|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Sîshksøq is the official language/dialect of the Ice Empire or Sîshrike in the world of Bidunia. Sîshksøq is the dialect of the capital of the ice mountain on which the nobles reside, therefore it is also known as Nobility Speech (NS). The rest of the empire speaks a variety of dialects, collectively known as Common Speech (CS). The group of all dialects, CS and Sîshksøq, is known as "Klestath", meaning Northern Tongue. This is the language of the entire region. Any reference on this wiki to NS is a reference to Sîshksøq, to Klestath to all dialects. As it is the official dialect of the empire, most of the following will be in NS.
- All consonants are voiceless, with the exception of the four approximants (w, r, j, l).
- Yes, "r" is the approximant "ɹ". Only in certain CS dialects is it a trill.
- In both Sîshksøq and CS, final "j" is realised the vowel [i].
E.g. "Fesîj" (white) = [fɛsə͡i ]
- A final "w" is pronounced differently in NS and CS, realised respectively as vowels [y] and [u].
E.g. "Slaw" (mud) = [slæy] / [slɔu]
- /a/ is realised in Sîshksøq as [æ], but in Common Speech as [ɑ].
- /ø/ is sometimes raised or lowered.
Plurals are formed by forming a rising diphthong out of the first vowel of the root.
- a [æ] --> ai [æi]
- e [ɛ] --> ei [ɛi]
- î [ɪ] --> îi [ǝi]
- i [i] --> ii [iʔi], Common Speech realisation is [i:]
- ø [œ] --> øi [œi]
- y [y] --> yi [yi]
E.G. Qasht (power) > Qaisht (powers); Jifext (garden) > Jifeixt (gardens)
Linguistic Alphabet (stops, frics, appr, liq, vowels):
P, T, K, F, TH, LH, S, SH, X, Q, H, W, L, J, R, I, Y, Î, E, Ø, A
Official Alphabet (always used):
i, r, p, h, a, s, lh, q,ø, j, t, f, e, th, x, y, w, l, î, sh, k
V = vowels (including diphthongs)
S = stops
F = fricatives
A = Approximants
Verbs have three persons (first, second, and third) and two numbers (singular and plural). There are five tenses (present, past, habitual, future, and conditional), three aspects (standard, perfective, and progressive), and two moods (Indicative and imperative). Infinitives always end in -el, such as køqel, meaning to do or make. Note: Common Speech does not use aspect.
In Standard, the said activity may or may not have been completed and/or be still occurring.
- Present tense: This is just like English, describing an event or activity. I love nerdy things. Replace the -el with -øl, -il, -al, -øil, iil, -ail (1s, 2s, 3s, 1p, 2p, 3p respective inflections). e.g. køqøl
- Past tense: This is just like English, describing a singular event that took place in the past. Han shot first. Replace the -el with -øs, -is, -as, etc. e.g. køqøs
- Habitual tense: This tense is similar to the habitual aspect found in other languages and indicates an activity performed more than once in the past. I many times played football. Replace the -el with -øth, -ith, -ath, etc. e.g. køqøth
- Future tense: This is just like English, describing a planned event that will take place. I will eat my supper. Replace the -el with -øk, -ik, -ak, etc. e.g. køqøk
- Conditional tense: This is a hypothetical tense in which the speaker indicates what would, could, or should happen in the present or future. The sky could snow tomorrow. It would be nice if it did. Replace the -el with -ølh, -ilh, -alh, etc. e.g. køqølh
In the Perfective aspect, the said activity has been completed and is not occurring in the present.
- Present Perfect: Just like English, this tense refers to an activity that has already been completed by the present time. Anakin Skywalker has gone to the Dark Side. Replace the -el with -ølt, -ilt, -alt, etc. e.g. køqølt
- Past Perfect: Just like English, this tense refers to an activity that has already been completed by an event or time in the past. Anakin Skywalker had been destined as the chosen one, before siding with Senator Palpatine. Replace the -el with -øst, -ist, -ast, etc. e.g. køqøst
- Habitual Perfect: This tense refers to activities performed multiple times in the past that are no longer being completed as of a past event or time. It is identical to the past perfect, but referring to multiple activities instead of just one. Harry Potter had several times survived the attacks of Lord Voldemort, before the latter rose to power in 1995. Replace the -el with -øtht, -itht, -atht, etc. e.g. køqøtht
- Future Perfect: Just like English, this tense refers to an activity that will be completed by an event or time in the future. Harry Potter will have destroyed all of the horcruxes, before killing Voldemort. Replace the -el with -økît, -ikît, -akît, etc. e.g. køqøkît
- Conditional Perfect: This tense is different than other perfect tenses. It refers to a hypothetical activity that would have, could have, or should have occurred in the past. Severus Snape could have been sorted into Gryffindor. He and Lily would have been together forever. Replace the -el with -ølht, -ilht, -alht, etc. e.g. køqølht
The Progressive aspect indicates that the verb or activity is being performed at the moment of the tense.
- Present Progressive: Just like English, this tense refers to an activity being performed immediately in the present. Hermione is taking notes, whilst Harry and Ron are daydreaming. Replace the -el with -ølî, -ilî, -alî, etc. e.g. køqølî
- Past Progressive: Just like English, this tense refers to an activity that was being performed in the past. Harry was opening his golden egg when Moaning Murtle appeared. Replace the -el with -øsî, -isî, -asî, etc. e.g. køqøsî
- Habitual Progressive: This tense implies that you had been performing an activity multiple times and still continued to do so. Harry was many times circling the quidditch pitch before he saw the snitch. Replace the -el with -øthî, -ithî, -athî, etc. e.g. køqøthî
- Future Progressive: Just like English, this tense refers to an event or activity that will be being performed in the future (not as common as in English. usually is replaced by simple future). The Weird Sisters will be playing at the Yule Ball when the students begin to dance. Replace the -el with -økî, -ikî, -akî, etc. e.g. køqøkî
- Conditional Progressive: This tense refers to an event or activity that would be, could be, or should be happening in the present or future. If Harry had researched how to breathe underwater, he could be sleeping and he wouldn't be stressing about the Second Task for tomorrow. Replace the -el with -ølhî, -ilhî, -alhî, etc. e.g. køqølhî
The imperative form is very simple. Just replace the infinitive morpheme with the personal vowel.
- 1s: add "ø". This form is only rarely used when a speaker is either talking to themself or commanding themself to do something. Anakin: Be a strong jedi, Anakin! Sø tshetai qashtîqsai, Alakîl!
- 2s: add "i". This commands the recipient of the speaker to perform the specified verb. Go to the volcano! Kseji tafylkaras!
- 3s: add "a" This shows obligation, that the subject had better perform the verb. He better read a book. Lha sasta selip. This form also forms the optative mood to show may/let something be/happen. May he have a long and happy life. Lha hapsa rifsap hirpa sash lykixpa.
- 1p: add "øi". This indicates that we better all do the verb. Let's give a book to a good friend. Kepsøi frilster kytrest selip.
- 2p: add "ii". This shows obligation, that y'all better do the verb. Y'all better play in the mud. Spilii wøslawa.
- 3p: add "ai" This articulates that they better do the verb. They better have happy plants. Hapsai feixtap lyikixpaxt.
Participles are verbs transformed to express that which has been verbed. They are always paired with an auxiliary verb. All participles are formed by replacing -el with -esh, or -øl with -øsh to the ending of the verb. He is gone. Lha sask ksejesh. The good book will have been read by me. Seli kytasi førsaksît hør sastesh.
The normal place for the passive form of the verb is at the end of the sentence, but it often directly follows the auxiliary or directly precedes the accusative noun when there is another verb in the sentence. I am allowed to write a letter tomorrow with a pencil. Hø søsk sîlhaltsi flathi pelsilik kaløtføsh jikørthap shkifel.
To indicate the person who performed the action, the preposition sky- is used. The dative is only used to indicate a beneficiary, for whom rather than by whom.
The -esh/-øsh ending is to indicate the passive voice. Can be used with sesk or førsesk. ***********************************************One is static and the other is dynamic. Figure it out bryce.
Gerunds are nouns that express the action of the verb (eg. losing) and may be formed by adding the noun suffix (as, ep, ir, i, yk, a/as) or the adjective to the verb. Running is good. Killing is always bad. Eating makes me happy. Lhelas sask kyt. Tøthelas sask shekst îwa. Ethelas køqal hør lykix.
Adjective Formation Edit
Noun Formation Edit
If I want to express the thing (noun) that directly correlates to its verb, then replace the ending of the verb with "sa". E.g. I think a thought (think -> thought). Hø tsethøl tsethsa. You are eating food (eat -> food). Thi ethilî ethsa. She likes to play games (play -> games). Spiilsa thøfkail sar spilel.
Here is a paradigm of all possible conjugations for the verb lhel: to run [ɬɛl]
Sîshksøq has three noun genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. It also has six cases or declensions: nominative (-), accusative (-p), dative (-r), genetive (-i), instrumental (-k), and prepositional (-a, -as). These six are similar to Russian.
The nominative case is for nouns that are the subject of the sentence. Nouns in this case are characterised by their lack of morphological distinction, compared to the other cases. This is their dictionary form. Snape was in love with Lily Evans.
Nouns in the masculine nominative case always end in a fricative or stop that is immediately preceded by a vowel. Kasîs ksejas taksøiqas. The water goes to the mountains.
Nouns in the feminine nominative case always end in a vowel. Seili saisk kyit. Books are good.
Nouns in the neuter nominative case end in liquids, approximants, and any consonant that is not immediately preceded by a vowel (affricates and such). Shaixil saisk kraislak. Rooves are scary.
The accusative case denotes nouns that are the direct object of the sentence, the thing being verbed. The morpheme "p" is always associated with the accusative case. Prince Zuko learned how to redirect lightning.
The morpheme "ep" is added to a nominative masculine noun to make it accusative. Hø skwøl qelhep satsap. I see weird lightning.
The morpheme "p" is added to a nominative feminine noun to make it accusative (this includes all pronouns). Høi hapsøis slep. We had snow.
Similar to the masculine, "ap" is added as the suffix. Hø tøthøs kertsap shørthpats withai høwi. I killed the beautiful heart of my mother.
The dative case desribes nouns that are the indirect object in the sentence, the receiver of the direct object of the verb. The morpheme "r" is always associated with the dative. Sirius Black gave Hagrid his flying motorbike.
The suffix "ir" is added to signify the dative. Kepsis prøtir høwi kasîsep. You gave my brother some water.
The morpheme "r" is added onto feminine nouns and pronouns. Sasti hør saqap! Read me a story!
In the neuter case, the morpheme "er" is added to the noun. Kepsøis tsyrer shpiltsap. I gave the tower a spire.
The genetive case denotes belonging or possession. It is formed by adding a final "i". My friend's house is bad. OR The house of my friend is bad. Hawisa frilsti høwi sask shekst.
Add "i" to the end of the noun. Liixt pathixi shithaisk saitsa. The lights of the store seem weird.
Add "i" to the noun, even if the noun already ends in "i". Railht rikei taisk sheikst. The country's rights are not bad.
Add "i" to the noun. Pesjøl tili thøfkal hør. I like the leaf's petiole. (The petiole of the leaf pleases me).
The instrumental case requires a tool and often answers the question of how, or by means of. It becomes very regular in its meaning. It is formed by adding a form of "k" to the end of the noun. Ksejøs thasyk taawisas. I went home by foot.
Add "yk" to the end of the noun. Halhi ksejath ksøqyk tasîshrikes. Halhi would go to Sîshrike by means of the mountain.
Just add a "k" to the end of a noun. Høi kepsøis thir Søthak selip. We gave you a book through the Lord. (The Lord gave you a book from us.)
Add "ik" to the end of the noun. Lha tøthas fylkarik Sekwøsep. He killed Sekwøs by means of the volcano.
The prepositional case is more abstract than its siblings. As a circumfix, it has both a prefix and a suffix. The prefix consists of the preposition and is simply attached to the beginning of the word. If the word begins with an "h", then it is eliminated. In Sîshksøq, now that we've eliminated the "h", if there are two vowels next to each other, they are both pronounced in separate syllables with a glottal stop in between (E.g. to the house = taawisa = [tæʔ'æwisæ] / to the child = taølt = [tæʔ'œlt]). In Common Speech, after we've eliminated the "h", if there are two of the same vowel next to each other, then it is lengthened. If it is a different vowel, then they are diphthonged (southern dialects) or an "s" is placed in between (northern dialects). (taawisa = [tɑːwisɑ] / tasølta = [tɑs'oltɑ] OR [tɑ͡oltɑ])
For the suffix, an "a" or "as" is added to the end . Similar to German two-way prepositions, which suffix used depends on the motion. If the preposition indicates a motion to or there is a change of scene, then the "as" is added. If one is already there, then an "a" is added. e.g. You are going into the store = Ksejilî wøpathixas. She is going in the store (already in the store, but going around) = Ksejalî wøpathixa. This usage is demonstrated by the examples below.
However, some prepositions do not lend themselves easily to motion differentiation. These preps (*****list goes here) use the "s" on the end to distinguish intentionality. For example if I say I went to the movies with my friends, and I meant on purpose willingly with my friends, then I attach the "s": kitfriilstas. If it was not on purpose, then I would leave it off: kitfriilsta. This preposition "with" is often used arbitrarily with other noun cases to denote this intentionality. E.g. I cut with the red wire (to mean accidentally).
The preposition is attached to the front and an "a" or "as" is placed finally. Shîwølî wøkasîsa. I am swimming in the water (not into the water).
The preposition is attached and the final "a" is omitted, leaving the final vowel. The "s" is attached to the end if it is required. Tîireth spilaith hîltawisa. The people played many times behind the house. Kasîs ksøwas xyfailkîs. The water came out of the clouds.
The preposition is attached to the front and the suffix attaches at the end. Lha tøthatht skepjap førtsyra hastelhi. He has many times killed animals in front of the tower of the castle.
Adjective Formation Edit
To turn a noun into an adjective to mean like or to resemble, just add "îq" to masculine and neuter nouns, "q" to feminine nouns. E.g. friend-friendly/like a friend frilst-frilstîq, snow-snowlike sle-sleq, mud-mudlike slaw-slawîq.
To turn a noun into an adjective to mean made of/full of/has, just add "følh" to nouns that don't end in a fricative. Add "ølh" to those. E.g. Watery-Kasîsølh; Light filled-Lyxølh; God filled-Ksøtfølh; Full of children-Høltfølh; Full of trees-Krefølh
In Nobility Speech, reflexives are just declined personal pronouns. E.g. He killed himself = Lha tøthas lhap.
In Common Speech, however, reflexives have their own pronoun, replacing the vowel with an "e". E.g. Sa tøthas sep.
Pro-words / Table of Correlatives Edit
(That one over there)
(That one over there)
(Then far in future)
(In that way)
(Only for a rare 3rd referent)
(That one over there's)
- The demonstratives make a three-way distinction, just like japanese, old english, various romance languages, and more.
- There is not one word that corresponds to an amount like spanish "cuántos" or to a quality like esperanto "kia". Instead you would use respectively, "skyks sir", meaning how much and "skath karth", meaning what type.
---When using "skyks sir", the genetive can be used to indicate of what you mean. E.g. How many brothers do you have? Skyks sir prøiti hapsil thi? The genetive is not always required, though, for not all questions have the of what. E.g. How much is this tower? Skyks sir sask tsyr krathsar?
---When using "skath karth", the genetive is also used to indicate the of what type. E.g. What kind of human was that friend of yours? Skath karth tîrethi sats frilst rersalst thiwi? The genetive is also not required when context is sufficient. E.g. What type is that plant? Skath karth sask fext flathsaxt?
- Tîrethalh is distinct from tîireth ailhsath. The former suggests everyone within the context, whilst the latter suggests every human on earth.
- There are a few dialects in Sîshrike that tend towards regularity and use "shter" and "shteri" instead of the traditional "alh" and "alhi"
- BRYCE FIRST TWO COLUMNS MOVED OVER TO PL. DO I, U, AND Ns! ALSO YOU RETCONNED SKEWI TO SKØWI SO...
Masculine and neuter adjectives take on the case, number, and the tail of the noun they modify. Feminine adjectives also take no case marker in the prepositional case if the noun does not end in an "s" (see N noun, F adj). Being head initial, adjectives are placed after the noun. In Nobility Speech, the tail consists of all the last consonants after the last vowel of the word. Common Speech only uses the last letter of neuter nouns unless preceded by an "s". Feminine adjective tails are just the last vowel. The following section and examples are of Nobility speech. E.G. Shaxil=l, Kasîs=s, Frilst=lst, Fext=xt, or Keri=i.
Numbers decline the same as nouns, but they come before instead of after the noun.
Nom: The good water is good. Kasîs kytsas sask kyt. (kyt-sa-s good-NOM-TAIL)
Acc: I make good ice. Hø køqøl sîshep kytpesh. (kyt-pe-sh good-M.ACC-TAIL)
Dat: I want to read your new brother a story. Hø wøløl prøtir lithrit thiwi saqap sastel. (lith-ri-t new-M.DAT-TAIL)
Gen: The foot of the short person is scary. Thas tîrethi støtith sask kraslak. (støt-i-th short-GEN-TAIL)
Ins: He is going to the store via the white mountain. Lha ksejalî ksøqyk fesîjkyq tapathixa. (fesîj-ky-q white-M.INS-TAIL)
Prep: She touched the fire that is near the hot metal. Sa kîfyrthas flirap, qy sask kerwøtalha hesalh. (hes-a-lh hot-PREP-TAIL)
Nom: The cold water made me happy. Kasîs kalstasas køqas hør lykix. (kalsta-sa-s cold-NOM-TAIL)
Acc: She has a few brothers. Sa hapsal prøitep sairkepet. (sairke-pe-t PL.some-M.ACC-TAIL)
Dat: We gave the weird store some money. Høi kepsøis pathixir satsarix lhitsap sarkepats. (satsa-ri-x weird-M.DAT-TAIL)
Gen: The people of the cold castle live short lives. Tîireth hastelhi kalstailh rifal riifsap tyqpas. (kalsta-i-lh cold-GEN-TAIL)
Ins: You built a house by means of a few people. Thi pykjis tîirethyk sairkekyth hawisap. (sairke-ky-th PL.some-M.INS-TAIL)
Prep: They travelled to the flat lands. Qai ferthais taløthas tikisath. (tiki-sa-th flat-PREP-TAIL)
Neuter Adjective: Edit
Nom: There is no dirt on the roof. Lhyk ekîxtsak hestal sîlshaxila. (ekîxt-sa-k none-N.NOM-TAIL)
Acc: I want to see eleven stars in the sky. Wøløl awpex peilhlyxep wøawera skwel. (aw-pe-x eleven-M.ACC-TAIL)
Dat: You guys gave my tall brother some money. Thii kepsiis prøtir hixîlrit høwi lhitsap sarkep. (hixîl-ri-t tall-M.DAT-TAIL)
Gen: The attitude of the old person is happy. Weth tîrethi ølhtith sask lykix. (ølht-i-th old-GEN-TAIL)
Ins: All my family was killed by means of the close lightning. Fawîl alhsal høwi søts qalhyk kerkylh tøthesh. (ker-ky-lh close-M.INS-TAIL)
Prep: I must go past the many stores and I will see the beautiful stars in the sky. Hø tharsøl thekspaithixas fiiltssax ksejel sash hø skwøk peilhlyxep shørthpex wøawera. (fiilts-sa-x PL.many-PREP-TAIL)
Feminine Noun Edit
Masculine Adjective: Edit
Nom: The warm south has many plants. Syste watse hapsal feixtap filtspaxt. (wat-s-e warm-F.NOM-TAIL)
Acc: My sister found a heavy rock. Xwetsa høwi fîltas kerip swethpi. (sweth-p-i heavy-F.ACC-TAIL)
Dat: My friend gave his heart to a free empire. Frilst høwi kepsas riker frîthixre kertsap lhawi. (frîthix-r-e free-F.DAT-TAIL)
Gen: The snow of a hot Sîshrike would not exist. Sle sîshrikei hesie tallh hestel. (hes-i-e hot-GEN-TAIL)
Ins: I will go to heaven by means of the good lord. Ksejøk søthak kytka taaweras. (kyt-k-a good-F.INS-TAIL)
Prep: My family wants to travel out of the scary south, through the dry west, and into the far north. Fawîl høwi wølal xysystes kraslakse, thekslhewistes thixse, sash wøklestes pelhse ferthel. (kraslak-s-e scary-PREP-TAIL, thix-s-e dry-PREP-TAIL, pelh-s-e far-PREP-TAIL)
Feminine Adjective: Edit
Nom: Some animals are not good. Skeipja sairkesa taisk kyit. (sairke-s-a PL.some-F.NOM-TAIL)
Acc: I touched a sharp rock and bled. Kîfyrthøs kerip sheskepi sash wøthkøqøs. (sheske-p-i sharp-F.ACC-TAIL)
Dat: My family cooked warm food for a cold you. Fawîl høwi køshas thir kalstari ethsap watpa. (kalsta-r-i cold-F.DAT-TAIL)
Gen: You built the house of my weird animals. Thi pykjis hawisap skeipjai saitsaia høwi. (saitsa-i-a PL.weird-GEN-TAIL)
Ins: We travelled east by means of the flat snow. Høi ferthøis slek tikike tathirstes. (tiki-k-e flat-F.INS-TAIL)
Prep: The sky released around a dull thunder. Awer fathas hertharajas shtîflasa. (shtîfla-s-a dull-PREP-TAIL)
Neuter Adjective: Edit
Nom: The cool (chilly) rock touched my skin. Keri kyrsi kîfyrthas krøtep høwi. (kyr-s-i cool-F.NOM-TAIL)
Acc: There is no close snow on the mountain. Task slep kerpe sîlksøqa hestel. (ker-p-e close-F.ACC-TAIL)
Dat: The children cooked food for their one mother. Høilt køshais irra withar qaiwi ethsap. (ir-r-a one-F.DAT-TAIL)
Gen: We don't like the water of the many clouds. Kasîs failkîi fiiltsiî task høir thøfkel. (fiilts-i-î PL.many-GEN-TAIL)
Ins: I journeyed to a far land by means of the long story. Hø ferthøs saqak hirka taløthas pelhsath. (hir-k-a far-F.INS-TAIL)
Prep: All people are free in ancient books. Tîireth ailhsath saisk frîithix wøseli ølhti. (ølht-i old-TAIL)
in the ancient ways of the ancient books. Wøweitha øilhtath seilii øilhtii.
in the ancient books of the ancient ways. Wøseili øilhti weithi øilhtith.
Neuter Noun Edit
Masculine Adjective: Edit
Nom: The same city became a fortress. Shallh kexsallh førthats kark. (kex-sa-llh same-NOM-TAIL)
Acc: I accepted new money from my father. Hø tertirøs fefethatas lhitsap lithpats. (lith-pa-ts new-N.ACC-TAIL)
Dat: I will give a book to my good friend. Hø kepsøk frilster kytrelst høwi selip. (kyt-re-lst kyt-N.DAT-TAIL)
Gen: The scary plant's leaves have dark green stripes. Tiil fexti kraslakixt hapsail railhtap klyispalht. (kraslak-i-xt kraslak-GEN-TAIL; klyis-pa-lht PL.klyis-ACC-TAIL)
Ins: We built the house with heavy bricks. Høi pykjøis tsiistik sweithkist hawisap. (sweith-ki-st PL.heavy-N.INS-TAIL)
Prep: We used to go to the far waterfall, which is surrounded by trees. Høi ksejøith taksøqshaltsas pelhsalts, qy sask lytkrei. (pelh-sa-lts far-PREP-TAIL)
Feminine Adjective: Edit
Nom: It is cold to me. Hestal hør kalsta. (kalsta cold) (It is unchanged because it is a predicative adjective)
Acc: The tower has a sharp spire. Tsyr hapsal shpiltsap sheskepalts. (sheske-pa-lts sharp-N.ACC-TAIL)
Dat: I gave the weird child some money. Hø kepsøs hølter satsarelt lhitsap sarkepats. (satsa-re-lt weird-N.DAT-TAIL)
Gen: The mud of the flat roof is heavy. Slaw shaxili tikiil sask sweth. (tiki-i-l flat-GEN-TAIL)
Ins: I killed them (3s) by means of a dull thing. Hø tøthøs øpirik shtîflakir qap. (shtîfla-ki-r sharp-N.INS-TAIL)
Prep: She was running between some plants. Sa lhasî tsisfeixta sairkext. (sairke-xt PL.some-TAIL)
Neuter Adjective: Edit
Nom: Don't look. Two generals are walking towards us! Ti skwel. Øtssal freiterel lhailî taøi! (øts-sa-l two-NOM-TAIL) (There is no "s" on "taøi" to show that the motion is unintentional. If the generals were walking over to us, specifically, then we would use an "s", but they just happen to be walking in our direction. The prefix "ta" always uses motion, so the absence or presence of the "s" shows intentionality.)
Acc: You said a bad word to your mother. Thi twis withar thiwi kørthap shekstparth. (shekst-pa-rth bad-N.ACC-TAIL)
Dat: He brought metal to the big city. Lha pritas shallher hirrellh wøtalhep. (hir-re-llh big-N.DAT-TAIL)
Gen: The sight of the cool earth pleases me. Skwesa erthi kyrirth thøfkal hør. (kyr-i-rth cool-GEN-TAIL)
Ins: You guys built the house by means of many bodies. Thii pykjiis køirfik fiiltskirf hawisap. (fiilts-ki-rf PL.many-N.INS-TAIL)
Prep: I am going with my twelve friends to a castle. Hø ksejølî îkssalst kitfriilstas tahastelhas. (îks-sa-lst twelve-PREP-TAIL) (The "s" is added onto "kitfriilstas" to show intention. There is no motion associated with the prefix "kit", so the absence or presence of the "s" shows intentionality.)
Comparative Form Edit
The comparative form is relatively simple. The prefix "er", meaning very, is added. E.g. erkyt=better, erhes=hotter, or erkalsta=colder. They can decline just like regular adjectives.
Adjectives in their comparative form use the dative case to show "than". E.g. I am better than you. Hø søsk thir erkyt. They don't always have a "than" phrase. I gave the colder girl warm water. Hø kepsøs felkawer erkalstarew kasîsep watpes.
Egalitive Form Edit
To denote the phrase "as blank as blank", create a compound adjective with the prefix "kex", meaning "same". Decline the adjective as normal and use the dative case for the object of the phrase. E.g. I am as hot as she. Hø søsk sar kexhes.
In a sentence that contains both accusative and dative, the dative will never refer to the egalitive. E.g. We brought you a just as short tree. Høi pritøis thir krep kexstøtpe. If we wanted to say, a tree just as short as you, we would use a relative clause. E.g. We brought you a tree, that is just as short as you. Høi pritøis thir krep, sy sask thir kexstøt
Superlative Form Edit
There are two types of superlatives in Klestath. Both work for every adjective, but one is usually preferred over another. They both decline normally. The first type is the easiest, for it adds the prefix "sir", meaning a lot or many, to the adjective. E.g. You have the best house! Thi hapsil hawisap sirkytpas! The mountain is the farthest. Ksøq sask sirpelh.
Type II of the superlative is a form of the suffix "st". The six rules can be found below. E.g. You have the best house! Thi hapsil hawisap kystpas! The mountain is the farthest. Ksøq sask pelht.
Type II rules: If the adjective ends in...
- a vowel, then add "st". E.g. cold = kalsta, coldest = kalstast
- an approximant, then add "st". E.g. near = ker, nearest = kerst
- a fricative, then add "t". E.g. happy = lykix, happiest = lykixt
- a "t" preceded by a vowel, then add an "s" before the "t" and after the vowel. E.g. light = løt, lightest = løst
- a stop (not "t") preceded by a vowel, then add "st". E.g. scary = kraslak, scariest = kraslakst
- a stop not preceded by a vowel, then it remains unchanged. E.g. old = ølht, oldest = ølht
Adverbs formed from an adjective are left plain (eg. kyt = well)
Nouns cannot be used to form adverbs. Use a preposition instead.
All nouns form the diminutive through some means of reduplication. There are some other suffixes that could be used, but reduplication is the most used and universal.
If a noun begins with a consonant (or a cluster), then that onset and the vowel get reduplicated.
E.g. Hølt > Høhølt; Witha > Wiwitha
There is no reduplication for verbs, rather a vowel change or two. They change to their opposite (i⟷y, e⟷ø, î⟷a).
If a verb has only one vowel, then just the conjugation gets changed.
|Lhel (Run)||Lhøl (Walk)|
If a verb has two vowels, then the first vowel is changed along with the conjugation.
|Køqel (do)||Keqøl (try)|
If a verb has three or more vowels, then only the penultimate vowel and the conjugation are changed. All others are left alone.
|Kaletfel (Can)||Kaløtføl (Be allowed)|
Sesk verbs are verbs like sesk:
Sesk > to be; Søsk tîreth kytsath > I am a good person
Tesk > to not be/to not; Tøsk tîreth sastasath. Tøsk sîshep hapsel > I am not a weird person. I have no ice
Shithesk > to seem; Sa shithask tîreth shekstsath > She seems like a bad person
Word Order Edit
Standard word order is SVO. Nobility speech doesn't like verbs next to each other, and so will break this rule with modal verbs. In NS, modal verbs push the other verb to the end of the sentence.
E.g. Harry Potter must be the Chosen One with the power to defeat the Dark Lord.
Harry Potter must the Chosen One with the power to defeat the Dark Lord be.
Cases also have a specific order in sentences, but it is only strictly adherred to in the most formal of occasions. The verb is followed in order by the dative, instrumental, prepositional, and accusative. The genetive follows that which it modifies, anywhere in the sentence. Even in common speech, the accusative most always tends to come last. The other cases may float around and swap a bit, but the accusative usually stays put.
E.g. I (nom) bought for the cat (dat) by means of bartering (inst) in a store (prep) the ball (acc) of yarn (gen).
There are no double negatives. In order to negate something, you must add the appropriate element. The most common way to do this is at the word level. You can take a verb, throw it at the end and add tesk in its place.
(1) I have food. Hapsøl ethsap.
(2) I don't have food. Tøsk ethsap hapsel.
When using quantity words such as all, most, some, or none, they follow logic. In the following example, we can see that there is only one way to say these thoughts, meaning that none of the following are equivalent.
(3) I have some food. Hapsøl ethsap sarkepa. (Meaning you only have some. Not all, not none)
(4) I have no food. Hapsøl ethsap ekîxtpa. (Meaning you only have none. Not all, not some)
(5) I don't have some food. Tøsk ethsap sarkepa hapsel. (Meaning you don't have some, but either all or none)
(6) I don't have no food. Tøsk ethsap ekîxtpa hapsel. (Meaning you don't have none, but either some or all)
Examples (6) and (5) are fairly rare and only used in contrasting clauses, e.g. "I didn't grab none/some, but rather the entire box of cookies!" Notice too, how sentences (2) and (4) appear to be equivalent. However, (4) seems to imply that you used to have food, but now you have none, and (2) implies that you don't and may/may not have had food in the past, almost like saying 'not anymore'. Food isn't a good example, but if you're talking about not reading the newspaper or not knowing a language, the distinction is made a bit more clear.
Relative Clauses Edit
To begin and mark a relative clause, use a relative pronoun:
Rules and Exceptions Edit
- All relative clauses begin with their corresponding relative pronoun, except genitives (see e.g. 10).
- The relative clause may directly follow the pronoun it describes (see e.g. 1). They may also come at other parts of the sentence, for the relative pronoun declines for the same person and number as the noun it represents.
- The relative pronoun takes the case that is appropriate in the relative clause, not the case of the noun it represents like the person and number.
- If the relative pronoun is nominative, use standard SVO order. If the the rp is not nominative, then the subject must come next, followed by standard word order: the verb, the dative, the instrumental, and finally the accusative. Genitive fluidly goes where it must.
- I, who went home, ate well. Hø, hy ksejøs taawisas, ethøs kyt.
- We, to whom he gave a plant, were happy. Høi søisk lykix, hyir lha kepsas fextap.
- He, whom I love, is new. Lha sask lith, lhyp hø karskøl.
- They (the boys), who like to run, are running. Lhai lhail, lhyir lhelts thøfkal.
- The book, that I gave you, is not good. Seli task kyt, qyp hø kepsøs thir.
- The castles, that we saw, are very tall! Haistelh, qyip høi skwøis, saisk hixîl er!
- She, who allowed the others to play, is short. Sa, sy kaletfas arathep spilel, sask støt.*******
- They (the girls), who have brown hair, seem weird. Sai, syi hapail qailhap parlypalh, shithaisk sasta.
- You, whom we found behind the tall tower, played there. Thi, thyp høi fîltøis hîlttsyra hixîla, spilis lhal.
- You guys, whose book is right there, are cooking food. Thii, seli thyii sask îrtha, køshiil ethsap.
Stress naturally falls on the first syllable on every word/root except for vowel-final words. Their stress is on the penultimate syllable. páthix, kásîs, taksǿta
Sîshrike employs a dozenal or duodecimal system of counting, meaning that they count up to 12 before going into double digits. As they have six fingers on each hand, this is only natural. Numbers decline the same as adjectives, but curiously, they come before the noun rather than after.
- one = ir
- two = øts
- three = ak
- four = arf
- five = røl
- six = es
- seven = ip
- eight = eq
- nine = øsh
- ten = jalh
- eleven = aw
- twelve = îks
Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 1.
Tîireth ailhsath saisk kitfyrthasa sash kitaiweqli frîithix sash keix fathesh. Hapsail tsathep sash tseithsap, sash sølail taairatha frilstîqhatelasyk hatel.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.