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Sã/Phonological Changes

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ConsonantsEdit

InitialEdit

Sangi Initial Before [u] Before [u]+V Before [i]/[e] Before [r] Before [j]/[i]/[e]+V Before [a] Before [o]
[p] [p] [pu] [pu]V [pi/e] [b] [pj/i/e]V [pa] [po]
[b] [b] [bu] [bu]V [bj/i/e] [br] [bi/e]V [ba] [bo]
[t] [t] [tu] [tu]V [tsi/e] [d] [ts]V [ta] [to]
[d] [d] [du] [du]V [dzi/e] [d] [dz]V [da] [do]
[c] [ʃ] [ʃu] [ʃu]V [ʃi/e] [ʃr] [ʃj/i/e]V [ʃa] [ʃo]
[ɟ] [ʒ] [ʒu] [ʒu]V [ʒi/e] [ʒr] [ʒj/i/e]V [ʒa] [ʒo]
[k] [k] [ku] [ku]V [tʃi/e] [g] [tʃ]V [ka] [ko]
[g] [g] [gu] [gu]V [dʒi/e] [gr] [dʒ]V [ga] [go]
[m̥] [m] [mu] [mu]V [mi/e] [mr] [mj/i/e]V [wo] [wa]
[m] [m] [mu] [mu]V [mi/e] [mr] [mj/i/e]V [mo] [ma]
[n̥] [n] [nu] [nu]V [ni/e] [nr] [nj/i/e]V [no] [na]
[n] [n] [nu] [nu]V [ni/e] [nr] [nj/i/e]V [no] [na]
[ɲ̊] [ɲ] [ɲu] [ɲu]V [ni/e] [ɲr] [n]V [ɲo] [ɲa]
[ɲ] [ɲ] [ɲu] [ɲu]V [ni/e] [ɲr] [n]V [ɲo] [ɲa]
[ŋ̊] [k] [ku] [ku]V [gi/e] [kr] [g]V [ko] [ka]
[ŋ] [ŋ] [ŋu] [ŋu]V [ŋi/e] [ŋr] [ŋj/i/e]V [ŋo] [ŋa]
[f] [h] [hu] [hu]V [hi/e] [hr] [hj/i/e]V [ho] [ha]
[v] [ɦ] [ɦu] [ɦu]V [ɦi/e] [ɦr] [ɦj/i/e]V [ɦo] [ɦa]
[θ] [s] [ʃu] [ʃ]V [ʃi/e] [sr] [ʃ]V [so] [sa]
[ð] [z] [ʃu] [ʃ]V [ʃi/e] [zr] [ʃ]V [zo] [za]
[s] [s] [ʃu] [ʃ]V [ʃi/e] [sr] [ʃ]V [so] [sa]
[z] [z] [ʃu] [ʃ]V [ʃi/e] [zr] [ʃ]V [zo] [za]
[ʃ] [ʃ] [sku] [sk]V [ski/e] [ʃr] [sk]V [ʃo] [ʃa]
[ʒ] [ʒ] [sku] [sk]V [ski/e] [ʒr] [sk]V [ʒo] [ʒa]
[tʃ] [tʃ] [tʃu] [tʃu]V [ki/e] [tʃr] [k]V [tʃo] [tʃa]
[dʒ] [dʒ] [dʒu] [dʒu]V [g] [dʒr] [g]V [dʒo] [dʒa]
[ɕ] [h] [hu] [hu]V [hi/e] [hr] [hj/i/e]V [ho] [ha]
[ʑ] [ɦ] [ɦu] [ɦu]V [ɦi/e] [ɦr] [ɦj/i/e]V [ɦo] [ɦa]
[ʂ] [sr] [sru] [sru]V [sri/e] [sr] [srj/i/e]V [sro] [sra]
[ʐ] [sr] [sru] [sru]V [sri/e] [sr] [srj/i/e]V [sro] [sra]
[ç] [sr] [sru] [sru]V [sri/e] [sr] [srj/i/e]V [sro] [sra]
[ʝ] [sr] [sru] [sru]V [sri/e] [sr] [srj/i/e]V [sro] [sra]
[çc] [str] [stru] [stru]V [stri/e] [str] [strj/i/e]V [stro] [stra]
[ʝɟ] [str] [stru] [stru]V [stri/e] [str] [strj/i/e]V [stro] [stra]
[x] [h] [hu] [hu]V [hi/e] [hr] [hj/i/e]V [ho] [ha]
[ɣ] [ɦ] [ɦu] [ɦu]V [ɦi/e] [ɦr] [ɦj/i/e]V [ɦo] [ɦa]
[h] [Ø] [Øu] [Øu]V [Øi/e] [Ør] [Øj/i/e]V [Øo] [Øa]
[r̥] [r] [ru] [ru]V [ri/e] --- [rj/i/e]V [ro] [ra]
[r] [r] [ru] [ru]V [ri/e] --- [rj/i/e]V [ro] [ra]
[ɽ] [r] [ru] [ru]V [ri/e] --- [rj/i/e]V [ro] [ra]
[ɬ] [l] [lu] [lu]V [li/e] --- [lj/i/e]V [lo] [la]
[l] [l] [lu] [lu]V [li/e] --- [lj/i/e]V [lo] [la]
[ʎ] [l], [lj]V [lju] [lju]V [ji/e] --- [j]V [ljo] [lja]
[w] [w] [u] [u]V [wi/e] --- [wj/i/e]V [o] [wa]
[ʋ] [ʍ] [ʍu] [ʍu]V [ʍi/e] [ʍr] [ʍj/i/e]V [ʍo] [ʍa]
[hj] [x] [xu] [xu]V [xi/e] --- [xi/e]V [xo] [xa]
[j] [j] [ju] [ju]V [i/e] --- [i/e]V [jo] [ja]
[sp] [sp] [spu] [spu]V [spi/e] [spr] [spj/i/e]V [spo] [spa]
[st] [s] [ʃu] [ʃ]V [ʃi/e] [sr] [ʃ]V [so] [sa]
[sk] [g] [ʃu] [ʃ]V [ʃi/e] [gr] [ʃ]V [go] [ga]
[ts] [s] [ʃu] [ʃ]V [ʃi/e] [sr] [ʃ]V [so] [sa]

MedialEdit

Sangi General Between 2 Vowels Before [u] Before [u]+V Before [i]/[e] Before [r] Before [i]/[e]+V Before [a] Before [o]
[p] [p] V[p]V [pu] [pu]V [pi/e] [b] [pi/e]V [pa] [po]
[b] [b] V[w]V [bu] [bu]V [bi/e] [br] [bi/e]V [ba] [bo]
[t] [t] V[t]V [tu] [tu]V [tsi/e] [d] [ts]V [ta] [to]
[d] [d] V[d]V [du] [du]V [dzi/e] [dr], V[rr]V [dz]V [da] [do]
[c] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ɟ] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[k] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[g] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[m̥] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[m] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[n̥] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[n] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ɲ̊] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ɲ] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ŋ̊] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ŋ] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[f] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[v] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[θ] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ð] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[s] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[z] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ʃ] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ʒ] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[tʃ] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[dʒ] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ɕ](i/e) [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ʑ](i/e) [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ʂ] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ʐ] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ç] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ʝ] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[çc] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ʝɟ] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[x](a/o/_#) [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ɣ](a/o/_#) [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[h] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[r̥] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[r] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ɽ] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ɬ] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[l] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ʎ] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[w] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ʋ] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[hj] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[j] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[sp] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[st] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[sk] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[mp] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[mb] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[nt] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[nd] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ns] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ps] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ts] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ks] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[nk] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[ng] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[kt] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]
[pt] [] V[]V [u] [u]V [i/e] [r] [i/e]V [a] [o]

FinalEdit

Sangi Final After V Before final [i]/[e] Before final [u]
[p]
[b]
[t]
[d]
[c]
[ɟ]
[k]
[g]
[m̥]
[m]
[n̥]
[n]
[ɲ̊]
[ɲ]
[ŋ̊]
[ŋ]
[f]
[v]
[θ]
[ð]
[s]
[z]
[ʃ]
[ʒ]
[tʃ]
[dʒ]
[ɕ](i/e)
[ʑ](i/e)
[ʂ]
[ʐ]
[ç]
[ʝ]
[çc]
[ʝɟ]
[x](a/o/_#)
[ɣ](a/o/_#)
[h]
[r̥]
[r]
[ɽ]
[ɬ]
[l]
[ʎ]
[w]
[ʋ]
[hj]
[j]
[sp]
[st]
[sk]
[mp]
[mb]
[nt]
[nd]
[ns]
[ps]
[ts]
[ks]
[nk]
[ng]
[kt]
[pt]

The process C:>C occurs earlier than the vowel affections, which themselves occur before the vowel changes, i.e. changes occur in the order C:>C, CV>CV, V>V. This means that te>tse can become te>tsa assuming the next syllable has an [a] in it or tia>tsa. This makes the [ts] segment phonemic, as is the same with several other conditioned sound changes.

Vowel changesEdit

Vowel changes occur in this order after the consonant changes

Sangi Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
[i] [i] [i]
[i:] [i:] [i:]
[y] [y] [iu]
[y:] [y:] [iu]
[e] [e] [e] [e](C)[i(:)]>[i](C)[i(:)_#], [e](C)[a]>[a](C)[a_#]
[e:] [e:] [e:] [e:](C)[i(:)]>[i:](C)[i(:)_#], [e:](C)[a(:)]>[a:](C)[a(:)_#]
[œ]/[œ:] [œ] [eu]
[ə] [ə] [_(#)], [VC_CV] [e] [e](C)[i(:)]>[i](C)[i(:)_#], [e](C)[a]>[a](C)[a_#]
[a] [a] [a] [a](C)[e/i_#]>[e](C)[e/i_#]
[a:] [a:] [o] [o](C)[u_#]>[u](C)[u_#]
[u] [u] [u] [u](C)[o/a_#]>[o](C)[o/a_#]
[u:] [u:] [u:] [u:]C[o/a]>[o:]C[o/a]
[ʌ]/[ʌ:] [ʌ] [a] [a]C[e/i]>[e]C{e/i]
[o] [o] [a] [a]C[e/i]>[e]C{e/i]
[o:] [o:] [uo]
[au] [au] [au]
[ou] [ou] [au]
[eu] [eu] [eu]
[iu] [iu] [eu]
[ai] [ai] [ai]
[oi] [oi] [ai]
[ei] [ei] [ie]
[ui] [ui] [iu]

In diphthongs not mentioned above, such as [io], [eo], [ao], etc. if the first vowel is [i] or [e] these become [j]V before stage 1 and affect the consonants which can be affected by [j], such as [t]>[ts] and the the [j] disappears. If the first vowel is [u] or [o] then these become [u]V, if [a] is the first sound then the second one will change, [o] and [u] will become [u], causing a merger between [au] and [ao] before stage 1, and [i] and [e] will merge to [i], forming [ai] before stage one. So:

Sangi Pre-Stage 1
[ae] [ai]
[ao] [au]
[ea] [ja]
[eo] [jo]
[ia] [ja]
[ie] [je]
[io] [jo]
[oa] [ua]
[oe] [ue]
[ua] [ua]
[ue] [ue]
[uo] [uo]


Stage 1 is the time in which the consonants change, before most of the vowel changes, e.g. a word of say structure [tedaki] would first become [tsedatʃ] in Stage 1, then remain [tsedatʃ] in Stage 2, then finally [tsadatʃ] in Stage 3, causing [ts] to become phonemically distinct from [t].

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