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Rikutsaren
Rıkutsaren
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Ergative-Absolutive
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
4
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Rıkutsaren (IPA: /rɪ[unsupported input]ku[unsupported input]t͡s[unsupported input][unsupported input]rɛn/) is a language spoken by the inhabitants of Rıkutso, a fictional island nation in the North Pacific Ocean.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Labio-velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive (Stop) b
p
t
d
k
g
Affricate ts
dz

Fricative f
v
θ s
z
ʃ
ʒ
x h
Approximant j w
ʍ
Trill r
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

Front Front-Central Central Back-Central Back
High i u
Near-high ɪ / ʏ ʊ
High-mid e o
True-mid ə
Low-mid ɛ ɔ
Near-low æ ɒ
Low ɑ

PhonotacticsEdit

Allophones and DiphthongsEdit

VowelsEdit

(WIP)

ConsonantsEdit

(WIP)

StressEdit

Penultimate syllables are always stressed, unless:

  • The word has 5 or more syllables, in which case the median or postmedian syllable is stressed (ex. edīazıcam)

Writing SystemEdit

Modern Rıkutsaren is written by its native speakers and the government of Rıkučar using the Rikutsaren Script. Transcriptions of Rıkučreb into languages that use the Latin alphabet are almost always made using the Rikutsaren Orthography

GrammarEdit

GenderEdit

(WIP)

ArticlesEdit

Definite ArticleEdit

The singular definite article in Rıkutsaren is e. It occurs before the word it affects.

Indefinite ArticleEdit

The indefinite article in Rıkutsaren is zãb. It occurs before the word it affects. It is not affected by other particles, and always precedes any particle. It is the same word used for the numeral 1.

NounsEdit

(WIP)

PronounsEdit

Rıkutsaren has standalone pronouns. Similar to Rıkutsaren verbs, pronouns exhibit clusivity.

PossessiveEdit

(WIP) In the Rıkutsaren language, possession is marked by the Genitive case. Possessive pronouns are essentially personal pronouns marked with the Genitive. Pronouns are expressed as a standalone word that comes before the word it affects. These particles are listed below.

Singular Plural
Inclusive Exclusive Inclusive Exclusive
1st ! ! !
2nd ! ! !
3rd ! ! ! !

Personal PronounsEdit

(WIP) As Rıkutsaren has an affix-based verbal conjugation system, there are no subject pronouns.

Singular Plural
Inclusive Exclusive Inclusive Exclusive
1st ! ! !
2nd ! ! !
3rd ! ! ! !


Correlative PronounsEdit

(WIP)

Interrogative Proximal Medial Distal Existential Negatory Universial Elective Alternative
Determiner netē edo edu eʒē osku ba bev sež
Human nedan edan edun eʒet oskub babun rekin bevan sežan
Location neǯub eǯu eǯub eǯet oskuž baþaž reǯub bevež sežeb
Source neǯun ežun ıǯun eǯun oskun batun reǯun beven sežen
Destination (Goal) neǯul eǯul ıǯul etsel oskul babul rebul bevel sežel
Time nedy egy ıdy edy osky baþy regy bevy sežy
Manner nesan etel edel oskal baþel rel bel sel
Reason nedev etev edev oskav baþev rev bevav sežev

ParticlesEdit

CausativeEdit

(WIP) The causative form of a verb is represented by the particle kre (although this may better be described as a clitic). It occurs before the word it affects, and is attached to the word via a dash "-".

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives are formed by adding the suffix -nev to the end of a noun. When conjugating into the degrees of comparison, the adjectival suffix is shortened to -n, thus forming the adjectival root. The comparative suffix is then placed onto the end of the adjectival root.

AdverbsEdit

Adverbs are formed by adding the suffix -gev to the end of a noun. When conjugating into the degrees of comparison, the adverbial suffix is shortened to -g, thus forming the adverbial root. The comparative suffix is then placed onto the end of the adverbial root.

Degrees of ComparisonEdit

(WIP) The Rıkutsaren language uses 5 Degrees of Comparison, as opposed to the 2 used in English. The prefixes that are added onto the adjectival or adverbial root when using the Degrees of Comparison are listed in the chart below.

Degrees of Comparison in Rɩkučreb
Sublative  !
Contrary  !
Equative  !
Comparative  !
Superlative  !

Comparatives and Contraries do not use "e" before them unless the subject uses it anyways (ex. "The better man" > "E jisugul koren"). All other degrees of comparison do use "E" unless they are referring to a possessive (ex. "My best friend" > "Na jisūl jiswabu".)

Adverbs of ComparisonEdit

The Adverbs of Comparison correspond to "so" and "not so [much]" or "very" and "not as" in the English language. They are, respectively, ezun and ezonen.

QuantityEdit

When referring to an amount of something, the adjective Enev and its comparisons are used. (ex. "I have more." "Drefõ enul.").

VerbsEdit

(WIP) Verbs are formed by adding the infinitive -ri to the end of a mass noun, if there is a corresponding mass noun. In the Rıkutsaren language, all plural persons, as well as the singular 3rd person, exhibit clusivity. Verbs are conjugated into the following conjugation table.

infinitive ri
present participle/gerund ŵa
past participle ŵo
indicative imperative conditional
singular plural singular plural singular plural
inclusive exclusive inclusive exclusive inclusive exclusive inclusive exclusive inclusive exclusive inclusive exclusive
preterite na nak natšek
va vak vatšek
ka katše kak katšek
present ne nek netšek nu nuk ni nik nitšek
ve vek vetšek vu vuk vi vik vitšek
ke ketš kek ketšek ki kitš kik kitšek
future no nok notšek
vo vok votšek
ko kotš kok kotšek
  • The exclusive third person can also be used in any tense when relaying a message to a 3rd party that is absent at the time but will be present at a time that you and your group are absent. In this case, the absent 3rd party is referred to in the direct plural 2nd person. (ex. "We are sorry that we were not able to attend, but we gifted you this." "Onetšek laubeþwinev nedas ba onatšek erbēnev rojuburi, oze donatšek ıdžıjiregezwha vazek edo .")

Perfect AspectEdit

The perfect aspect is created by conjugating dori and adding that before the past participle of the verb in question. Dori is conjugated into the Past Indicative to form the Present Perfect, Present Indicative to form the Pluperfect, Future Indicative to form the Future Perfect, and the Conditional to form the Conditional Perfect.

Continuous AspectEdit

The continuous aspect is created by conjugating ori and adding that before the gerund of the verb in question. Ori follows the same conjugation procedure as dori follows when conjugated into the Perfect. However, ori is only conjugated into the Indicative, and therefore the Continuous only has 3 tenses.

SyntaxEdit

(WIP) Rıkučreb is a head-initial language, and all modifiers precede the words the modify. It has the basic word order Subject-Verb-Object. Rıkutsaren is a null-subject language.

LexiconEdit

(WIP) A comprehensive dictionary of Rıkutsaren can be found at the Rikutsaren/Dictionary page.

Example textEdit

This is the story of Babel translated into Rıkutsaren.

RıkutsarenEdit

Oz e vaš bages drefoka zãb nûvi o zãb korebnev nûvi. Neısy cinek caunba kazeuvesa, witeba zãb ʒeôtô tau Šinar o byneseba edub. Teowhuvdeba, «Pəskobu, guzvu'az kori ppoukek o jazu caz hižekev.» Spakteba ppouk ǯaı zylazeb su la, o ins su ppouklôk. Eıdy whuvdeba, «Pəskobu, guzvu'az keısri saz o zãb korıbelux, neþ zãb eziku eıde tuveke e zepru, ãkuıde novés ore'leregrınuri; sežnuþ oso kreflecwho eloı jis suı vaš iveıl.» Ost e Falcy bûpəskóa saızri e korıbelux oı eziku eıde e korebek oʒa keıswha. E Falcy kudéa «Tia, neısy zãb korebge neısã whuvdeʒa e kastnev nûvi, doʒ təbuswho usri edē, eıdy baē eıde oriorız usri oko balasenev si ʒaz. Pəskobu, guzvu'az bûjasri o conri ʒa nûvi ãkuıde bauʒo joderi teoʒaz.» Ãku une eadub e Falcy kreflıceka ʒaz eloı jis suı vaš iveıl, o dereʒa keısri e korıbelux. Edev ok naısev oka grovwha Babel - rēdev eadub e Falcy conka e nûvi suı vaš iveıl. Ãku une eadub e Falcy kreflıceka ʒaz eloı jis suı vaš iveıl.

EnglishEdit

Now the whole world had one language and a common speech. As people moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and settled there. They said to each other, “Come, let’s make bricks and bake them thoroughly.” They used brick instead of stone, and tar for mortar. Then they said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city, with a tower that reaches to the heavens, so that we may make a name for ourselves; otherwise we will be scattered over the face of the whole earth.” But the Lord came down to see the city and the tower the people were building. The Lord said, “If as one people speaking the same language they have begun to do this, then nothing they plan to do will be impossible for them. Come, let us go down and confuse their language so they will not understand each other.” So the Lord scattered them from there over all the earth, and they stopped building the city. That is why it was called Babel—because there the Lord confused the language of the whole world. From there the Lord scattered them over the face of the whole earth.

SubpagesEdit