|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Romanido is a minimalistic controlled language of the Esperantido family which reinforces the Romance Hypothesis for Esperanto, replacing the roots from Germanic or Slavic languages with their Latin counterparts, and aiming at being highly expressive with a somewhat minimalistic design. It therefore combines the ideas of L. Zamenhof's Esperanto with G. Peano's Latino sine Flexione and C. K. Ogden's Basic English, as implemented by Sonja Elen Kisa Lang's Toki pona.
|Plosive||b p||d t||k g|
The following table states the alphabet with its corresponding pronuntiation.
a as in
b as in
c /ts/ as in
d as in
e as in
f as in
g as in
h as in
i as in
j as in
k as in
l as in
m as in
n as in
o as in
p as in
r as in
s as in
t as in
u as in
w as in
There are four digraphs: kh /x/, th /θ/, for loanwords from Greek; and ch /tʃ/ and sh /ʃ/ for loanwords from Germanic roots.
There are two diphtongs: au /av/ and eu /ev/ (open vowels with u).
The letters qwxyz may be used in loanwords, as in Quebec.
Romanido follows closely the phonotactics of Latin, with strong Italian and Spanish influence.
The semivowels /w/ and /j/ may be replaced by the consonant allophones /v/ and /ʝ/ or /ʎ/, whenever necessary to keep pronunciation practicable, as in between vowels and certain consonant clusters: nova /nova/, cupjo /kupʝo/ or /kupʎo/.
Adapted from L. L. Zamenhof's Fundamento.
Parts of speechEdit
1. There is no article.
2. Substantives are formed by adding o to the root. For the plural, the letter j must be added to the singular, and there are no cases: all nominal uses are governed by prepositions, and the objective case is governed by word order; thus, the possessive (genitive) by de, “of”; the dative by al, “to”, the instrumental (ablative) by kun, “with”, or other preposition as the use demands. E. g. root patr, “parent”; patr'o, “the parent”; de patr'o, “of the parent”; al patr'o, “to the parent”; kun patr'o, “with the parent”; patr'o'j, “the parents”; patr'o'j'n, “the parents” (obj.), por patr'o'j, “for the parents”.
3. Adjectives are formed by adding a to the root. They are not affected by number as do substantives: virda steloj: green stars. The comparative degree is formed by prefixing pli (more); the superlative by plej (most). The word “than” is rendered by ol, e. g. pli alba ol nigo, “whiter than snow”.
4. The verb does not change its form for numbers or persons, e.g. me ag'as, “I do”; patr'o ag'as, “the parent does”; lej ag'as, “they do”.
a) The present tense ends in as, e. g. me ag'as, “I do”.
b) The past tense ends in is, e. g. le ag'is, “s/he did”.
c) The future tense ends in os, e. g. lej ag'os, “they will do”.
d) The subjunctive mood ends in us, e. g. lejo ag'us, “she may do”.
e) The imperative mood ends in u, e. g. nej ag'u, “let us do”.
f) The infinitive mood ends in i, e. g. faki, “to do”. There are two forms of the participle, the changeable or adjectival, and the unchangeable or adverbial.
g) The present participle active ends in ant, e. g. ag'ant'a, “s/he who is doing”; ag'ant'e, “doing”.
h) The past participle active ends in int, e. g. ag'int'a, “s/he who has done”; ag'int'e, “having done”.
i) The future participle active ends in ont, e. g. ag'ont'a, “s/he who will do”; ag'ont'e, “about to do”.
j) The present participle passive ends in at, e. g. ag'at'e, “being done”.
l) The past participle passive ends in it, e. g. ag'it'a, “that which has been done”; ag'it'e, “having been done”.
m) The future participle passive ends in ot, e. g. ag'ot'a, “that which will be done”; ag'ot'e, “about to be done”.
All forms of the passive are rendered by the respective forms of the verb est (to be) and the participle passive of the required verb; the preposition used is de, “by”. E. g. lejo est'as am'at'a de mult'o'j, “she is loved by many”.
5. Adverbs are formed by adding e to the root. The degrees of comparison are the same as in adjectives, e. g., mi'a frat'o cant'as pli bon'e ol mi, “my brother sings better than I”.
6. The personal pronouns are: me, “I”; te, “thou”, “you”; le, “he”, “she”, “it” (neutral, epicene); si, “self”. The plurals are made adding the plural affix: nej, “we”; tej, "you" (pl.): lej, “they”; one, “one” (French “on”, impersonal). Possessive pronouns are formed by suffixing to the required personal, the adjectival termination. The declension of the pronouns is identical with that of substantives. E. g. me, “I”; me'a, “my”, “mine”; meja, "our".
7. The cardinal numerals do not change their forms for the different cases. They are: unu (1), du (2), tri (3), kvar (4), kvin (5), ses (6), sep (7), ok (8), nau (9), dek (10), kent (100), mil (1000). The tens and hundreds are formed by simple junction of the numerals, e. g. 533 = kvin'kent tri'dek tri. Ordinals are formed by adding the adjectival a to the cardinals, e. g. unu'a, “first”; du'a, “second”, etc. Multiplicatives (as “threefold”, “fourfold”, etc.) add obl, e. g. tri'obl'a, “threefold”. Fractionals add on, as du'on'o, “a half”; kvar'on'o, “a quarter”. Collective numerals add op, as kvar'op'e, “four together”. Distributive prefix po, e. g., po kvin, “five apiece”. Adverbials take e, e. g., unu'e, “firstly”, etc.
8. Word order is Subject-Verb-Object.
9. The accent falls on the last syllable but one (penultimate).
10. Compound words are formed by the simple junction of roots, the main word standing last, which are written as a single word. Grammatical terminations are considered independent words. E.g. frat'ij'et'o: "little sister".
11. If there be one negative in a clause, a second is not admissible.
12. Every preposition has a regular meaning, but in case of doubt which it should be, the word je is used, which has no definite meaning; for example, let'i je tio, “to rejoice over it”; am'i je patr'uj'o, “a longing for one’s country”. In each language different prepositions, sanctioned by usage, are employed in these dubious cases.
13. Loanwords undergo no change, beyond conforming to the phonetic orthography. Such is the rule with regard to roots words; derivatives are better formed according to the rules rules above, e.g. teatr'o, “theatre”, but teatr'a, “theatrical”, (not teatrical'a), etc.
14. The final o of substantives may be sometimes dropped euphoniae gratia, e.g. Sxiller’ for Sxiller'o; in such cases an apostrophe should be substituted for the discarded vowel.
15. All nouns are neutral/genderless; gendered forms are formed adding the suffix -v- for masculine, and -j- for feminine: best'o, best'v'o, best'j'o: beast; Mari'o, Mari'v'o, Mari'j'o: Marius, Maria.
16. Roots are derived from Latin nouns and verbs, if available, or from Latin verbal stems, preferably monosyllabic.
To be rewritten.
A usual suspect: The Lord's Prayer.
Meja Patro en cjelo, altigu estu tea nomo, venu al mej tea duko, agu tea volo et en tero et en cjelo, donu al mej mea ciudjera pano, et pardonu al mej meja malajoj kiel mej pardonas al malagantoj al mej, et ne dukas mej en la malago, et elvenu mej de malajo.
The story of Babel is forthcoming.