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Saanain

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Saanain is a Uralic language, specifically a Finnic language, with shared vocabulary between it, Finnish, and Estonian. It is spoken by around 1.5 million people in Saanaimaa, a landlocked country, and is notable for its synthetic grammar and extremely flexible sentence structure. 

Saanain
['sɑːnɑjn]
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction First
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders None
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 73%
Statistics
Nouns 88%
Verbs 95%
Adjectives 60%
Syntax 64%
Words 500 of 2000
Creator CaptainPiggles


Classification and DialectsEdit

Saanain is a Uralic language in the Finnic branch of those languages. It is mutually intelligible with Finnish and Estonian in its vocabulary but much less in its syntax and spoken forms.

It is spoken in four main dialects. The first is the Roettul dialect in the northern parts of Saanaimaa. The most spoken is the Saikkul dialect, spoken in the regions surrounding the capital, Saikkul. There are also the Southeastern and Southwestern dialects, each spoken in their respective areas. These dialects differ with the inclusion or deletion of Old Saanain phenomena, as well as the treatment of words and sentence structure. The Roettul dialect, being closer to the country Dora, which speaks the Slavic language Dorian, as well as the Anigarsko language closely related to Dorian, has introduced many Slavic loanwords into its vocabulary, while other dialects remain conservative in their borrowing. It is a fact, however, that all forms of Saanain have borrowed some words from Dorian or other Slavic languages, such as kaytö ("like" or "as", related to Dorian kak and related to Bulgarian kakto; vulla ("power", from Dorian vul'a and related to Bulgarian volya); and siemka (either derived from Proto-Finnic *seeme or Dorian syom'ka, "seed").

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal /m/ /n/ /ŋ/
Plosive /p/, /b/ /t/, /d/ /k/, /g/
Fricative /s/
Affricate
Approximant /ʋ/ /j/
Trill /r/
Flap or tap /ɾ/
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. /l/
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close /i/, /y/ /u/
Near-close
Close-mid /e/, /ø/ /ɤ/, /o/
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open /æ/
Open /ɑ/

PhonotacticsEdit

Writing SystemEdit

Letter a b d e g h i j k l m n
Sound /ɑ/ /b/ /d/, /ɾ/ /e/ /g/ /h/ /i/ /j/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/
Letter o p r s t u v y ä ö ü
Sound /o/ /p/ /r/ /s/ /t/ /u/ /v/ /y/ /æ/ /ø/ /ɤ/
Letter
Sound

GrammarEdit

Nouns Edit

Nouns in Saanain inflect for case, number, and sometimes for their role in the sentence. There are 25 cases in Saanain, with one case, the supercomparative, generally counted as an extension of the comparative case, and the dative case almost never used. Nouns can be either singular or plural. They are inflected for one of the 25 cases.

For example, the noun muonn, roof, can be inflected as follows: muonn (nominative), muonnon(accusative), muonnon (genitive), muossa (elative), muonnalta (delative), muosta (ablative), muonnta (exessive), muonntu (inessive), muonnina (superessive), muolla (adessive), muonna (essive), muomaa (illative), muonnata (sublative), muolle (allative), muoksi (translative), muonnse (prolative), muonn (instructive), muonne- (comitative), muottan (distributive), muonnta (partitive), muotta (abessive), muonnuo (comparative), muonnka (superlative), muonnas (lative), muolloin (temporal, although technically not a correct construction), and the two side cases, muonnuos (supercomparative), muonnod (dative).

In some cases, nouns can be altered to reflect plurality in their stem when bound with a case suffix.

Nouns are also inflected in two numbers, singular and plural. The plural stem is usually (except in the case of the noun case stem) -t.

For example, uuvuo, wind, becomes uuvuot in the plural. However, when nouns end in consonants, the ending is changed so that the vowel before the last consonant in the word (the last vowel) is added to the -t. So, muonn becomes muonnot.

Since sentences usually follow either an SOV or an SVO order, nouns almost always come first. However, due to the highly versatile orders that sentences can take on, any sentence structure is (at least in theory) possible.

There is a small difference between two types of nouns that alters their case endings slightly in the accusative. These nouns become Accusative I nouns or Accusative II nouns according to their ending, respectively. Accusative I nouns make up the vast majority of nouns in sentences; they are formed by the regular accusative case ending -(V)n. Accusative II nouns, however, are used when they are one part of a phrasal object, that is, a phrase used as the object of a transitive verb. The last vowel is retained or -in becomes the accusative particle.

Noun

Accusative I

Accusative II

"kuulti" gold

kuultun

kuultin

"uuvuo" wind

uuvuon

uuvuoin

Accusative I

Audon kuultun. (I give gold.)

give.1SG.PRES gold.ACC1.SG

Accusative II

Audon kuultin riehinit. (I give gold coins).

give.1SG.PRES gold.GEN.SG coin.ACC2.SG.PL

VerbsEdit

Verbs are the most complicated part of Saanain grammar. They are inflected for voice, tense, mood, and connegativity (to four degrees).

The two voices in Saanain are active and passive. Saanain does not have a "common person" inflection like other Finnic languages.

English Pronoun

Person

Active Voice

Passive Voice*

I

än

audon (I give)

audassan (I am given)

you

hän

audot

audassat

he/she/it

es

audo

audassa

we

me

audone

audassane

you (all)

he

audote

audassate

they

ne

audat

audassaat

*Passive voice weak affirmative.</p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0.0001pt;line-height:15.75pt;">Saanain also conjugates for four tenses: present, perfect, imperfect, and pluperfect.</p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">English Pronoun </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Person </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Present </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Perfect </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Imperfect </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Pluperfect </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">I </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">än </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollon (I come) </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">oon tollonu (I have come) </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollin (I was coming) </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">ooin tollonu (I had come) </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">you </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">hän </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollot </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">oot tollonu </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollit </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">ooit tollonu </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">he/she/it </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">es </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollo </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">oo tollonu </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tolli </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">ooi tollonu </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">we </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">me </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollone </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">oone tollonut </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tolline </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">ooine tollonut </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">you (all) </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">he </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollote </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">oote tollonut </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollite </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">ooite tollonut </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">they </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">ne </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollat </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">ooi tollonut </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tolliit </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">ööi tollonut </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin:6pt0in2.4pt;line-height:15.75pt;"> </p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin:6pt0in2.4pt;line-height:15.75pt;"></p>

Moods Edit

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin:4.8pt0in6pt;line-height:15.75pt;">There are several moods that are taken into account when inflecting verbs. These include the conditional, potential, optative, eventive, regrettive, casive, and assurative (or affirmative).</p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">English Pronoun </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Person </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Conditional </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Potential </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Optative </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Eventive </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Regrettive </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Casive </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Assurative </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">I </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">än </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">osan tollon </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollonen </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollosinse </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollallen </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollotestentue </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollopakkasnne </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tolloheskenjoska </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">you </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">hän </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">osat tollot </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollonet </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollositse </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollallet </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollotestettue </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollopakkaste </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollohesketjoska </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">he/she/it </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">es </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">osa tollo </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollone </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollosise </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollalle </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollotestetue </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollopakkasne </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tolloheskejoska </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">we </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">me </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">osane tollone </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollonene </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollosinese </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollallene </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollotestenetue </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollopakkasnene </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tolloheskenejoska </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">you (all) </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">he </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">osate tollone </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollonete </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollositese </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollallete </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollotestetetue </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollopakkastene </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollohesketejoska </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">they </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">ne </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">osai tollat </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tolloneat </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollosiise </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollallei </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollotesteitue </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tollopakkasene </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">tolloheskeijoska </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0.0001pt;line-height:15.75pt;"></p>

Connegativity Edit

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0.0001pt;line-height:15.75pt;">Saanain connegativity uses four degrees of separation, the strong positive, the weak positive, the weak negative, and the strong negative. The strong forms have mostly fallen out of use, merging with the weak forms, but there was traditionally separation between them. The weak positive is the normal form of the verb, while the strong postive implies that the thing (being) done is or was the only thing done. The weak negative is the normal negative form of the verb, while the strong negative implies that the thing (being) done is or was the only thing not being done</p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">English Pronoun </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Person </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Strong Positive </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Weak Positive  </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Weak Negative </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Strong Negative </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">I </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">än </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">audotien </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">audon (I give) </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">en auden </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">en audetien </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">you </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">hän </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">audotiet </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">audot </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">en audet </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">en audetiet </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">he/she/it </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">es </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">audotie </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">audo </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">en aude </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">en audetie </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">we </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">me </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">audotiene </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">audone </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">en audene </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">en audetiene </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">you (all) </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">he </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">audotiete </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">audote </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">en audete </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">en audetiete </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">they </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">ne </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">audotiat </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">audat </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">en audeat </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">en audetiat </p>

<p style="margin:0in0in0.0001pt;line-height:15.75pt;"></p>

Telicity Edit

<p style="margin:0in0in0.0001pt;line-height:15.75pt;">Verbs do not have an aspect form, but they do have telicity. Like Finnish, Saanain uses a system wherein the object of a transitive verb is inflected with the accusative case ending for telic verbs and the distributive case ending for atelic verbs (though it is hard to tell how the latter originated).</p>

 Edit

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">Telic </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">Atelic </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">Sentence </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">perrui perrommon </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">perrui perrommottan </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">paint.3SG.IMP painting.ACC </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">paint.3SG.IMP painting.DIST </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">Meaning </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">(he/she/it) painted a painting (completely) </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">(he/she/it) painted a painting (and did not finish) </p>

<p style="margin:4.8pt0in6pt;line-height:15.75pt;"> </p>

Imperative and Interrogative Edit

<p style="margin:12pt0in;line-height:15.75pt;">There are two more forms for verbs, the imperative and interrogative. </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">English Person </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">Pronoun </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">Imperative Present </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">Imperative Perfect </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">you </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">hän </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">toll(come!) </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">ollot toll(have come!) </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">you (all) </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">he </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollot </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">ollote tollot </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">you* </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">hän </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollono </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">ollot tollono </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">you (all)* </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">he </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollonot </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">ollot tollonot </p>

<p style="margin:4.8pt0in6pt;line-height:15.75pt;">* The second imperative is frequently used in place of the first. </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">English Pronoun </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">Person </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">Present Interrogative </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">Imperfect Interrogative </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">Perfect Interrogative </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">I </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">än </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokon (Am I coming?) </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokoin (Was I coming?) </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokeenossan (Have I come?) </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">you </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">hän </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokot </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokoit </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokeenossat </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">he/she/it </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">es </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tolloko </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokoi </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokeenossa </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">we </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">me </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokonen </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokoinen </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokeenossanen </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">you (all) </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">he </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokote </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokoite </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokeenossate </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">they </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">ne  </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokone </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokoine </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokeenossane </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">I am not </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">än en </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tolloken (Am I not coming?) </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokein (Was I not coming?) </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokeenessen (Have I not come?) </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">you are not </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">hän en </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tolloket </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokeit </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokeenesset </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">he/she/it is not </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">es en </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tolloke </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokei </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokeenesse </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">we are not </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">me en (men) </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokenen </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokeinen </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokeenessenen </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">you (all) are not </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">he en (hen) </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokete </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokeite </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokeenessete </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">they are not </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">ne en (nen) </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tolloken </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokeine </p>

<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;line-height:15.75pt">tollokeenessene </p>

<p style="margin:4.8pt0in6pt;line-height:15.75pt;"> </p>

Passive Voice Edit

The passive voice is divided into two degrees or "strengths" based on the function of the passive verb in the sentence.

Weak Form Edit

<p style="margin:12pt0in;line-height:15.75pt;">Verbs in the passive voice are always weak. </p>

English Pronoun Person Present Imperfect Potential Conditional Imperative Present Imperative Perfect
I än audossan (I am given) audoissan (I was given) audoleenessan (I might be given) osan audosiin (I would be given) -- --
you hän audossat audoissat audoleenessat osat audosiin audotattoon (be given!) ollot audotakoon (have been given!)
he/she/it es audossa audoissa audoleenessa osa audosiin -- --
we me audossane audoissane audoleenessane osane audosiine -- --
you (all) he audossate audoissate audoleenessate osate audosiine audotattone ollote audotakoone
they ne audossaat audoissaat audoleenessaat osai audosiine -- --
I am not än en audossen (I am not given) audeissan (I was not given) audoleenessen (I might not be given) osen audosien (I would not be given) -- --
you are not hän en audosset audeissat audoleenesset oset audosien audoteikoon (be not given!) ollet audotakeen (have been not given!)
he/she/it is not es en audosse audeissa audoleenesse ose audosien -- --
we are not me en (men) audossene audeissane audoleenessene osene audosiene -- --
you (all) are not he en (hen) audossete audeissate audoleenessete osete audosiene audoteikoone ollete audotakeene
the are not ne en (nen) audoesset audeissaat audoleenesseet osei audosiene -- --

Strong Passive Edit

Strong passive verbs are infinitives and gerunds only.

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Bare Infinitives </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Imperfect Infinitives </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-top:12.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;line-height:15.75pt">Perfect Infinitives </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: 15.75pt">audova </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:15.75pt">audovain </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:15.75pt">audovanat </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:15.75pt">audovan </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:15.75pt">audoivain </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:15.75pt">audoivanat </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:15.75pt">audovana </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:15.75pt">audovanin </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:15.75pt">audovanit </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:15.75pt">audomiviene </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:15.75pt">audomivienein </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:15.75pt">audomivienet </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:15.75pt">audomuvienesani </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:15.75pt">audomuvienesaniin </p>

<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:15.75pt">audomuvienesaniit </p>

<p style="margin:0in0in0.0001pt;line-height:15.75pt;">*Infinitives are discussed more in the Infinitives section below. </p>

Infinitives Edit

<p style="margin:0in0in0.0001pt;line-height:15.75pt;">Infinitives are the final form of verbs. They come in five types, the Type I, Type II, Type III, Type IV, and Type V infinitives.</p> <p style="margin:0in0in0.0001pt;line-height:15.75pt;">Type I infinitives are the same as the English formation "to -". The ending for Type I infinitives is -a. </p> <p style="margin:0in0in0.0001pt;line-height:15.75pt;">tollo- "come" > tolloa "to come"</p> <p style="margin:0in0in0.0001pt;line-height:15.75pt;">Type II infinitives translate to "while -ing". Their ending is -nu.</p> <p style="margin:0in0in0.0001pt;line-height:15.75pt;">audo- "give" > audonu "while giving"</p> <p style="margin:0in0in0.0001pt;line-height:15.75pt;">Type III infinitives are the same as English gerunds. Their ending is -ana, with the last consonant of the stem deleted.</p> <p style="margin:0in0in0.0001pt;line-height:15.75pt;">manhaatse- "control" > manhaatsana "controlling"</p> <p style="margin:0in0in0.0001pt;line-height:15.75pt;">Type IV infinitives are the same as Type III infinitives but are used between different verbs or when combining to verbs. Their ending is -minen.</p> <p style="margin:0in0in0.0001pt;line-height:15.75pt;">suu- "eat" > suuminen "eating"</p> <p style="margin:0in0in0.0001pt;line-height:15.75pt;">Type V infinitives translate to "going to -" or "about to -". Their ending is -munnesani.</p> <p style="margin:0in0in0.0001pt;line-height:15.75pt;">kyvo- "come" > kyvomunnesani "about to come"</p>

Verbal Subjects Edit

Saanain, being a pro-drop language, uses a system of using verbs and their conjugation as subjects of sentences. This system creates the verbal subject.

A verb is always conjugated for person, so any verb can carry a pronoun in its conjugation, without a pronoun or otherwise.

The pronoun is italicized; the conjugation which carries the same meaning is in bold; the verbal subject is underlined.
Case I Es kuultun audo
Case II Kuultun audo

In case I, the pronoun es is used (unnecessarily) to convey the meaning of he/she/it, so that the sentence translates to he/she/it gives gold. However, in case II, it can be inferred by the conjugation that the giver is he/she/it. This compound forms the verbal subject.

The verbal subject is used as a placeholder for a pronoun and a verb, and using it enables Saanain to form its various sentence orders. There is little difference, however, between the verbal subject and a regular verb. As a rule of thumb, any conjugated verb in a sentence that has undergone pro-drop is a verbal subject.

SyntaxEdit

Saanain is usually described as having an SOV or SVO sentence order, but due to its highly flexible morphology, it can take on any sentence order or syntax. This is furthered by its pro-drop characteristics, which (as discussed above) can create verbal subjects.

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

Article I of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Edit

"Kokko misekihat seytssan vataan ja pahdan pöhdisyätä ja ongeten. Ne südene ja ontuunuune audassan ja toumosiatse etkuutu vialmmoherdetu."

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