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Saksies

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OverviewEdit

Saksies is a Germanic conlang closely related to the modern Germanic languages, Dutch, German, Afrikaans, Luxembourgish and has a lot in common with the English language as well.

Saksies has a fair amount of French loanwords.

GrammarEdit

The Saksies grammar is relatively simple compared with German or Dutch and resembles more the modern English or Afrikaans grammar.


PhonologyEdit

The Saksies vowel system consists of 12 vowel sounds: 8 simple vowels a, e, è, ë, i, ie, o, u; 4 diphthongs: au, ei, éi and y. The vowels a, e, o and u can be either long or short.'

The Saksies consonant inventory consists of 20 sounds of which [x] has no graphem of its own but is marked by ch or g and [ʦ] can be written either as z or tz (z is used after consonants, tz after vowels, the sound occurs usually only word-finally).

S is pronounced [z] word-initially and between vowels. Word-finally, b, d and g are pronounced [p], [t] and [x].


VowelsEdit

Letter Sound Example Corresponding Sound in Other Germanic Languages
A a [ɑ] mann De. /a/ Mann – Nd. /a/ man – En. /æ/ man

a/aa

[a:] maan

De. /a:/ fahrt – Nd. /a:/ maan – En. /u:/ moon

Au au [æʊ] haus De. /aʊ/ Haus – Nd. /ɶʏ/ huis – En. /aʊ/ house
E e [ɛ] welch De. /ɛ/ welch(e) – Nd. /ɛ/ welk – En. /ɪ/ which
e/ee [e:] leen De. /e:/ lehn – Nd. /e:/ leen – En. /i:/ lean
[ə] lepel De. /ə/ Löffel – Nd. /ə/ lepel – En. /ə/ apple
Ë ë [ə] wëll De. /ɪ/ Will – Nd. /ɪ/ wil – En. /ɪ/ will
È è [æ] fèder De. /ɛ/ Väter – Nd. /ɛ/ vet – En. /ɛ/ feather
Ei ei [æɪ] wein De. /aɪ/ wein – Nd. /ɛɪ/ wyn – En. /ʌɪ/ wine
Éi éi [ei] éir De. /oʏ/ euer - Nd. /ju/ ju(llie) - En. /jʉ:/ you
I i [ɪ] fillen De. /ʏ/ füllen – Nd. /ʏ/ vullen – En. /ɪ/ fill
Ie ie [i] sien De. /i:/ viel – Nd. /i:/ sien – En. /i:/ see
O o [o] kommen De. /o/ kommen – Nd. /o/ kom – En. /ʌ/ come
o/oo [o:] rood De. /o:/ root – Nd. /o:/ rood – En. /u:/ toon
U u [ʊ] nuss De. /u/ Nuß – Nd. /ʊ/ boek – En. /ʌ/ nut
u/uu [ʉ:~y:] ku De. /u:/ Kuh – Nd. /y:/ ku – En. /ʌʊ/ cow
Y y [aɪ] ny De. /oʏ/ neu – Nd. /iu/ nieuw – En. /jʉ:/ new

ConsonantsEdit

Letter Sound Example Corresponding Sounds in Other Germanic Languages
b [b]* baken De. /b/ baken – Nd. /b/ baken – En. /b/ bake
ch [ʃ] ech De. /ç/ ich – Nd. /k/ ik – En. /-/ I after front vowels
[x] dachte De. /x/ dachte – Nd. /x/ dachte – En. /-/ thought after back vowels
d [d]* dinn De. /d/ dünn – Nd. /d/ dun – En. /θ/ thin
f [f] fallen De. /f/ fallen – Nd. /f/ fallen – En. /f/ fall
g [g]* ginn De. /g/ geben – Nd. /χ/ geven – En. /g/ give
h [h] hunn De. /h/ haben – Nd. /h/ heven – En. /h/ have
j [j] joor De. /j/ Jahr – Nd. /j/ jaar – En. /j/ year
k [k] kaud De. /k/ kalt – Nd. /k/ koud – En. /k/ cold
l [l] laud De. /l/ laut – Nd. /l/ luid – En. /l/ loud
m [m] meer De. /m/ mehr – Nd. /m/ meer – En. /m/ more
n [n] naam De. /n/ Name – Nd. /n/ naam – En. /n/ name
p [p] pill De. /p/ Pille – Nd. /p/ pil – En. /p/ pill
r [r] rest De. /ʀ/ Rest – Nd. /r/ rest – En. /ɹ/ rest
s [s] sinn De. /s/ vest – Nd. /s/ vest – En. /s/ vest
[z] seven De. /z/ sieben – Nd. /s/ seven – En. /s/ seven
sch [ʃ] scheinen De. /ʃ/ scheinen – Nd. /ʃ/ schijnen – En. /ʃ/ shine
t [t] toll De. /ʦ/ Zoll – Nd. /t/ tol – En. /t/ toll
v [f] gaven De. /b/ gaben – Nd. /f/ gaven – En. /v/ gave
w [ʋ] wasser De. /ʋ/ Wasser – Nd. /ʋ/ water – En. /w/ water
z [ʦ] schwarz De. /ʦ/ schwarz – Nd. /t/ swart – En. /t/ net
  • The presented pronunciation of ch and z/tz is the standard, dialectal variation is great. Often they are simplified to [ʃ] and [t].
  • R [r] is often realised as the uvular trill [ʀ].
  • French words are mostly spelt and pronounced as in French. Nevertheless, they are usually declined as indigenous words:

Ech gonn changéiren de billeten. (I go change the tickets.) [ɛʃ gon: ʃãnʒeirən də bije:ən]

NounsEdit

There are no genders in Saksies. The indefinite article is e /ə/ (emphatic form: een /e:n/ and the definite article is de /də/ (emphatic form: die /di:/).

When the proceeding word begins with a vowel an -n is inserted at the end of the article e > en /ən/, de > den /dən/. This may be ignored in colloquial usage.

Plural is formed by adding the suffix -(e)n /(ə)n/.


e man de man mannen de mannen man short vowel
e maan de maan manen de manen moon long final vowel

e frau

de frau frauen de frauen woman ends in a long vowel
e kopie de kopie kopie(ë)n de kopie(ë)n copy ends in -ie
e lepel de lepel lepeln de lepeln spoon ends in -/ə/C
e bute de bute buten de buten hill ends in -/ə/
en aap den aap apen den apen ape begins with a vowel


Irregular Plurals

Singular Plural Translation
brudder bridder brother
buch bicher book
dag deen day
fader fèder father
fuss fissen foot
kënd kënder child
mudder midder mother
suster sister sister


ArticlesEdit

Articles were historically inflected. The genitive lives on in some names and fixed expression but less so in everyday language e.g. champion der wereld 'world champion'.

Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nom een de eene de een de de
Gen eenes des eener der eenes des

der


DiminutiveEdit

The diminutives are formed by adding the suffix -lien.

mannlien 'the little man'

susterlien 'beloved sister, little sister'

hundlien 'the little dog, puppy'

dei handlienen 'your little hands'

Adjectives & AdverbsEdit

There is a number of real adverbs, any adjective in indefinite form can be used as an adverb. Adjectives have two forms: indefinite and definite.

Indefinite After indefinite particles and articles

E jong mann A young man

Geen jong man No young man

Predicative Use

De mann is jong. The man is young.

De mannen sinn jong. The men are young.

Definite After definite particles and articles

De jonge man The young man

Die jonge man That/The young man

Always before a plural noun

Jonge mannen Young men

De jonge mannen The young men

Substantive Use De jonge was daar. The young (one) was there.


Derived AdjectivesEdit

Heemesche Suffiksen

Suffix Example Translation
-baar ferwend/baar usable
-eg zefall/eg occasional
-en gaud/en golden
-ereg schlëck/ereg muddy
-erlei feif/erlei five kinds of
-esch kom/esch strange
-fach feif/fach five-fold(ed)
-frei fett/frei fatfree
-haft mangel/haft lacking
-lech lacher/lech ridiculous
-loos kënder/loos childless
-masseg regel/masseg regular
-saam lang/saam slow


Fremde Suffiksen

Suffix Example Translation
-able [a:blə] accept/able acceptable
-alesch musiek/alesch musical
-ant [ã:(t)] toler/ant tolerant
-aire [æ:r] revolution/aire revolutionary
-sque [sk] grote/sque grotesque
-istique [istik] caractér/istique characteristic
-ive [iv] product/ive prudictive
-eux[ø(z)] muscul/eux muscular
-uel [el:] intellect/uel intellectual

Degrees of ComparisionEdit

Degree Indefinite Definite Translation
Positive jong de jonge young
Comparative jonger de jongere younger
Superlative jongst de jongste youngst


Note the spelling!

Heet > heter > (de) heetst(e) hot, hotter (the) hottest

Flakk > flakker > (de) flakst(e) flat, flatter, (the) flattest


Note!

The adjective gudd is declined irregularly:

gudd > besser > best

NumbersEdit

Cardinal numbers
1 een 1st eerst 11 elf 11th elfste
2 twee 2nd tweede 12 twelf 12th twelfste
3 drie 3rd derde 13 dertien 13th dertiente
4 fier 4th fierte 14 fiertien 14th fiertiente
5 feif 5th feifte 15 feiftien 15th feiftiente
6 seks 6th sekste 16 sekstien 16th sekstiente
7 seven 7th sevente 17 seventien 17th seventiente
8 acht 8th achte 18 achtien 18th achtiente
9 nyn 9th nynte 19 nyntien 19th nyntiente
10 tien 10th tiente 20 twënteg 20th twëntegste
30 derteg 30th dertegste 31 eenenderteg 31st eenendertegste
40 fierteg 40th fiertegste 42 tweeënfierteg 42th tweeënfiertegste
50 feifteg 50th feiftegste 53 drieënfyfteg 53th drieënfyftegste
60 seksteg 60th sekstegste 64 fierenseksteg 64th fierensekstegste
70 seventeg 70th seventegste 75 feifenseventeg 75th feifenseventegste
80 achteg 80th achtegste 86 seksenachteg 86th seksenachtegste
90 nynteg 90th nyntegste 99 nynennynteg 99th nynennyntegste
100 honnerd 100th honnerdste 101 honnerd een 101st honnerd eerst

PronounsEdit

Personal PronounsEdit

Person Subject Direct Object Indirect Object Poss.

Indep.

Sg 1st ech mech mer mei/n meine
Sg 2nd du dech der dei/n deine
Sg 3rd masc hien hien hiem sei/n seine
Sg 3rd neut et et et sei/n seine
Sg 3rd fem sie sie haar haar hare
Pl 1st méi(r) ons ons ons onse
Pl 2nd ier éich éir ier iere
Pl 3rd hin hin hin hinnen

The forms mein, dein and sein are used when the proceeding word begins with a vowel e.g. mein auto.

InterrogativesEdit

Nom Wer Who
ObjDir Wen Whom
ObjInd Wem To whom
Poss Wessen Whose
Obj Wat What
Obj2 Wat for e(n) What kind of
ObjDis Welch/e Which
Time Wenn When
Place Weer Where
Manner Wie How
Reason Wéi Why

Wer bëstu? Who are you?

Wen so du in de Staad? Whom did you see in the city?

Wem gaaf du de bicher? To whom did you give the books?

Wessen velo is dies? Whose bicycle is this?

Wat is dei naam? What is your name?

Wat for e haus wëllen ier kopen? What kind of a house do you want to buy?

Welche teidskriften lees du? Which magazines do you read?

Wenn komm du weer bei ons? When will you come and visit us again?

Weer sinn ier? Where are you?

Wie aud bëstu? How old are you?

Wéi bëstu net gekommen? Why didn't you come?


Words Derived from Proto-Germanic *se/þe, *hwa and *he

*Se/*Þe *Hwa *He
Nominative m de wer hien
n de wat et
f/pl sie, die, de

Dative

m/n wem hiem
f haar
pl hinnen

Genitive

m/n des wessen
f/pl der
Demonstrative dies, -e
Adverbial/Nominal so, dus weil
Relative solch, -e welch, -e elch, -e
Dual weder
Locative deer weer hier
Instrumental wie, wéi
Temporal/Conjunctive denn wenn

VerbsEdit

Infinite Verb FormsEdit
Inifinitive

Present Participle

Past Participle Translation
bellen bellend gebellt to ring
bekommen bekommend bekommt to get (pref.)
dragen dragend gedraagt to drag
jagen jagend gejaagt to hunt
aus/denken ausdenkend ausgedenkt to figure out (mpre.)
werken werkend gewerkt to work
hunn warend gesinn to be (irr.)
ginn gevend geginn to give (irr.)
gonn goënd gegonn to go (irr.)
konnen konnend gekonnen can (irr.)
sinn warend gesinn to be (irr.)

pref. = prefixed verb, doesn't get ge- prefix in Past Participle

mpre. = moving prefix, note the position of prefix -ge- irr. = irregular or strong verb


The Infinitive ends in -en (except for a few irregular verbs in -[n]n). It may be used as a substantive e.g. Werken is hard. 'It's hard to work.'

The Present Participle' is derived from the infinitive stem with the suffix -end. It is usually used as an adjective and declined accordingly e.g. Ech so e jagend wolf. 'I saw a hunting wolf. The Past Participle' is used to form perfect and pluperfect tenses and as an adjective e.g. Ech hunn de hele dag gewerkt. 'I have worked all day long.', De gejaagte dier. 'The hunted animal.


Finite Verb FormsEdit

The first one is the singular form e.g. ech bell 'I ring' and the second one is used for plural méi bellen 'we ring'.

Inifinitive

Present Tense

Past Tense Translation
bellen bell/en bellte/n to ring
bekommen bekomm/en bekamm/en (irr.) to get (pref.)
dragen draag / dragen draagte/n to drag
jagen jaag /jagen jaagte/n to hunt
aus/denken denk/en aus denkte/n aus to figure out (mpre.)
werken werk/en werkte/n to work
hunn irr. see below hatte/n to be (irr.)
ginn irr. see below gaaf / gaven to give (irr.)
gonn irr. see below ging/en to go (irr.)
konnen kann / konnen konnte/n can (irr.)
sinn irr. see below waar / waren to be (irr.)

In brief, the present tense for regular verbs in singular is formed by removing the infinitive ending -en. The plural form is identical with the infinitive. E.g. Ech/Du/Hien werk but: méi/ier/hin werken.

Spelling is adjusted in order to keep the long vowels long and the short ones short e.g. dragen [dra:gən] 'to drag/to carry': Ech draag [dra:x], méi dragen [dra:gən].

Endings -s (Singular 2nd person) and -t (singular 3rd person) may occur in dialects (ech werk, du werks, hien werkt, méi/ier/hin werken).

To form the regular past tense, the suffix -te (or -ten in plural) is added to the present tense singular form e.g. Ech werkte/draagte 'I worked/carried', Méi werkten/draagten 'We worked/carried' .


Only 4 verbs have personal inflection apart from singular/plural distinction in Present Tense:

sinn to be hunn to have ginn to give gonn to go
Ech bën hunn ginn gonn
Du bës (bëstu?) hees (hestu?) gees (gestu?) gaas (gastu?)
Hien/Sie/Et is heet geet gaat
Méi/Ier/Hin sinn hunn ginn gonn
Strong VerbsEdit

Strong verbs have 3 main groups:

I ei-ie-ie Group: beissen - biessen - gebiessen to bite

II ie-o-o Group: fliegen - floog - geflogen 'to fly'

III ë-a-u Group: begënnen - begann/en - begunnen 'to begin'

IV The 4th Group includes 16 irregular verbs that do not fall into any of the preceding groups e.g. mogen (maag/mogen) - mochte/n - gemogen 'to like'


Group I Verbs:


Most of the verbs with -ei-. Group II Verbs:

biegen to bend bieden to offer ferlieren to lose fliegen to fly flieën to flee fliessen to flow geniessen to enjoy giessen to pour

riechen to smell schiefen to shove schiessen to shoot schliessen to close sieën to see spriesen to sprout

Group II Verbs:

begënnen to begin bërsten to burst bënden to bind drënken to drink ferschwënden to disappear fënden to find gelëngen to succeed

gewënnen to win klëngen to sound rëngen to ring rënnen to run schwëmmen to swim sëngen to sing sënken to sink sprëngen to jump

Group IV Verbs:

Infinitive Past Past Participle Translation
1. ginn gaaf/gaven geginn to give
2. gonn gang/en gegonn to go
3. hunn hatte/n gehunn to have
4. sinn waar/waren gesinn to be
5. bitten batt/en gebetten to ask
6. essen ass/en gegessen to eat
7. fangen fangte/n (fing/en) gefangen to catch
8. fallen fallte/n (fell/en) gefallen to fall
9. fergessen fergass/en fergessen to forget
10. liegen laag/lagen gelegen to lie
11. sissen sass/en gesessen to sit
12. werden word/en geworden to become
13. durfen see below gedurfen to be allowed
14. konnen see below gekonnen can
15. mogen see below gemogen to like
16. staan stand/en gestanden to stand
Modal VerbsEdit
Infitinive Present Past Subjunctive Translation
durfen darf/durfen durfte/n dirfte/n to be permitted, may
konnen kann/konnen konnte/n kënnte/n can, to be able to
mogen maag/mogen mochte/n mëchte/n to like, would like
mussen muss/en musste/n misste/n must, to have to
wëllen wëll/en wëllte/n wëllte/n to want to
sollen soll/en sollte/n sollte/n shall, should

Also gonn 'to go, going to' and bleiven 'to stay, to keep' can be treated as modal verbs.

NegativeEdit

The negation net (also: na, niet) is used with verbs e.g. Ech wëll net kommen. I don't want to come.

PrepositionsEdit

Preposition Space Time Other
an near, close to, by
aus out of, from material
aussen outside
ausser besides, except
bei by
bës until, up to (end point)
door through
for before, in front of ago, before for
hinder behind
in in year, month
innen inside, within
mët with
na close to, near
nach after according to
neven beside, next to
om around
onder under, amongst, below, beneath
op on, upon, at, at public places e.g. op schule hour, day, date reason
over over, across, above topic
sonder without
statt instead of
tegen against approx. time
tissen between
trotz in spite of, despite
van of (possessive)
ze to (destination)
warend during
wegen because of


Word OriginsEdit

Indigenous Germanic Words: ech, werken, denken, hand, kopp...

Loanwords from French: velo, merci, trois-pièce, ménage, parfum, flânéiren, amuséiren...

Loanwords from German:

Loanwords from English: schéiven, schéiken, méilen...

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