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|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
This language was simply constructed as an experiment, and for fun.
Phonology / Writing systemEdit
The writing system of Ringwa is called "skritap ringwara" (lit. writing of Ringwa). There is no capital/small letter distinction.
Consonant pairs (?/?) are unvoiced-voiced pairs.
IPA symbols: ŋ (ng), θ (th), ð (dh), ʃ (sh), ʒ (zh), x (x), ɣ (gh), tʃ (ch), dʒ (j)
IPA symbols: ə (e), ɛ (ë), æ (ae), ɔ (o)
L and REdit
R represents an alveolar tap (IPA: ɾ).
L represents an alveolar lateral approximant. (IPA: l)
a, i, o, e, ai, oi, wa,
æ/ae, ë, u, r, l, ya, yo, wo,
p, k, t, s, ts, š/sh, tš/ch, x, þ/th, f, n,
b, g, d, z, dz, ž/zh, dž/j, ğ/gh, ð/dh, v, ng,
ra, ap, dya, kya, ël, un, ri, æz.
/a/, /i/, /ɔ/~/o/, /ə/, /ai/, /ɔi/, /wa/,
/æ/, /ɛ/~/e/, /u/, /ɾ/, /l/, /ja/, /jɔ/, /wɔ/,
/p/, /k/~/c/, /t/, /s/, /ts/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/, /x/~/ç/, /θ/, /f/, /n/,
/b/, /g/~/ɟ/, /d/, /z/, /dz/, /ʒ/, /dʒ/, /ɣ/~/ʝ/, /ð/, /v/, /ŋ/,
/ɾa/, /ap/, /dja/, /cja/, /el/, /un/, /ɾi/, /æz/.
а, и, o, ә, аи, oи, уа,
ӓ, е, у, р, л, я/ья, ё/ьё, уo,
п, к, т, с, ц, ш, ч, х, ѳ, ф, н,
б, г, д, з, ѕ, ж, џ/дж, ґ, дѳ, в, нк/нг,
ра, ап, дья, кья, ел, ун, ри, ӓз.
Throughout this guide, the romanized script will be used.
Orthography for foreign/loan wordsEdit
- "pn" is pronounced /m/.
- "xğ" is pronounced /h/.
- "pğ","tğ" and "kğ" represent /pʰ/, /tʰ/ and /kʰ/ respectively.
- "sl" and "tsl" represent /ɬ/ and /tɬ/ respectively.
- "zl" and "dzl" represent /ɮ/ and /dɮ/ respectively.
Almost all 2-consonant clusters are allowed, but exactly one of the two must be a stop. /ts/, /dz/, /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ must be written with the proper symbol (not as a pair of symbols).Clusters must have the same voicing throughout, otherwise they are pronounced according to "Orthography for foreign words". When two vowels are next to each other, pronounce a glottal stop between them, except if one of them is /ɾ/ or they are in a diphthong (/ai/, /ja/, /ɔi/, /jɔ/, /wa/, /wɔ/). Only plosives, /n/ or /ŋ/ can precede /w/, and written /ŋ/ must occur at the end of a syllable. Also, the following sound changes take place (in this order):
- /n/ before a velar consonant is pronounced /ŋ/ except across a word boundary.
- /k/, /g/, /x/ and /ɣ/ before /j/ is pronounced /c/, /ɟ/, /ç/ and /ʝ/ respectively.
- Any string of 2 or more /ɾ/ must be pronounced as an alveolar trill /r/.
There are three types of word in Ringwa: Objects, Numbers, and Relations.
These correspond to other languages' nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Each object has a number of forms to determine what part of speech it is, but some words do not have an adverb form.
Objects can have these forms:
Noun: (e.g.) Weight
Verb: To weigh
Performer: (Weigh-er) Balance/scale
The affixes are applied in the order they are presented in below (top-bottom), if required. A case must be added for nouns and a tense must be added for verbs. Markers must be included on adjectives and adverbs. Table note: The number in parentheses is a "group". Only one member of any group can be added, and things with no group specified are on their own.
Stems with no affixes added are verb infinitives.
|Purpose||Parts of speech||Required||Primary start/end||If primary creates illegal cluster|
|Adjective marker||Adjectives||No (0)||æz-||æza-|
|Adverb marker||Adverbs||No (0)||gëz-||gëza-|
|State of being (-ness/-hood)||Nouns, adjectives||No||-ku||-eku|
|Combined nominative-accusative case (Direct case)||Nouns, gerund verbs||Yes (1)||-p||-ap|
|Genitive case||Nouns, gerund verbs||Yes (1)||-ra||-era|
|Dative case||Nouns||Yes (1)||-ng||-ëng|
|Locative case||Nouns||Yes (1)||-kya||-ëkya|
|Instrumental case||Nouns, gerund verbs||Yes (1)||-gur||-egur|
|Paucal (2-5)||Nouns, gerund verbs, number adjectives||No (2)||gh-||ghë-|
|Plural(6+)||Nouns, gerund verbs, number adjectives||No (2)||zh-||zhë-|
|Collective (All)||Nouns, gerund verbs||No (2)||sk-||skë-|
|Past tense||Verbs, adjectives (participle)||Yes (3)||wa-||wap-|
|Present tense||Verbs, adjectives (participle)||Yes (3)||ya-||yap-|
|Future tense||Verbs||Yes (3)||cha-||chap-|
|Perfect aspect||Verbs||No (4)||-ag||-kag|
|Continuous aspect||Verbs||No (4)||-ts||-ëch|
|Imperative mood (for commands)||Verbs||No||ch-||che-|
|Comparative||Adjectives, adverbs||No (5)||-yar||-rr|
|Superlative||Adjectives, adverbs||No (5)||-yast||-st|
These are like numbers in other languages, except they are in base 20 (dën). They are a special case of Objects, with a predetermined definition (with "x" being the value):
- Noun: x itself
- Verb: To multiply by x / To x-tuple (double, triple, quadruple, ...)
- Adjective: Having a count of x (paucal/plural) xth (otherwise)
- Adverb: Done x times
- Performer: A device/person whose purpose is to multiply by x
|#||Lat. Ringwa||#||Lat. Ringwa||#||Lat. Ringwa||#||Lat. Ringwa|
|5||væ||17||sëdëxab||2010||dëx dënri||20203||tradënri dënri|
|6||shë(k)||18||otedëxab||2011||undëx dënri||202020||dën dënri dënri|
|7||së(t)||19||nudëxab||2012||dhudëx dënri||Negative (-x) prefix||dya-|
|8||ot(e)||20||(une) dën||2013||tradëx dënri||Reciprocal (1/x) prefix||dhi-|
|9||nu(n)||400||dhudën||2014||vadëx dënri||Half (1/2)||dhyo|
|10||dëx(e)||8000||tradën||2015||vædëx dënri||One twentieth (1/20)||dhën|
dën dënri dënri (twenty-twenty-powerof-twenty-powerof) = 202020 is about the 3.5th root of a googolplex (1010100)
Number operation suffixes:
All operations are written after their inputs, so "two plus one" in Ringwa would be un dhu waba (lit. "one two added")
Adding: -ba or -abe
Multiplying: No suffix, just concatenate
Exponentiation: -ri. Note that the exponent is said and written before the base.
These correspond to other languages' articles, particles and prepositions. They do not inflect.
|un||Indefinite article: "a" or "an". Also the number "one".|
|l||Definite article: "the".|
|del||Expresses the topic of something. Like English "about".|
|dya||Negation (not ~). Can also be prefixed to another relation ("negating" it). Use "dyar" to negate a word starting with a vowel.|
|tsi||English "above" or "over". Can be negated for "below" or "under".|
|dëks||English "to the right of". Can be negated for "to the left of".|
|frën||English "in front of" or "before". Cannot be negated.|
|bax||English "behind" or "after". Cannot be negated.|
|suro||English "surrounding". Can be negated for "inside".|
|roda||English "around". This is different from suro in that it implies rotational movement. Cannot be negated.|
|prox||English "near". Can be negated for "far".|
|anu||English "among" or "amid". Can be negated for "separate/different from".|
|dir||English "next to", can refer to either left or right, but no other directions.|
|fu||English "by", but only used for expressing ownership.|
|depi||English "despite", "except for". Can be negated for "including".|
- Adjectives and adverbs come after the noun/verb they are describing.
- Subjects and agents come before objects
- Verbs must be after their subject and object (SOV order). This reduces ambiguity.
- Relations can only come after nouns.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 1:
|All human beings are born free and equal in dignity |
and rights. They are endowed with reason and
conscience and should act towards one another
in a spirit of brotherhood.
|skë-persu-p æz-liber æz-ikwal ë digniti-kya |
rëkta-kya ë be-ya-nat. zh-ëra-p rëson-gur konsyans-egur
ë be-wa-da | zh-ëra-p zh-otre a ya-dëbe axto
mod-ëkya brëtherku-ra ë.
|COL-'human being'-DIR ADJ-'freedom' ADJ-'equality' 'and' 'dignity'-LOC |
'right'-LOC 'and' PASS-PRES-'born'. PL-'he'-DIR 'reason'-INS 'conscience'-INS
'and' PASS-PST-'give' PL-'he'-DIR PL-'other' PRES-'must' 'act'
'way/method'-LOC 'brotherhood'-GEN 'and'