Sã nouns still follow the same basic structure that Sangi nouns do, but their is less in the way of stem gradation, the cases have collapsed, no definiteness and the size suffixes are no longer productive and exist merely as the stem. Stem


The stem can undergo two rounds of stem weakening at most, matching the old genitive and stative stems. The nominative and locative stems have merged into a single stem, which is the basic ungraded stem. The genitive stem is formed, as before, by weakening the stem, which the stative stem merged with. I-mutation in vowels has disappeared as a productive process but with certain case suffixes the vowel structure of the stem will change.

For example:

Cheese: [tʃik]>[tʃig]>[tʃij]

Vocalic and glottalic stems do not undergo stem mutation so the previous V>Vt/Vc stems are purely vocalic.

Nominative StemEdit

The Nominative stem is the basis of eight cases:

Case Singular Plural
Nominative - (non-human), -[a] (human) - (non-human), -[a] (human)
Accusative -[n] -[n]
Dative - (non-human), -[a] (human) -[ʃ]
Causal-Passive -[me] -[me]
Inessive -[sa] -[se]
Superessive -[la] -[lts]
Adessive -[na] -[nts]
Temporal -C/V:-[ra], -V-:[da] -[ts]

As the cases collapsed, so did the stems. The causal-passive uses the resulting stem from the original causal stem, and the four locative/temporal stems come from the original basic locative/temporal with meanings of "position at". As a result of sound changes any suffix with [a], [e] [u] or [i] in it will take an "irregular" stem. For example, if a stem in Sangi ends in ([e]C][a] the nominative will have the structure ([a]C)[a] (notice the change in sound of the penultimate vowel. However, if it were to take the causal-passive suffix [me] it would god from ([a]C)[ame] to ([e]C)[eme]. This happens because affective vowel changes occur only in the last two syllables of a Sangi word, so the original [e] which became [a] before the final [a] is now in the antepenultimate syllable and immune from the change to [e] that the [a] caused while the [a], as a result of the following [e] would raise to [e]. This process happens regularly in Sã.

Genitive StemEdit

The genitive stem is the basis of nine cases, most of which require the postposition "sant" to distinguish their secondary meaning from their primary one.

Case Singular Plural
Genitive-Instrumental -[li] -[l]
Benefactive (+ journey cause) -[t] -[t]
Regardive-Sociative -[ga] -[sk]
Partitive-Comitative -[u] -[au]
Anti-Instr.Soc.Com. -[ʃ] -[ʃ]
Essive -[ta] -[tʃ]
Locative -[ka] -[tʃ]
Translative -[ja] -[e]
Equative-Comparative -[pa] -[he]

The Locative is actually the same case as the adessive case but it is instead used with those stems which were nasal final in the nominative.

The Essive state case comes from the From state case of Sangi, the Locative from the Start locative, the Tranlsative from the Translative and the Equative-Comparative from the Comparative. Suffixes with [a] and [e] will cause the stem vowels to change as they do above.

Possessive SuffixesEdit

The possessive suffixes collapsed into just four suffixes, one of which is a null suffix:

- - 2nd person singular and 3rd person plural

-[(i)ʔ] - 3rd person singular and 1st person plural

-[(i)s] - 2nd person plural

-[(i)n] - 1st person singular.

-[s] and -[n] do not necessarily require anjy clarification but the other two suffixes require that the noun be followed by the matching personal pronoun in the genitive case.

Vowel Changes in the StemEdit

In changing the basic nominative stems of a noun from Sangi into this daughter language, their were certain affective changes of the penultimate vowel:









So, a noun in Sangi ending in [a:]C[u] would become [o]C[u] and finally [u]C[u]. As mentioned above, though, these processes are interrupted with the addition of the added vowels of case suffixes. The nominative penultimate will become the antepenultimate vowel in other cases, except the dative singular, and as such will be immune to these effects. The final vowel, however, will be the penultimate vowel in other cases so will be subject to these above sound changes.

For example:

Nominative: [a]C[e]>[e]C[e]


Inessive: [a]C[esa]>[a]C[asa]

Genitive-Instrumental Plural: [a]C[eli]>[a]C[ili]

See how in the last two cases the nominative [a] which would have been [e] remains [a] because it is outside the reach of the final vowel, unlike the previously final [e].

To use a monosyllabic example to show an unaffected nominative we will look at [taʔ] (dog):


Notice as well the weakening of the stem alongside the vowel change.

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