Sangi/Accents and Dialects

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Just like English and any other language with enough speakers, Sangi has different accents and dialects. The accents arose at some point before the planet was colonised and a few dialectal differences had also arisen on the ships. These differences became more noticable after about 5 generations or so, which is the time period covered in this article.


Final consonant classificationEdit

The two main features which occur in the final consonant classifications are the treatment of voiced consonants and nasals in which some accents may devoice voiced consonants or allow them to exist with some limiting all final nasals to a single nasal, usually "n" or "m" or even remove all final nasals and nasalising the final vowel. Overall these features have combined to form a set of "stop final" glosses that deviate from the norm. Primarily there are three final stop classes based on the treatment of voiced consonants which are further subdivided based on the treatment of the nasals.

Class Voiced consonants Nasals
Class I >+i >N
Class Ia >+i >m
Class Ib >+i >n
Class Ic >+i >Nasalisation
Class II >voiced >N
Class IIa >voiced >m
Class IIb >voiced >n
Class IIc >voiced >Nasalisation
Class III >voicless >N
Class IIIa >voicless >m
Class IIIb >voicless >n
Class IIIc >voicless >Nasalisation

There exist further subclasses of these based on the treatment of final vowels and other final consonants. The subclass representation is written in subscript or in italics after a full stop.

Final sound Treatment Subclass
-t >-t t
-' t1
-_ t2
-a -a a
-a -o a1
-i -i i
-i -e i1
-c -c c
-c -h c1
-p -p p
-p -h p1

The more diverse an accent the more subclass treatments it will have, but, as with the norm classes, the norm subclass representations are not written. For example, the standard is written as being as Class I, while one of the most diverse final classifications would be IIIc.t2.a1.i1.c1.p1 which would turn final "t" into a glottal stop, "a" into "o", "i" into "e" and both "c" and "p" into "h" while allowing devoicing and nasalisation. Generally, any accent that does not allow devoiced will allow p1 or c1 in through the conservation of a full set of final sounds, but this is not a uniform rule and it does occur rarely.

A good example for the main classes is "mendi" (men) which in Class I is "mendi", "mend" in Class II and "ment" in Class III with subclasses of Class I which form "mende".

Medial classificationsEdit

There have been observed many more differences word medially than finally in the various Sangi accents, usually concerning the effect on a consonant or vowel by another consonant or vowel or just a difference in pronunciation. Must vowel differences in vowel come from difference in vowel length or the pronunciation of diphthongs, sometimes merging entire systems and reducing the inventory of sounds significantly. Most consonant differences usually concern the dental and retroflex sounds which some affections of velars as well, but these are rare.

Medial consonant[s] Treatment Class
-t- -t- t
-t- -d- t1
-t- -'- t2
-th- -th- th
-th- -t- th1
-dh- -dh- dh
-dh- -d- dh1
-z- -z- z
-z- -ts- z1
-t.- -t.- t.
-t.- -tr- t.1
-t.- -tj- t.2
-d.- -d.- d.
-d.- -dr- d.1
-d.- -dj- d.2
-r.- -r.- r.
-r.- -rr- r.1
-r.- -rj- r.2
-l.- -l.- l.
-l.- -lr- l.1
-l.- -lj- l.2
-s.- -s.- s.
-s.- -sr- s.1
-s.- -sj- s.2
-s.- -sh- s.3
-z.- -z.- z.
-z.- -zr- z.1
-z.- -zj- z.2
-z.- -zh- z.3
-n.- -n.- n.1
-n.- -nj- n.1
-ci/e- -ci/e- c1
-ci/e- -chi/e- c2
-gi/e- -gi/e- g
-gi/e- -gxi/e- g1
-gi/e- -ji/e- g2
-Vg- -Vg- Vg
-Vg- -Vj- Vg1
-Vg- -VV- Vg1
Medial vowel[s] Treatment Class
Long Vowel >Long Vowel l
Long Vowel >Short vowel l1
ai oi ai
ai oi ai1
ai ei ai2
ai i: ai3
ai e: ai4
ai a: ai5
oi oi oi
oi ai oi1
oi i: oi2
ei ei ei
ei ai ei1
ei i: ei2
ei e: ei3
au au au
au ou au1
ou ou ou
ou au ou1
ou u: ou2

Some accents can technically be both subclasses 1, 2 or more through multiple shifts in diphthong switching based on the following vowel. For example, in some accents "ai" becomes "oi" when followed by an "a", "ei" when followed by an "i" and "a:" when followed by an "o" or "a:" and "ai" when followed by other vowels. These shifts are usually accent specific and have to be explained individually. The overall effect of these processes is an overlapping of diphthongs in some accents and dialects with those in the the standard.

Some non-standard forms even go as far as changing all VN forms in a nasalised vowel with a deletion of the nasal consonant, much like in French.

Initial classificationsEdit

There are only a handful of initial differences. With the vowels, they are the same as the medial ones (which I have not written, also occur word finally). The consonants hold even smaller differences with only a small number; th>t, dh>d and the same treatments of retroflexes as medially occur and "g" becoming "gx" or "j" before "i" or "e".

There are subclasses with fewer, or even no, instances of initial consonant mutation, with some uses merging into another mutation and losing it or losing even the uses altogether.

Overall sound changesEdit

There are, as for the vowel treatments in the medial section which are also seen in final and initial environments, other instances of vowel treatments which occur in all positions in the word. For example, some accents do not have the front round vowels, y and o: changing them to say "iu" and "eu" or "ju" and "jo" respectively, removing fron round vowels altogether while some collapse certain diphthings into these vowels.

Vowel Treatment Class
y y y
y iu y1
y ju y2
y iw y3
o: o: o:
o: eu o:1
o: jo o:2
o: ew o:3
o: eo o:4
Vr Vr Vr
Vr VV Vr1
u: u: u
u: u u1
u u u
u u^ u1

Labeling an accentEdit

When labeling an accent the obvious question is in which order do you place the 3 classifications given above. It is considered standard practice to either write "i", "m" and "f" before which classification type that number represents, e.g. "iI-mI-fI" would be the standard accent, or a simple "initial-medial-final" order is assumed, for example "I-I-IIb" for an almost normal accent with voiced final voiced consonants and nasal finals which merge into "n". Generally though, unless one abbreviation has two meanings, e.g. the "t" subclasses, then the 3 position system is simply not used and instead each accent is written by their final sound class followed by the other features in abbreviation and italics as shown below.


All of the variations on the sentence "a crab bit the man" are given below.

1. "pöhar hrabi manon" - Class I

2. "pöhar hrabi manom" - Class Ia

3. "pöhar hrabi manon" - Class Ib

4. "pöhar hrabi mano~" - Class Ic

5. "pöhar hrabe manon" - Class I.i1

6. "pöhar hrabe manom" - Class Ia.i1

7. "pöhar hrabe manon" - Class Ib.i1

8. "pöhar hrabe mano~" - Class Ic.i1

9. "pöhar hrab manon" - Class II

10. "pöhar hrab manom" - Class IIa

11. "pöhar hrab manon" - Class IIb

12. "pöhar hrab mano~" - Class IIc

13. "pöhar hrap manon" - Class III

14. "pöhar hrap manom" - Class IIIa

15. "pöhar hrap manon" - Class IIIb

16. "pöhar hrap mano~" - Class IIIc

17. "pähar hrabi manon" - Class I.I1

18. "pähar hrabi manom" - Class Ia.I1

19. "pähar hrabi manon" - Class Ib.I1

20. "pähar hrabi mano~" - Class Ic.I1

21. "pähar hrabe manon" - Class I.i1.I1

22. "pähar hrabe manom" - Class Ia.i1.I1

23. "pähar hrabe manon" - Class Ib.i1.I1

24. "pähar hrabe mano~" - Class Ic.i1.I1

25. "pähar hrab manon" - Class II.I1

26. "pähar hrab manom" - Class IIa.I1

27. "pähar hrab manon" - Class IIb.I1

28. "pähar hrab mano~" - Class IIc.I1

29. "pähar hrap manon" - Class III.I1

30. "pähar hrap manom" - Class IIIa.I1

31. "pähar hrap manon" - Class IIIb.I1

32. "pähar hrap mano~" - Class IIIc.I1

33. "peuhar hrabi manon" - Class I.o:1

34. "peuhar hrabi manom" - Class Ia.o:1

35. "peuhar hrabi manon" - Class Ib.o:1

36. "peuhar hrabi mano~" - Class Ic.o:1

37. "peuhar hrabe manon" - Class I.i1.o:1

38. "peuhar hrabe manom" - Class Ia.i1.o:1

39. "peuhar hrabe manon" - Class Ib.i1.o:1

40. "peuhar hrabe mano~" - Class Ic.i1.o:1

41. "peuhar hrab manon" - Class II.o:1

42. "peuhar hrab manom" - Class IIa.o:1

43. "peuhar hrab manon" - Class IIb.o:1

44. "peuhar hrab mano~" - Class IIc.o:1

45. "peuhar hrap manon" - Class III.o:1

46. "peuhar hrap manom" - Class IIIa.o:1

47. "peuhar hrap manon" - Class IIIb.o:1

48. "peuhar hrap mano~" - Class IIIc.o:1

49. "pjohar hrabi manon" - Class I.o:2

50. "pjohar hrabi manom" - Class Ia.o:2

51. "pjohar hrabi manon" - Class Ib.o:2

52. "pjohar hrabi mano~" - Class Ic.o:2

53. "pjohar hrabe manon" - Class I.i1.o:2

54. "pjohar hrabe manom" - Class Ia.i1.o:2

55. "pjohar hrabe manon" - Class Ib.i1.o:2

56. "pjohar hrabe mano~" - Class Ic.i1.o:2

57. "pjohar hrab manon" - Class II.o:2

58. "pjohar hrab manom" - Class IIa.o:2

59. "pjohar hrab manon" - Class IIb.o:2

60. "pjohar hrab mano~" - Class IIc.o:2

61. "pjohar hrap manon" - Class III.o:2

62. "pjohar hrap manom" - Class IIIa.o:2

63. "pjohar hrap manon" - Class IIIb.o:2

64. "pjohar hrap mano~" - Class IIIc.o:2

65. "pewhar hrabi manon" - Class I.o:3

66. "pewhar hrabi manom" - Class Ia.o:3

67. "pewhar hrabi manon" - Class Ib.o:3

68. "pewhar hrabi mano~" - Class Ic.o:3

69. "pewhar hrabe manon" - Class I.i1.o:3

70. "pewhar hrabe manom" - Class Ia.i1.o:3

71. "pewhar hrabe manon" - Class Ib.i1.o:3

72. "pewhar hrabe mano~" - Class Ic.i1.o:3

73. "pewhar hrab manon" - Class II.o:3

74. "pewhar hrab manom" - Class IIa.o:3

75. "pewhar hrab manon" - Class IIb.o:3

76. "pewhar hrab mano~" - Class IIc.o:3

77. "pewhar hrap manon" - Class III.o:3

78. "pewhar hrap manom" - Class IIIa.o:3

79. "pewhar hrap manon" - Class IIIb.o:3

80. "pewhar hrap mano~" - Class IIIc.o:3

81. "peohar hrabi manon" - Class I.o:4

82. "peohar hrabi manom" - Class Ia.o:4

83. "peohar hrabi manon" - Class Ib.o:4

84. "peohar hrabi mano~" - Class Ic.o:4

85. "peohar hrabe manon" - Class I.i1.o:4

86. "peohar hrabe manom" - Class Ia.i1.o:4

87. "peohar hrabe manon" - Class Ib.i1.o:4

88. "peohar hrabe mano~" - Class Ic.i1.o:4

99. "peohar hrab manon" - Class II.o:4

90. "peohar hrab manom" - Class IIa.o:4

91. "peohar hrab manon" - Class IIb.o:4

92. "peohar hrab mano~" - Class IIc.o:4

93. "peohar hrap manon" - Class III.o:4

94. "peohar hrap manom" - Class IIIa.o:4

95. "peohar hrap manon" - Class IIIb.o:4

96. "peohar hrap mano~" - Class IIIc.o:4

97. "pöhâ hrabi manon" - Class I.Vr1

98. "pöhâ hrabi manom" - Class Ia.Vr1

99. "pöhâ hrabi manon" - Class Ib.Vr1

100. "pöhâ hrabi mano~" - Class Ic.Vr1

101. "pöhâ hrabe manon" - Class I.i1.Vr1

102. "pöhâ hrabe manom" - Class Ia.i1.Vr1

103. "pöhâ hrabe manon" - Class Ib.i1.Vr1

104. "pöhâ hrabe mano~" - Class Ic.i1.Vr1

105. "pöhâ hrab manon" - Class II.Vr1

106. "pöhâ hrab manom" - Class IIa.Vr1

107. "pöhâ hrab manon" - Class IIb.Vr1

108. "pöhâ hrab mano~" - Class IIc.Vr1

109. "pöhâ hrap manon" - Class III.Vr1

110. "pöhâ hrap manom" - Class IIIa.Vr1

111. "pöhâ hrap manon" - Class IIIb.Vr1

112. "pöhâ hrap mano~" - Class IIIc.Vr1

113. "pähâ hrabi manon" - Class I.I1.Vr1

114. "pähâ hrabi manom" - Class Ia.I1.Vr1

115. "pähâ hrabi manon" - Class Ib.I1.Vr1

116. "pähâ hrabi mano~" - Class Ic.I1.Vr1

117. "pähâ hrabe manon" - Class I.i1.I1.Vr1

118. "pähâ hrabe manom" - Class Ia.i1.I1.Vr1

119. "pähâ hrabe manon" - Class Ib.i1.I1.Vr1

120. "pähar hrabe mano~" - Class Ic.i1.I1.Vr1

121. "pähâ hrab manon" - Class II.I1.Vr1

122. "pähâ hrab manom" - Class IIa.I1.Vr1

123. "pähâ hrab manon" - Class IIb.I1.Vr1

124. "pähâ hrab mano~" - Class IIc.I1.Vr1

125. "pähâ hrap manon" - Class III.I1.Vr1

126. "pähâ hrap manom" - Class IIIa.I1.Vr1

127. "pähâ hrap manon" - Class IIIb.I1.Vr1

128. "pähâ hrap mano~" - Class IIIc.I1.Vr1

129. "peuhâ hrabi manon" - Class I.o:1.Vr1

130. "peuhâ hrabi manom" - Class Ia.o:1.Vr1

131. "peuhâ hrabi manon" - Class Ib.o:1.Vr1

132. "peuhâ hrabi mano~" - Class Ic.o:1.Vr1

133. "peuhâ hrabe manon" - Class I.i1.o:1.Vr1

134. "peuhâ hrabe manom" - Class Ia.i1.o:1.Vr1

135. "peuhâ hrabe manon" - Class Ib.i1.o:1.Vr1

136. "peuhâ hrabe mano~" - Class Ic.i1.o:1.Vr1

137. "peuhâ hrab manon" - Class II.o:1.Vr1

138. "peuhâ hrab manom" - Class IIa.o:1.Vr1

139. "peuhâ hrab manon" - Class IIb.o:1.Vr1

140. "peuhâ hrab mano~" - Class IIc.o:1.Vr1

141. "peuhâ hrap manon" - Class III.o:1.Vr1

142. "peuhâ hrap manom" - Class IIIa.o:1.Vr1

143. "peuhâ hrap manon" - Class IIIb.o:1.Vr1

144. "peuhâ hrap mano~" - Class IIIc.o:1.Vr1

145. "pjohâ hrabi manon" - Class I.o:2.Vr1

146. "pjohâ hrabi manom" - Class Ia.o:2.Vr1

147. "pjohâ hrabi manon" - Class Ib.o:2.Vr1

148. "pjohâ hrabi mano~" - Class Ic.o:2.Vr1

149. "pjohâ hrabe manon" - Class I.i1.o:2.Vr1

150. "pjohâ hrabe manom" - Class Ia.i1.o:2.Vr1

151. "pjohâ hrabe manon" - Class Ib.i1.o:2.Vr1

152. "pjohâ hrabe mano~" - Class Ic.i1.o:2.Vr1

153. "pjohâ hrab manon" - Class II.o:2.Vr1

154. "pjohâ hrab manom" - Class IIa.o:2.Vr1

155. "pjohâ hrab manon" - Class IIb.o:2.Vr1

156. "pjohâ hrab mano~" - Class IIc.o:2.Vr1

157. "pjohâ hrap manon" - Class III.o:2.Vr1

158. "pjohâ hrap manom" - Class IIIa.o:2.Vr1

159. "pjohâ hrap manon" - Class IIIb.o:2.Vr1

160. "pjohâ hrap mano~" - Class IIIc.o:2.Vr1

161. "pew(h)â hrabi manon" - Class I.o:3.Vr1

162. "pew(h)â hrabi manom" - Class Ia.o:3.Vr1

163. "pew(h)â hrabi manon" - Class Ib.o:3.Vr1

164. "pew(h)â hrabi mano~" - Class Ic.o:3.Vr1

165. "pew(h)â hrabe manon" - Class I.i1.o:3.Vr1

166. "pew(h)â hrabe manom" - Class Ia.i1.o:3.Vr1

167. "pew(h)â hrabe manon" - Class Ib.i1.o:3.Vr1

168. "pew(h)â hrabe mano~" - Class Ic.i1.o:3.Vr1

169. "pew(h)â hrab manon" - Class II.o:3.Vr1

170. "pew(h)â hrab manom" - Class IIa.o:3.Vr1

171. "pew(h)â hrab manon" - Class IIb.o:3.Vr1

172. "pew(h)â hrab mano~" - Class IIc.o:3.Vr1

173. "pew(h)â hrap manon" - Class III.o:3.Vr1

174. "pew(h)â hrap manom" - Class IIIa.o:3.Vr1

175. "pew(h)â hrap manon" - Class IIIb.o:3.Vr1

176. "pew(h)â hrap mano~" - Class IIIc.o:3.Vr1

177. "peohâ hrabi manon" - Class I.o:4.Vr1

178. "peohâ hrabi manom" - Class Ia.o:4.Vr1

179. "peohâ hrabi manon" - Class Ib.o:4.Vr1

180. "peohâ hrabi mano~" - Class Ic.o:4.Vr1

181. "peohâ hrabe manon" - Class I.i1.o:4.Vr1

182. "peohâ hrabe manom" - Class Ia.i1.o:4.Vr1

183. "peohâ hrabe manon" - Class Ib.i1.o:4.Vr1

184. "peohâ hrabe mano~" - Class Ic.i1.o:4.Vr1

185. "peohâ hrab manon" - Class II.o:4.Vr1

186. "peohâ hrab manom" - Class IIa.o:4.Vr1

187. "peohâ hrab manon" - Class IIb.o:4.Vr1

188. "peohâ hrab mano~" - Class IIc.o:4.Vr1

189. "peohâ hrap manon" - Class III.o:4.Vr1

190. "peohâ hrap manom" - Class IIIa.o:4.Vr1

191. "peohâ hrap manon" - Class IIIb.o:4.Vr1

192. "peohâ hrap mano~" - Class IIIc.o:4.Vr1

As you can see, there are 192 accent variations on this utterance alone (although the Class Ib and Class I forms are identiacl in these cases). Overall there are a larger number of accents but, as in many areas on Earth, some accents are very localised and can differ from one settlement to another. However, even though there are 192 varying forms in this example, many of them can be seen to be very similar in pronunciation, e.g. peohâ hrap mano~ vs pähar hrabi manom. These two examples clearly show great similarity overall but with small changes in pronunication occuring.

With this in mind, most people's accent features will be written in the standard form and usually understood to be one word or another which is then read in the accent, as happens in many places nowadays, but there are also non-standard orthograoes based on the standard which depict the sounds of that accent.


One dialectal feature is the formation of causative verbs. Normally this done through use of the causative suffixes, but some dialects, while using this, will also shift a final alveolar consonant to a retroflex one. This process occurs as a result of sound change laws involving a final syllabic "n" and analogy with words like "lessen" where the "-en" suffix represents a causative formation.


Main article: Sã Language

Sã is a daughter language spoken on the ships that brought the people to Omentis. With the drop in population the entire reamining population of the fleet moved onto the Sangi ship and learnt Sangi, passing it on to the next generation as the sole first language of the people. Over time, the language developed along similar lines to Greek, Armenian and Basque, i.e. as a single language along a single path. Sã in turn developed into another language, Sa:, which in turn continued to develop into further daughter languages as the ship travelled across the universe at no faster than one eighth the speed of light. To put this into perspective, the journey from the Sun to the nearest start is about 4 light years. This journey would, therefore, would take about 4 years at the speed of light but would take 32 years, an entire generation, at the speed of the ship and to cross the 100,000 light years of the Milky Way it would take close to a million years.

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