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Samsprak (work in progress)

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IntroductionEdit

Welcome to my Conlang wikia!  I haven't come up with a real name for it yet, so Samsprak will be the placeholder name. Samsprak means language.

Suggestions: Herkonoivti (Language of the people)

Conlang GoalEdit

This language is going to be entirely personal. I might use it for some future project which involves world building, just to broaden my linguistic and geographic creativity a little bit. It will primarily be about how the language would be used in speech, although I might come up with a writing system later. For now, its natural orthography will be the Latin script. Since I really like applying as much grammar as I can, the language could turn out to be a bit too complex. Perhaps I’ll recreate it later as a simpler version.
Note: I should keep changing it until it’s perfect. I shouldn’t be stuck with a language I don’t like.

Grammar StuffEdit

- Adjectives
Types: action/from noun or verb: -dé, color: -jé, person: -ké, quality/opinion: -ré, size: -vé, state: -né, other: -té, time: -sé
Forms: comparative: mer-, superlative: mös-, exceedance: pre-, negative comparative: min- negative superlative: mis-, neg exceedance: pes-
Adjectives in their nominative form always end in -é, unless paired with an animated gender noun.

- Cases
The case markers will replace the vowels in the end of a word. 
Long vowels cannot be replaced. However, with adjectives, the í moves to the back of the word.
If the word has a definite article, the ending vowels will stay and the case marker will come behind the -n.

- Genders (4): 
masculine animate -i, feminine animate -a, ambiguous animate -o, neuter -e
Genders mostly matter in adjectives, pronouns and verbs, but not so much in nouns. In fact, in verbs it’s required to state a gender, although -o is frequently used in ambiguity. 
You will also come across gender vowels in pronouns, titles, and other things that have to do with people or other living beings.
Nouns almost always end in vowels, but the vowel often isn’t a correct representation of the gender. However, animate gendered nouns do always end in their respective vowel.

- Other (infixes and suffixes)
Augmentative infix -ulk - mæni (man) > mænulki (big man)
Diminutive infix -iat - mæni (man) > mæniati (boy)
Plural suffix -j (always goes before the definite suffix) Collective infix (5+) -ih -
Definite suffix animate -n inanimate -t
Person (title) suffix -lo (affected by gender) - Juvkajar (to sell) / Juvkajlo (salesperson)
Place (of purpose) suffix -pa - Juvkajpa (store)
Place (you can put something in) suffix -va - Juvkajva (cash register)
Abstract noun suffix -eika - Jaherkné (Lonely) Jaherkeika (loneliness)

- Parts of speech modifiers
Note that these serve as common guidelines and not as strict rules.
Adjectives can be formed from nouns by removing the ending vowels of the noun. Note that there can't be any duplicate ending consonants in adjectives.
Adjectives can also be formed from verbs by removing the infinitive -r and the preceding vowel.
Adverbs can be formed from adjectives by replacing the already existing long vowel with a . Nouns can be formed from verbs by removing the -r. This doesn't always make sense, but generally, it works.
Verbs can be formed from nouns by adding the -r with a preceding vowel. This vowel is often the same as the vowel used before the infinitive marker. Just like making nouns out of verbs, this doesn't always make sense either.

- Pronouns
Pronouns are also affected by cases, exactly in the same way as nouns are. The only irregular thing is the 3rd person singular, which ends in a long vowel that cannot be replaced or removed.

- Tenses (6): 
past simple, present simple, present perfect, present continuous, future simple, future perfect 

- Verbal nouns
You can take the infinitive of a verb, add an n, and then repeat the last vowel to form nounified verb.
vesar > vesarna, nomor > nomorno, hölder > hölderne, etc

- Vowel 'harmony?':
There are two groups of vowels you aren't likely to see together. Although this only applies to the root of a word. Two words, each containing another group of vowels, can be stuck together to make a new word, thus making the seeming harmony obsolete.
There is one exception here, the vowel "i". This one commonly appears in group 1, but can also often appear in group 2.
Group 1: a o u
Group 2: æ ö y e

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Alveolar

Post-Alveolar

Dental Dorsal Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive voiceless p t k
Plosive voiced b d
Fricative voiceless s θ (þ) x (h)
Fricative voiced v z ð ɦ (h)
Approximant  l j
Trill r


VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i
Mid ø (ö) e  o̞ o
Open æ a


PronounsEdit

Pronouns are also affected by cases, exactly in the same way as nouns are. The only irregularity is the 3rd person singular which ends in a long vowel that cannot be replaced or removed.
Just like verbs, pronouns heavily depend on gender.
masculine animate -i, feminine animate -a, ambiguous animate -o, neuter -e
The reflexive pronoun is only used if something can be not be expressed by means of the reflexive verb infix -es. This pronoun does not depend on gender outside of the nominative.

I momo
you (sg.) soso
he/she/it 
we hoho/hóho
you (pl.) toto/tóto
they jojo/jójo
self (refl.) sælvo


Noun CasesEdit

The case markers will be placed in the end of the word. It will in most cases replace the vowels in the end of a word. 
Long vowels can in no case be replaced and will always stay where they are.
If the word has a definite article, the ending vowels will stay and the case marker will come behind the -n.
When the word is originally in plural, an extra vowel + j will be added to the case marker.

Nominative -
Mæni je kvira/Mænij je kviraj (A man and a woman/Men and women)
Mænin je kviran/Mænijn je kvirajn (The man and the woman/The men and the women)

Accusative -ut / -uit
Mæni juvamotí talut/Mænij juvamotij taluit (A man buys a house/Men buy houses)
Mænin juvamotí talotut/Mænijn juvamotij talotuit (The man buys the house/The men buy the houses)

Dative
- (to/for) -eþ / -eiþ
Mæni juvamotí talut kvireþ/Mænij juvamotij taluit kvireiþ (A man buys a house for a woman/Men buy houses for women)
Mænin juvamotí talotut kviraneþ/Mænijn juvamotij talotuit kviraneiþ (The man buys the house for the woman/The men buy the houses for the women)

- (from) -oþ / -oiþ
Kvira motá talut mænoþ/Kviraj motaj taluit mænoiþ (A woman gets a house from a man/Women get houses from men)
Kviran motá talotut mæninoþ/Kvirajn motaj talotuit mæninoiþ (The woman gets the house from the man/The women get the houses from the men)

Genitive
-possessive, alienable ('s) -s / -si
Kviras talov/Kvirajs taloiv (A woman's house/Houses of women)
Kvirans talotov/Kvirajns talotoiv (The house of the woman/The houses of the women)
Kvira mistá talov/Kviraj mistaj taloiv (A woman has a house/Women have houses)
Kviran mistá talotov/Kvirajn mistaj talotoiv (The woman has the house/The women have the houses)

-passive possessive, inalienable (of) -son / -soin
Note: inalienable objects include body parts, family, and really good friends.
Kviras herkiatson/Kvirajs herkiatsoin (A woman's child/Children of women)
Kvirans herkiatonson/Kvirajns herkiatojnsoin (The child of the woman/The children of the women)
Kvira mistá herkiatson/Kviraj mistaj herkiatsoin (A woman has a child/Women have children)
Kviran mistá herkiatonson/Kvirajn mistaj herkiatojnsoin (The woman has the child/The women have the children)

-relative, partitive, passive possessive (of) -ov / -oiv
Kapi vrisihov/Kapij vrisihoiv (A glass of water/glasses of water)
Kapit vrisihatov /Kapijt vrisihajtoiv (The glass of water/The glasses of water)
Vrisklulka nönesmerov/Vrisklulkaj nönesmeroiv (A sea of the north/Seas of the north)
Vrisklulkat nönesmertov/Vrisklulkajt nönesmertoiv (The sea of the north/The seas of the north)
Note: Don't worry, you can also just say "nönesmervrisklulka"

Locative
-inessive (in) -as / -ais
Bauvas/Bauvais (In a building/In buildings)
Bauvatas/Bauvatais (In the building/In the buildings)

Also used for:
-Telling time. At 1 PM / On Thursday / In July / in 2010 /

-superessive (on) -am / -aim
Bauvam/Bauvaim (On a building/On buildings)
Bauvatam/Bauvataim (On the building/On the buildings)

Also used for:
-Telling direct time. Today / Tonight

-adessive (at/by) -av / -aiv
Bauvav/Bauvaiv (At/by a building/At/by buildings)
Bauvatav/Bauvataiv (At/by the building/At/by the buildings

-intrative (between) -al / -ail
Bauval/bauvail (Between a building/Between buildings)
Bauvatal/Bauvatail (Between the building/Between the buildings)

-suressive (above) -an / -ain
Bauvan/Bauvain (Above a building/Above buildings)
Bauvatan/Bauvatain (Above the building/Above the buildings)

-subessive (under) -ap / -aip
Bauvap/Bauvaip (Under a building/Under buildings)
Bauvatap/Bauvataip (Under the building/Under the buildings)

-elative (from inside) -es / -eis
Bauves/Bauveis (From inside a building/From inside buildings)
Bauvates/Bauvateis (From inside the building/From inside the buildings)

-illative (into) -en / -ein
Bauven/Bauvein (Into a building/Into buildings)
Bauvaten/Bauvatein (In the building/Into the buildings)

-ablative (from outside) -el / -eil
Bauvel/Bauveil (From outside a building/From outside buildings)
Bauvatel/Bauvateil (From outside the building/From outside the buildings)

-allative (towards) -et / -eit
Bauvel/Bauveil (Towards a building/Towards buildings)
Bauvatel/Bauvateil (Towards the building/Towards the buildings)

-perlative (through) -er / -eir
Bauver/Bauveir (Through a building/Through buildings)
Bauvater/Bauvateir (Through the building/Through the buildings)

Instrumental 
-instructive & comitative (with/by) -um / -uim
Mæni hailí kvirum/Mænij hailij kviruim (A man walks with a woman/Men walk with women)
Mænin hailí kviranum/Mænijn hailij kviranuim (The man walks with the woman/The men walk with the women)

-privitative (without) -uh / -uih
Mæni hailí kviruh/Mænij hailij kviruih (A man walks without a woman/Men walk without women)
Mænin hailí kviranuh/Mænijn hailij kviranuih (The man walks without the woman/The men walk without the women)

Vocative
-ro/ra/ri/re / -roi/rai/rii/rei

VerbsEdit

Verb conjugation

Notes:

- In speech, the long 3rd person sg. vowel tends to be dropped when gender specification is unnecessary.
- The 3rd person sg. vowel is always long.
- All the o’s you see in the table represent gender and can be changed accordingly.
masculine animate -i, feminine animate -a, ambiguous animate -o, neuter -e
- Imperative has more options than in most languages, similar to Turkish. For example, the 3rd person imperative can be used by instructing anyone to deliver the message to the 3rd person.
- Impersonal verbs can easily be formed by using the 3rd person sg. Remember to use the intransitive infix if there’s no object.


Vesar (To Be)
Indicative

Present Past Future
1st pers. sg. vesom vesomin vesuom
2nd pers. sg. vesos vesosin vesuos
3rd pers. sg. vesó vesóni vesuó
1st pers. pl. vesoh(o) vesohin(o) vesuoh(o)
2nd pers. pl. vesot(o) vesotin(o) vesuot(o)
3rd pers. pl. vesoj(o) vesojin(o) vesuoj(o)
Impersonal ves vesin vesu
Passive vesyn vesynin vesuyn


Kajar (To Give)
Imperative

Present
1st pers. sg. kajmo ...!
2nd pers. sg. kajso ...!
3rd pers. sg. kajó ...!
1st pers. pl. kajho/ó ...!
2nd pers. pl. kajto/ó ...!
3rd pers. pl. kajjo/ó ...!


Additions
(vesomin, vesosin, etc.: -in/-ni suffix denotes past tense)
(vesuom, vesuos, etc.: -u infix denotes future tense)
(vesoho, vesoto, vesojo: extra end vowel indicates clusivity / long vowel in the imperative mood)
(vesojar - vesojom, vesojos, etc.: -oj infix indicates intransitivity)
(vesesar - vesesom, vesesos, etc.: -es infix indicates reflexiveness)
(vesarvo? - vesomvo?, vesosvo?, etc.: -v+(vowel) suffix indicates a question)
(vesarar - vesarom, vesaros, etc.: verb infinitive + personal form indicates frequentative behavior)

Verb Prefixes (all optional, only used in appropriate circumstances)
The prefixes are listed in groups of priority. 

juvesar (-ju indicates positivism / exclaims the action )
navesar (-na negates the verb completely)

pravesar (-pra is a tensile prefix, it denotes that an action has been or will be completed)
nöjvesar (-nöj is a tensile prefix, it denotes that an action is still going on)

jylvesar (-jyl is a conditional prefix, equivalent of if)
kylvesar (-kyl is a conditional prefix, equivalent of could)
sylvesar (-syl is a conditional prefix, equivalent of should)
vylvesar (-vyl is a conditional prefix, equivalent of would)

revesar (-re indicates intent)
jevesar (-je negates intent)

kuvesar (-ku indicates evidentiality, you experience it yourself)
muvesar (-mu indicates evidentiality, a third party informs you)

And so, "junöjvylrekuvesojesohovo?" roughly translates to
Do I know that you all would definitely intend to be living your life?

Verb TensesEdit

Tenses in grammar indicate whether an action takes place in the past, present, or future. They also tell whether an action is still ongoing or has been / will be completed. Aspects can also take care of this.
This language covers the tenses and aspects in a similar way as English does.

Past Simple
The man ate the fruit - Mænin nomíni voratut

Present Perfect
The man finished eating the fruit - Mænin pranomíni voratut

Present Simple
The man eats fruit - Mænin nomí vorut

Present Continuous
The man is eating the fruit - Mænin nöjnomí voratut

Future Simple
The man will eat the fruit - Mænin nomuí voratut

Future Perfect
The man will finish eating the fruit - Mænin pranomuí voratut


VocabularyEdit

AdjectivesEdit

alone/isolated - jaherklé
big - ulkavé
black - mörjé
cold - vrisré
constructed - höldé
dark - möré
different/other - anaté
early - vröksé
eastern - anasmerté
far - lonkré
floating - ðrivdé
frozen - vrisdé
good - kyré
icy - vrisné
late - sensé
light/bright - pilté
lonely - jaherkné
long - lonkvé loud - lydré
low - lavé
northern - nönesmerté
red - surdjé
small - iatavé
southern - hindasmerté
strong - styré
together - samlé
twirling/swirling - snördé
western - jertesmerté
white - piljé
yellow - jurjé

AdverbsEdit

a bit - smo
a lot/many/much - mej
about - um
away - burd
full (of) - plöf
here - hera
how - jurd
least - mis
less - min
like/as if/such as - ens
maybe - mesk
more - mer
most - mös
now - kronam
royal - könté
some (thing) - klika
that - dita
that (elsewhere) - ditra
then - derte
there - dera
this - disa
too - pre
very - möik
what - hav

ConjunctionsEdit

that (indicative) - da that (subjunctive) - kad

Countries, Languages, PeopleEdit

The Czech Republic (country) - Tsjekotöre
Czech (language) - tsjekoti
Czech (person) - tsjeksko
Finland (country) - Suometöre
Finnish (language) - suometi
Finnish (person) - suomesko
Denmark (country) - Tantöre
Danish (language) - Tanti
Danish (person) - Tansko
The Netherlands (country) - Lavitöre
Dutch (language) - lavitörti
Dutch (person) - lavitörsko
England (country) - Anklotöre
English (language) - ankloti
English (person) - anklosko
Iceland (country) - Ösletöre
Icelandic (language) - ösleti
Icelandic (person) - öslesko
France (country) - Normatöre
French (language) - normati
French (person) - normasko
Norway (country) - Norþetöre
Norwegian (language) - norþeti
Norwegian (person) - norþesko
Russia (country) - Rosetöre
Russian (language) - roseti
Russian (people) - rosesko
Sweden (country) - Sviþjötöre
Swedish (language) - sviþjöti
Swedish (person) - sviþjösko

Days of the WeekEdit

Monday - Unstaðak
Tuesday -
Wednesday -
Thursday -
Friday -
Saturday -
Sunday - Ansaðak

MonthsEdit

January -
February -
March -
April -
May -
June -
July -
August -
September -
October -
November -
December -

NounsEdit

air - löfte
accountant - juvlo
activity - korda
agreement - skivo
alcohol - kolo
all / everything - ukaj
arm - höldhara
baby - bibo
back - hindledi
barista - kavlo
bed - spönkpa
bird - börbo
body - tulo
body of water - vriskliha
boy - mæniati/herkiati
branch - hara
building - bauva
butt - hinda
cafe - kavpa
cash register - juvkajva
child - herkiato
coffee - kava
cold - vriseika
conlang - höldsprak
cow - bövo
cup - kavva
day - ðak
direction (absolute) - smer
direction (relative) - ledi
disagreement - naskivo
distance - lonkreika
drinking container - kapi
difference - anateika
door - döre
drink - varsi
driver - tæyklo
ear - höre
east - ansmer
effort - arvida
everyone - ukaj herkoj / uherkoj
extension - ruþa
eye - öje
father - bibli
fear - straha
feather - börbkuri
feeling - sinta
finger - höldruþa
flower - bluma
food - nomo
foot - haila
footprint - hailtryka
friend - vöndo
front - nönledi
gift - kaja
girl - kviriata/herkiata
group - skyp
half - jælv
hand - hölde
heart - jerte
help - jælp
hill - vuriate
horse - verdo
horse-rider - verdlo
house - talo
human - herko
island - ösle
king - könli
kingdom - köntöre
land - töre
language - samsprak
late - senðak
leader - vozlo
leaf - kuri
left - jertledi
leg - hailhara
length - lonkveika
life - ves
light - pila
limb - tulhara
linguistics - samsprakveteika
loneliness - jaherkeika
man - mæni
message - nota
messenger - notlo
money/currency - juva
moon - unsta
morning - vrökðak
mother - bibla
mountain - vure
mouth - mudi
night - nuto
north - nönsmer
nose - nöne
parent - biblo
pig - vörko
pigeon - dövo
plate - nomva
prince - köniatlo
princess - köniatla
print - tryka
problem - onkelma
quart(er) - kvært
queen - könla
restaurant - nompa
right - anledi
royalty - könlo
salesperson - juvkajlo
sea - vrisklulka
search - kulka
school - maska
science - veteika
sheep - savo
show - sjov
sleep - spönke
snake - ese
snow - sny
solution - kolva
song - lekte
sound - lyde
south - hindsmer
speaker (language) - samspraklo
store - juvkajpa
storm - löftkiltulk
strenth - styrke
student - maskeslo
sun - ansa
teacher - masklo
thing/unit - uka
time - krono
today - ðakam
toe - hailruþa
tone - tona
tonight - nutam
vehicle - tæyk
voice - mudlyde
water - vrisiha
west - jertsmer
wind - löftkilt
woman - kvira
word - spraka

NumbersEdit

one - ja
two - ty
three - tro
four - ve
five - pe
six - sje
seven - sjo
eight - tej
nine - nje
ten - taj
eleven - jataj
twelve - tytaj
thirteen - trotaj
twenty - tyj
thirty - troj
forty - vej
hundred - tajih
twohundred - tyjih
threehundred - trojih
thousand - tajik

first - jaþ
second - tyþ
third - troþ
etc...

once - janav
twice - tynyv
thrice - tronov
etc...

PrepositionsEdit

for - var
to (dative) - eþet
in - asat
on - amat
at/by - avat
between - alat
above - anat
under - apat
from (inside) - eset
into - enet
from - elet
through - eret
towards - etet
with - umut
without - uhut

VerbsEdit

allow - saliar
be/exist - vesar
be able to - ömter
be correct - reiter
be ready - kloror
blow (wind) - löftkilter
buy - juvmotar
care - bibor
cause/induce - orskar
close - slyter
contain - kapir
continue - pökratar
do - kordar
drink - varsir
eat - nomor
extend - ruþar
fear - strahar
feel - sintar
float - ðrivar
follow - följer
follow after - hindföljer
follow before - nönföljer
freeze - vrisar
give - kajar
go - kanar
greet - kveder
have - mistar
hear - hörer
help - jælpar
know - vetar
learn - maskesar
lie (down) - lijælter
like/enjoy - klæjer
live (somewhere) - talor
lead - vozar
love - lubur
love (romantic) - amar
make an effort - arvidar
make/build - hölder
message - notar
open - ypner
rain - vriser
receive - motar
release - slæpar
say - sprakar
search - kuklar
see - öjer
seem - virar
shine/glow - löjer
sit - sijælter
sleep - spönker
sell - juvkajar
smell - nöner
solve - kolvar
stand - stöjælter
stop - jælter
talk/speak - samsprakar
teach - maskar
thank - takar
try - probar
twirl/rotate - snörer
understand - skivor
vote - mudlyder
walk - hailar
wear - mistar amat

OtherEdit

and - je
but - mur
maybe - mesk
no - njær
oh - aj
so - sja
well - ju
yes - jup

(clause seperator) - kja

SentencesEdit

Good morning - Kyruté vrökðakut
Good day - Kyruté ðakut
Good afternoon - Kyruté senðakut
Good evening - Kyruté vröknutut
Good night - Kyruté nutut
Good night (sleep) - Kyruté spönkut

Hello - Kvedom (soseþ/toteþ) / Vesso/Vesto kvederin / Kveder! / Kved!
Farewell - Naöjuesoho
See you (later)! - Öjuesoho (mersensú)! / Öju!

How are you? - Jurd sintojos/sintojot?
How is it going? - Jurd kanojé?
What is going on/happening? - Hav kanojé? / Hav nöjkanojé?
I am fine - Sintojom kyrutú

I don't speak English very well. - Nasamsprakom kyrutú anklotut.

Do you understand me? - Nöjskivosvo momeþ?
I don't understand you - Nanöjskivom sosut/totut

Thank you - Takom (soseþ/toteþ) / Tak!

No problem - Arviduh / Arviduih / Navesé onkelmut

How do you say "hello" in Samsprak? - Jurd sprakar "hello" samsprakas?

I see with my eyes. I hear with my ears. I smell with my nose. I feel with my hands. I speak and eat with my mouth. - Öjom momuim öjuim. Hörom momuim höruim. Nönom momum nönum. Sintom momuim hölduim. Samsprakom je nomom momum mudum.

My hovercraft is full of eels - Moms ðrivtæyk misté plöfuit vrisklulkajessuit

Nutam vuretam snyt piltú nöjlöjé
On this night on the mountain, the snow brightly glows
Hailtrykaj navesojé
Footprints aren't (there)
Ves jaherklé köntöre
It's an isolated kingdom
Viroj ens kronam vesam könlan
Seems like now I am the queen
Mamas löftkilt ens snördé löftkiltulk
In me (wind) blows like a swirling storm
Nakylkapojam, mur probamin
I couldn't contain (it), but I tried
Nasalma kan mamen, nasalma öjoj
Don't allow it to go into me, don't allow them to see
Vesma krytá kviriata ens sylvesam
Be a good girl like I should be
Kapojma, nasintojma
Contain, don't feel
Nasalma vetaj jéut
Don't allow them to know it
Ju, kronam vetojaj
Well, now them know
Slæpma jéut, slæpma jéut
Release it, release it
Naömtam kapesir kronam
I'm unable to contain myself now
Slæpma jéut, slæpma jéut
Release it, release it
Snöresma burdel je slytma dörtut
Turn yourself away (from) and slam the door
Nabibam haveþ prasprakuoj
I don't care about what they will say
Salma löftkiltulkunut pökraté
Allow the storm to continue
Nanöjbibam vriseikeþ
I never cared about the cold
Smo longreika ömté ukaj virej ens iatavé
A bit of distance is able to cause everything to appear small
Strahajn da janav -

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