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Sapirini

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General informationEdit

Sapirini has an object-subject-verb word order. Nouns decline according to case and number. Verbs conjugate according to tense, aspect, mood, person, gender, and clusivity. Modifiers precede the head. Sapirini is a pro-drop language.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar

Nasal

m n
Plosive p t kʰ g
Fricative f v s z ʃ
Affricate

[dʒ]

Approximant b d ɹ j w
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i u
Near-close
Close-mid e o
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open ä
Dipthongs

ai

oi

AlphabetEdit

Letters IPA Pronunciation
a ä ä
e e e
i i i
o o o
u u u
à ai ai
ò oi oi
m m
p p
f f
v v
n n
t t
s s
z z
r ɹ ɹä
l l
x ʃ ʃä
j [dʒ] [dʒ]ä
y j
k kʰä
g g
w w

q wo

Sapirian has pitch accent. It falls normally on the penultimate syllable. When it does not, it is marked on the vowels with the acute accent: á, é, í, ó, ú and it is marked on the diphthongs by a circumflex: â, ô.

PhonotacticsEdit

Syllable shape is (C)(C)V(C)(C)

"V" is any vowel, dipthong, or the letters /r/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /y/, or /w//

/r/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /y/, and /w/ act as vowels when preceded by the letter /q/.

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns decline by number and case. Number marking follows case marking.

NumberEdit

Nouns have three numbers: singular, dual, and plural. The letter /e/ is used if the noun ends in a consonant.

Number Suffix Example Translation
Singular tatl table
Dual -(e)v tatlv two tables
Plural -(e)n tatln tables

CaseEdit

Nouns are marked by the dative, lative,locative, superessive, inessive, apudessive, genitive, and instrumental cases.

Case Suffix Description Example Translation
dative -uk indicates the indirect object

manuk

to the man
lative -ok marks motion to a location i.e. "to" stolok to the store
locative -ak marks location e.g. "at", "in" etc. stolak at the store
superessive -nok indicates location on top of or on the surface of something i.e. "on" tatlnok on the table
inessive -nik indicates location inside of something i.e. "in" ladnik in the box
apudessive -nak indicates location next to something tatlnak next to the table
genitive -te indicates possession mante the man's
instrumental -ye indicates that the noun is an instrument by which the subject achieves something hutulye with the hammer

.

VerbsEdit

Verbs conjugate according to person, number, tense, aspect, mood, clusivity, and number. Sapirini is a pro-drop language.

Present TenseEdit

Number
Person Singular Dual Plural
1 -di Inclusive -div -din
Exclusive -dive -dine
2 -dò -dòv -dòn
3 Masculine -du -dev -den
Feminine -da
Neuter -de
Inanimate -do -dov -don

Example sentences:

Nakoldi.( I walk.)

Nakoldu. (He walks.)

Past TenseEdit

The past tense suffixes are the same as the present tense suffixes, but the letter /d/ in each suffix changes to the letter /g/.

Example Sentences:

Nakolgi. (I walked.)

Nakolgu. (He walked.)

Future TenseEdit

The future tense does the same thing as the past, but the /d/ changes to an /f/.

Example Sentences:

Nakolfi. (I will walk.)

Nakolfu. (He will walk.)

Imperfect AspectEdit

The imperfect aspect is formed the same way as thte tenses, but uses a /w/.

Example Sentences:

Nakolwi. (I used to walk.)

Nakolwu. (He used to walk.)

Pluperfect AspectEdit

The pluperfect is formed the same way as the imperfect, but uses a /b/.

Nakolbi. (I had walked.)

Nakolbu. (He had walked.)

VocabularyEdit

PronounsEdit

Sapirian is a pro-drop language and pronouns are only used for emphasis or clarification.

Number
Person Singular Dual Plural
1 milu In. miluv milun
Ex. miluve milune
2 vòv vòn
3 M. ju jev jen
F. ja
N. je
I. jo jov jon

=Edit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7thisdis
8thatdas
9herenikut
10therenikat
11whomisit
12whattingo
13whereplikà
14whenklokto
15howwito
16not
17allomnut
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28longlutin
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wifekontal
41husbandkontul
42mothertamal
43fathertamul
44animal
45fish
46birdfluten
47dogkanin
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204andant
205if
206becausevaltu
207namelinot

Pronouns=== Sapirini is a pro-drop language and pronouns are only used for clarification or emphasis.

Number
Person Singular Dual Plural
1 milu In. miluv milun
Ex. miluve milune
2 vòv vòn
3 M. ju jev jen
F. ja
N. je
I. jo jov jon

Example textEdit

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