect and mood.

Suffix Type Function
-ti ~ -zti* perfective to have (already), to have (already) become
-ni habitual to regularly, to usually
-y singular imperative (do something)!
-yuči plural imperative all of you (do something)!
-ci imperative (1st person object) (do something) to me!
-yis andative imperative go (away) and (do something)!
  • -ti becomes -zti when it directly follows a stative verb stem or a stem modified with the passive suffix -ni

Evidential SuffixesEdit

Unless they are conjugated in the imperative mood, all verbs in Riktas must take an evidential suffix following its primary and secondary inflectional suffixes (if any). These denote what kind of evidence has led the speaker to believe that an action took place or that the subject of a stative verb is in a particular state of being, and suggest how certain the speaker is in that belief. In general a noun may only take a single evidential suffix, but in the course of telling a story or reciting some other kind of narrative which the speaker learned from someone else, the "hearsay" suffix -ru may follow a sensory evidential in order to indicate something the protagonist of the narrative has sensed. In the same context, -ru may follow the inferential evidential -ka, which is analyzed as meaning that the speaker is unsure of the veracity events of the story or is extrapolating from what he or she has been told.

Another convention associated with storytelling is the use of the direct evidential -wa in place of the hearsay evidential -ru for emphasis at dramatically appropriate moments in the story. The judicious use of evidentials is considered part of the craft of storytelling, and overuse of the "emphatic" -wa is considered a mark of an amateurish performer.

Because all verb constructions must end with an evidential or imperative suffix, these inflections act as (relatively) unambiguous indicators of lexical class.

Suffix Evidence Function
-ru hearsay I have heard that, I've been told that
-ka inferential (based on the evidence I have seen) I think that, I predict that, I plan to
-ki non-visual sensory I hear/smell/taste/feel that, I have a feeling that
-wa progressive visual/direct I (presently) see that, I know for certain that
-ya perfective visual I saw (but am not presently seeing) that
-wila progressive performative I know (because I am presently involved with it) that
-mila perfective performative I know (because I was previously involved with it) that


TenseEdit

Tense-marking in Riktas is always optional, and may be accomplished paraphrastically in one of two ways. Firstly, a speaker may locate a clause at a particular point in time by including one of several temporal particles in the clause.

Particle English Meaning
'ama about now
'it'ša just now
'aru next, afterward, later
'aruta tomorrow
'aru'a early in the morning
hiṇa'a soon, in a little while
hifʒu for a little while
'uyka yesterday
'uyak last night
'uykazti yesterday afternoon or evening
muri at night
'uksi in the past, in past times
'uzu again
himmi still, yet
himi always
hurbi in the middle (of the day, night, year, etc)

When referring to an event taking place at an indefinite point in the (usually near) future, a speaker may instead use one of three auxiliary verbs in conjunction with the main verb in a clause.

yiti- means roughly "to wait a while" and is used in much the same way as the English "later," as in widu-ṇa-ka=lu yiti-ka, "I will go to play ball later," literally "I wait a while and go play ball."

yina is an irregular verb that can be used on its own without suffixation as an imperative meaning "wait!" If paired with a noun or pronoun in the nominative case, however, yina- is treated as a regular noun meaning "to wait," usually with the connotation "to wait until something happens" or "to wait while something happens." In either its imperative or indicative form, yina can be used in conjunction with another verb to indicate that something will happen or enter a particular state of being in the immediate future, or that an ongoing action or state of being will reach its completion or end. The "wait" described by yina is usually understood to be shorter in duration than that described by yiti-.

Finally, gisa is an inherently imperative verb similar to the uninflected yina which is used to request that another verb be allowed to reach completion, as in hudk'uk'u-wila=lu gisa, "let me swallow," literally "I am swallowing, let me finish." In conversation, gisa is often used on its own when context renders it obvious to the listener what activity or state the speaker is referring to.


ParticlesEdit

In addition to the temporal particles described above, Riktas employs particles to serve a variety of other grammatical functions.


NegationEdit

Verbs in Riktas can be negated through the application of the proclitic 'ik=, as in 'ik=huruk'-ni-mila=lu, "I don't (regularly) swallow." On its own, 'ik is also used as a generic negative particle which can function like the English "no," "don't," or "there is/are none/nothing," depending on the context.

Negative imperatives are conjugated irregularly, being constructed from the uninflected primary verb stem and the proclitic 'ik=, without any further affixation, as in 'ik=makki, "don't go (away)!"

QuantificationEdit

Indefinite quantities in Riktas are usually identified with one of three particles. tullu can be used as an independent particle, paired with a another noun to mean "many" or used on its own to mean "there are many" or "there is much." It can also be applied as a proclitic before verbal constructions, in which case it becomes tullun= and is more or less synonymous with the comparative suffix -ksi, as in Tullun=mukki-n-du=ta, "he/she runs a lot." In this case tullun= is generally regarded as more emphatic than -ksi, and the two are occasionally combined in the same construction for further emphasis still.

The other quantification particles function identically to tullu in terms of grammar; they are k'it'iš, "few/there are few," and yasdi, "some/there are some; enough/there are enough."

LocationEdit

Relative location in Riktas is marked by locative particles, many of which carry a complex set of meanings related to the cosmological beliefs of the inhabitants of Sumpa Rammay. Indeed, the conventional name for the archipelago itself comes from Sumpa, "mountain" or "high island" and the locative particle Rammay, and can be validly translated as "Inside Islands," "Inhabited Islands," or "Known Islands," among other possibilities.

Particle English Meaning
huṭṭuy ahead, downhill, downstream, in front, seaward; floating or swimming in water
kariy outside; outside the house, outside the community, away from populated lands, in the wilderness, in unknown waters
kariha far; far over the sea
milluy far below, underwater, in the underworld
minnuy below, underneath (an object), on the ground, underground
rammay inside; inside the house, inside the community, in civilized lands, in familiar waters
rammaha near, nearby, close
tafday above, in the sky, in the overworld
'iṭya behind, landward, uphill, upstream

For purposes of navigation and orientation, Riktas defines cardinal directions relative the winds, using the nouns tafdaku, north wind, rammaku, east wind, and kariku, west wind, declined in the locative and/or ablative cases. For instance, "south" or "southward" is expressed as tafdaku-ru, "(away) from the north wind," while "west" or "westward" is kariku-tak, "toward the west wind."

ConjunctionsEdit

Riktas uses conjunctions to link clauses in coordinate and subordinate constructions, but relies on inflection to link words. For instance, the English phrase "sheep and horses" would be rendered as va tagarak-ṭuk, literally "sheep with horses."

Riktas Conjunction Analogous English Conjunction
yu and
kug when, if
'amʒi so that, in order that, in order to
'amu in that, such that
'ustsi because
gata as if
numa (relative clause marker)


Adverbial ClausesEdit

Riktas has several particles that are used to modify the meaning of verbs in the manner of an adverbial clause.

Particle English Meaning
fiṇa perhaps
gata like, as, it seems
gari thus, in this manner
=tukni ~ =tku* (enclitic marking a clause as hypothetical)
ya also
=za (enclitic applied only to the singular pronouns, producing the meaning "you/I/he/she alone" or "only you/I/he/she")
  • =tukni ~ =tku always follows the first word in a clause; the former is used after a word ending in a consonant, while the latter is used after a word ending in a vowel


Common Exclamations and InterjectionsEdit

Particle English Meaning
waraz! upon my life!
'ay! oh!
kisi! oh my! (an expression of surprise)
hi'i yes
yi! here (when offering something to someone)
gi! hey!


InterrogativesEdit

Riktas uses a variety or words to form interrogative clauses, not all of which are particles. In the context of a question, evidential suffixes are reinterpreted as denoting the type of information with which the listener is expected to answer the question. For instance, the hearsay evidential -ru is used when asking if the listener has been told something or heard something said, while the direct evidential -wa is used when asking about something the subject can presently see or has some other direct evidence of.

Riktas Word English Meaning
hinwa? when? (particle)
hinak? what?; to do what?; (in the perfective aspect) how is/how are/how do? (particle or verb)
hinakhi? to say what? (verb)
hinkas? how? (particle)
hinṭis what, anything (noun)
hanni? where? (particle, though it functions much like a verb meaning "to be where?")
hatti? who? (pronoun)
muči (transforms a clause into a yes-or-no question; particle)

VocabularyEdit


No. English Riktas
1Ilu
2you (singular)ma
3heta
4wetahu
5you (plural)mahu
6theytata
7thistu
8thatti
9hereniya
10therenaha
11whohatti
12whathinṭis
13wherehanni
14whenhinwa
15howhinkas
16not'ik
17all'irumi
18manytullu
19someyasdi
20fewk'ut'iš
21othertaya
22onekana
23twokuta
24threetilu
25fourkatwaci
26fivelimu
27bigtalik
28longli
29wideṇuti
30thickliṇ
31heavyṇulik
32smalltaniš
33shortni
34narrownuništi
35thinniṇ
36womannuna
37man (adult male)nufa
38man (human being)nu
39childsinni
40wifenuna
41husbandnufa
42motherhana
43fatherhafa
44animalvivi
45fishwuyi
46birdwulu
47dogguk
48lousekahi
49snakehiši
50wormṇinuši
51treehu'iya
52forestfaya
53stickmara
54fruitmasu
55seedmuyi
56leafhap'u
57roothikaṭ
58barkfata
59flowerṭiwiš
60grassrari
61ropefaṇil
62skinfata
63meatratis
64bloodfiya
65boneriyi
66fatsaṇkir
67eggmuṭi
68hornširi
69tailkuk
70feathersipus
71hairṭaraf
72head'uli
73ear'utšu
74eyehi
75nosehuz
76mouthwihira
77toothsici
78tonguelaši
79fingernailt'uriš
80foot'asi
81legguru
82kneetulus
83hand'isu
84winghummus
85bellyhugi
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckhurkus
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastmus
90hearttultuli
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drink'uki
93eat'amam
94biteṇama
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeki
102hearpapka
103knowwaha
104thinkhinṭa
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearpuki
107sleepmušu
108livedakatra
109diedimmun
110killdimmumpi
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitvašik
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyhumu
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeṭaka
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdpiṇli
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullmadu
135pushmadu
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tiepaṇli
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayrikta
141singku
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezepači
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunhizmi
148moonru
149staršušči
150wateršu
151rain'amni
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154sealihu
155salt'awis
156stone'irik
157sandwiš
158dustt'uri
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudmiš
161fogmaša
162skytafda
163windku
164snowlak
165icelakka
166smokesukmu
167firesata
168ashyiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadra
171mountainsumpa
172redpatak
173greenhisu
174yellowpatak
175whitelasak
176blackmudi
177nightmuri
178dayhizmi
179year'iti
180warmmušiš
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldkiwu
185goodmiz
186bad'ikiṭ
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpt'uširi
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearrammaha
198farkariha
199rightkanan
200leftkiri
201at-tak
202inrammay
203with-ruk
204andyu
205ifkug
206because'usci
207namerakaci


Example textEdit

Dialects and Sister LanguagesEdit

The rugged islands of Sumpa Rammay host countless local varieties of Riktas sharing various degrees of mutual intelligibility. Riktas 'ulildu Karikuru ("western 'ulil Riktas"), for instance, originates from roughly the same region as Riktas Rammay, and is differentiated from the standard variety only by a slightly different history of sound changes (a rather extreme example of this would be the Sumpa Rammay demonstrative ti ~ tiṇ, which in Riktas Hulildu Karikuru uniformly occurs as tsiṇə). On the other end of the spectrum, Riktašniš Tafdakururu ("lesser southern Riktas," known it its speakers as Huku) is almost certainly different enough to qualify as a separate language.

Examples of Lexical variationEdit

D. Dammay D. 'ulildu Karikuru Huku English
Sumpa Rammay Sumpaṇə Rammay Lama place name, roughly "civilized islands"
rikta- rikta- ku- to speak
ku- ku- kumi- to sing, to speak eloquently
mis- mis- mi- to be beautiful
riktas riktas ku speech
ku ku liku wind
rakaci rakačə lakat name
dakatra- dakatra- lakta- to have a name, to exist

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