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Sarràno

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An Iberian language spoken by the inhabitants of Sarranna.

General information Edit

An important note: this conlang began as an entry to the romlang challenge that took place from April to July 2015. There is a page dedicated to the version submitted to voting, called Xarrano. Thus, further updates to the language will be presented on this page from now on.

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Xarrano01

Sarranna, shown in yellow.

Sarran (endonym Sarràno /sæ'ræno/) is a romlang mainly inspired by Iberian Romance languages at their earliest times, also showing influence from Neapolitan and Greek. The goal is that it resemble a language of the Iberian family while having a vowel alternating plural system due to specific sound changes.

Its family tree can be traced as Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Western Romance, Ibero-Romance, Sarran.

Its speakers live in Sarrany (endonym: Sarranna /sɑ'rɑɲɑ/, "land of the Sierra"), a country that lies on a fictitious peninsula stretching from the southeastern part of Spain, as seen on the map.

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External history Edit

There is a belief among the Sarran people that their homeland would have been originated after an ancient volcano emerged from the sea and rose a piece of land with it. This volcano is called Erriz (related to an Iberian word iŕike) and has had brief periods of activity through the centuries. The land was inhabited by Iberians, but at early times it had some parts colonized by Greeks coming from Ionia. It also had a few, isolated Cartaginian colonies. 

Plom I de La Serreta

"Plom I de La Serreta (Cara B)" by I, Tautintanes.

The Iberians from that region borrowed some letters from the Ionian alphabet and devised their own Greco-Iberian alphabet, as is shown in a lead plaque of La Serreta, in Alcoy, Spain (the finding also shows the geographic extension of the Greek influence over the Iberians). This mixture mostly formed by Iberian and Greek populations would later become the substrate of a new ethnic group, the Romans. 

The first Latin settlers came from a region around Campania in Italy, including citizens of the extinct city of Pompei, which founded the capital city of POMPĒIA NOVA (now Nuàva Pompegha) at the foot of the volcano. The whole region was called SERRĀNIA because of its characteristic sierras and tall coasts, being important as strategic places to build fortresses to keep control over the southwestern part of the Mediterrean Sea.

when the Moors invaded the Iberian Peninsula, the Sarrans sought help from their Italian trade partners. The difficult access to the region by land together with well guarded fortresses and a joint navy allowed them to resist the constant Moorish attacks. The local citizens organized themselves into the Kingdom of Sarrany (Arrenno rela Sarranna) under the command of Plinno I and his descendants, but, by the time of the Reconquista, the eastern side of the Kingdom refused to get involved in the successive battles to repel the invaders out of Iberia and split off as the Kingdom of Sarra Vaxa, while the western side changed its name to Kingdom of Sarra Alta. Shortly after the Reconquista had been completed, the two Kingdoms reunited under the modern name of Sarranna. The new country slowly opened its gates to a common Iberian market and served as an important bridge between its neighbors on land and its allies from nearby islands and Italy.

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Historical sound changes Edit

When compared to other Iberian languages, Sarran shows some conservative features, such as distinction between voiceless and voiced fricatives, while having innovated in other areas like its six-vowel system, the coalescence of alveolar consonants with /j/ and palatalization of final /s/, eventually causing the loss of distinction between masculine and feminine in most plural forms.

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General sound changes Edit

a) Loss or lenition of final consonants:

AMAT, VĪTAM (polysyllables) > àma, vida

AUT, QUEM, SĪC (monosyllables) > o, quiàn (< *quene?), xi

b) Loss of /h/:

/h/ ADHAESIONEM,HABĒRE,PREHENDERE > /-/ adeson (learned), aver, prenner

c) Monophthongization of AE and OE:

/ai, oi/ CAELUM, GRAECUM, POENAM > /ɛ, e/ > /(j)æ, e/ zàlo, gràgo, pena

d) Minor changes:

/VnsV/ MENSEM, PREHENSUM > /VzV/ mes, preso

/CCC/ ASSŪMPTUM, FUNCTIONEM > /CC/ assunto, funzon

/lle#/ ILLĒ, MĪLLE, PELLEM > /l#/ el, mil, piàl

BALNEUM, RATIONEM > bannio, arrazon

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Changes related to Western Romance Edit

a) Monophthongization of AU (also in Italo-Western):

/au/ AURICULAM, *autoricare, PAUCUM, TAURUM > /o/ oregha, otorgàr, poco, toro

b) Assimilation processes (also in Italo-Western):

/bt, pt/ OBTENĒRE, SEPTEM > /tt/ > /t/ otener, sete

/bs, ps/ ABSOLŪTUM, PSALMUM > /ss/ > /s/ assoluto, salmo

c) Lenition of intervocalic plosives (not including semivowels):

/b, d, g/ BIBERE, NŪDUM, *vagativu > [β, ð, ɣ] > /v, -, -/ bever, nuo, vadio

/p, t, k/ capitia, RECIPERE, PRĀTUM, FOCUM > /v (< β < b), d, g/ cavezza, arrecever, prado, fuàgo

/pp, tt, kk/ STUPPAM, GUTTAM, PECCĀTUM > /p, t, k/ estopa, gota, pecado

d) Early process of syncope (between sonorants and plosives, and the sequence /sVt/):

/VCVCV/ COLAPHUM, OPERAM, COMITEM, POSITUM > /VCCV/ golpo, obra, conde, posto

/VCVCV/ *cosutura, NŌBILEM, LEPOREM, OCULUM, VIRIDEM > /VCCV/ costura, noble, lebre, ogho, verde

e) Palatalization processes:

/eV, iV/ FORTIAM, VĪNEAM > [jV] > /*V/ forza, vinna

/#j, VjV/ IAM, IEIŪNUM, IŪSTUM, MĀIOREM > /#ʒ, V(j/ʒ)V/ > /#ʒ, V(ɟ/ʒ)V/ ja, gejuno, justo, maghor

/ki, ke/ ACCEPTUM, CIRCĀ, CĪVĪLEM > [(c)cV] > /(t)tsV/ > /θV/ accecho, cerca, civil

- /Vki, Vke/ > ACĒTUM, COCĪNAM, LŪCEM > [VcV] > /VtsV/ > [VdzV] > /VðV/ acedo, cocina, luz

/gi, ge/ GENERUM, *pagense, VIGINTI > /jV/ > /ʒV/ or /-V/ gendro, país, vinte

/ski, ske/ PISCEM, CRĒSCERE > [scV] > /ʃʃV/ > /ʃV/ pexe, crexer

/tj, kj/ ALTIĀRE, BRA(C)CHIUM, FACIEM, LINTEOLUM > [(t)ts, (c)c] > /ts/ > /θ/ alzàr, brazzo, facce, lenzuàlo

/dj, gj/ *gaudia, INVIDIAM, RADIUM > /ʒ/ or /j/ goja, enveja, arraio > /ʒ/ or /ɟ/ goja, enveja, arragho

- /V(d/g)(i/e)#/ HŌDIE, LEGEM, MAGIS > /Vj#/ > oi, lei, mai > /*/ güe, lé, mai

/stj, skj/ BESTIAM, FASCIAM, QUAESITIONEM, SCIENTIAM > /st, ʃ/ vesta, faxa, queston, xenza

/ptj, ktj/ ACTIONEM, OPTIONEM, *ruptia > /Cts/ > (C)θ/ azzon, ozzon, arrozza

/#sj, ssj/ *bassiu, PASSIONEM > /Vʃ/ vaxo, paxon

/VsjV/ BĀSIUM, ECCLĒSIAM, *grisiu, PENSIONEM > /V(¨)ʒ/ bejo, egleja, grijo, pejon

/rj/ AREAM, CORIUM, DĒNĀRIUM, GLORIAM > /jr/ > /(¨)r/ era, qüero, denero, glera (< gloira)

/nj, lj/ FOLIAM, IŪNIUM, *maneana > /ɲ, ʎ/ folla, Junno, mannana > /ɲ, ɟ/ fogha, Junno, mannàna

f) Development of /kt/:

/kt/ FACTUM, FRUCTAM, NOCTEM, OCTŌ > /jt/ > /(¨)c/ fecho, prucha, noche, ocho

g) Prothesis of initial /sC/:

/#sC/ SCĀLAM, SPATIUM, SPHINGEM, STĀRE > /#esC/ escàla, espazzo, esfinge (learned), tàr (< estàre)

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Changes related to Iberian Romance Edit

a) Loss of final front vowels after single, dental/alveolar, voiced consonant:

/e#, i#/ FĒCĪ, MENSEM, PĀNEM, VĒRITĀTEM > feci, mese, pane, verdade > /#, (¨)#/ fiz, mes, pàn, verdàz

b) Palatalization of geminated N and L:

/nn, gn, mn/ ANNUM, AUTUMNUM, DOMINAM, PUGNUM > [nn] > /ɲ/ anno, otonno, ronna, punno

/ll/ CASTELLUM, COLLĀREM, ILLAM > /ʎ/ castello, collar, ella > /ɟ/ castegho, coghàr, egha

c) Development of /kʷ/ and /gʷ/ (also in Gallo-Romance):

/gʷ/ *guadaniare, *guerra, *guidare, LINGUAM, SANGUINEM > /g/ gannàr, garra, guiàr, lenga, sangre

/kʷ/ LIQUOREM, QUANDŌ, QUINTUM, SQUĀMAM > /k, kw/ licor, quan, quinto, escàma

- /Vkʷ/ AEQUALITĀTEM, ANTĪQUUM, AQUAM > [Vgw] > /Vg(w)/ egualdàz, antigo, água

- (some) /kʷi, kʷe/ LAQUEUS, QUĪNQUE, TORQUERE > [ki, ke] > [(c)cV] > /tsV/ > /θV/ lazzo, cinque, torcer

d) fragmentaion of X:

/ksC/ DEXTERUM, EXPRESSIONEM, EXTENSUM > /(¨)sC/ destro, espresson (learned), esteso

- /kske, kski/ EXCELSUM, EXCEPTUM, EXCITĀRE > /kkV/ > [ccV] > /tsV/ > /θV/ eccelso, ecceto, eccitàr (learned)

/VksV/ COXAM, EXSŪCĀRE, FLUXUM, VEXĀMEN > /VʃʃV/ > /VʃV/ coxa, exugàr, ploxo, vexambre

/VksV/ AUXILIUM, EXAGIUM, MAXIMUM, PROXIMUM > /VssV/ > /VsV/ ossegho, essagho, mássimo, próssimo

/VksV/ EXHAURĪRE, EXŌTICUM, EXSULTĀTIONEM > /VzV/ esaurir (l.), esótico (l.), esultazzon

e) Evolution of consonant groups with /l, r/:

/Vbr, Vdr, Vgr/ CATHEDRAM, *libretto, NIGRUM > /Vbr, V(¨)r, V(¨)r/ cadera, libreto, nero

/Vpr, Vtr, Vkr/ SACRĀRE, MACRUM, OPERA, PETRAM > /Vbr, Vdr, Vgr/ sagràr, màgro, obra, piàdra

/Vppr, Vttr, Vkkr/ LETTERAM, QUATTUOR > /Vpr, Vtr, Vkr/ letra, quatro

/#fl, #pl, #kl/ CLĀMĀRE, PLĒNUM, FLŪMEN, > /#c/ chamàr, cheno, chumbre

/#fl, #pl, #kl/ CLĒMENTIA, FLUXUM, PLATEAM, *subflare > /#pl, #kl/ clemenza, ploxo, plazza, soplàr

/Vp(V)l, Vt(V)l, Vk(V)l/ ARTICULUM, POPULUM, ROTULUM > /Vbl, Vʎ/ > /Vbl, Vɟ/ artegho, puàblo, arrogho

/bl, dl, gl/ *blanco, COĀGULĀRE > /bl, ʎ/ > /bl, ɟ/ blanco, quaghàr

MASCULUM, MŪSCULUM, UNGULAM, VINCULUM > maxo, buxo, unna, vencho

f) Later processes of syncope:

/nVr, mVr/ GENERUM, *nomine, HONŌRĀRE > [mr, nr] > /mbr, ndr/ gendro, nombre, ondràr

/inV/ DOMINAM, SĒMINAM, SŌLITŪDINEM, TERMINUM > /*/ ronna, sembra, soltuz, tarmo

/V/ ARBOREM, MŪSCULUM, SIMILĀRE, UNGULAM > /-/ arble, buxo, semblàr, unna

/CVC/ ADVĒRIFICĀRE, CAPITĀLEM, CUBITUM, DŪBITAM > /*C/ averiguàr, caduàl, codo, ruda

/CVC/ DECIMUM, FATIGĀRE, HOSPITĀLEM, PORTATICUM > /*C/ rezmo, fazgàr, ostàl, portazgo

/CVC/ *quassicare, RECITĀRE, TRĪTICUM, UNDECIM, VINDICĀRE > /*C/ cascàr, arrezàr, trizgo, once, vengàr

g) Interactions between /l/ and /r/:

/l...l, r...r/ ARBOREM, *lusciniolu, MARMOREM, RŌBOR(EM) > /r...l/ arble, ruxinguàlo, marble, arroble

/l...l, r...r/ LOCĀLEM > /l...r/ logàr

/r...l/ MĪRACULUM, PARABOLAM, PERĪCULUM > /l...r/ milagro, palabra, paligro

/r/ BURSAM, PAPYRUM, TENEBRĀS > /l/ bolsa, papel, tennàble

h) Minor or incomplete changes:

/l, n, r/ ANIMAM, LAMPADAM, LĀXĀRE, LIBELLUM, -MEN > alma, lampra, dexàr, nivegho, -mbre

/k/ *cocchleariu, NĒC ŪNUM, PECTEN > [ŋ] > /n, ng/ conchero, nennuno, prente (< pentre)

/j, r/ CRĪBRA, PARIĒTEM > /-/ criva, parede

/ls, rs/ *ad traversu, INSULSUM, PERSŌNAM, VERSICUM > /s/ atravas, insosso, passona, vesco

CAPSAM, CAPULUM, CRYPTAM, MĀTTIANA, PULSĀRE > caxa, cacho, grota, mazzàna, puxàr

BADIUM, TRAHERE > vazo, tracer

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Specific changes in Sarran Edit

a) Semivocalization of final /s/ with posterior changes:

(stressed) /s#/ MAGIS, DVŌS, NŌS, TRĒS > /j#/ mai, roi, noi, trei > /*/ mai, rue, nue, tre

(unstressed) /as#, es#, os#/ > [aj#, ej#, oj#] > /e#, i#, u#/ > [e#, (¨)e#, (¨)o#] > (analogy) /(¨)e#/

b) Evolution of the vowel system:

Stage 1: Shift from vowel quantity to vowel quality (also in Italo-Western):

/iː, i, eː, e, a(ː), o, oː, u, uː/ > /i, e, e, ɛ, a, ɔ, o, o, u/, with long allophones on stressed open syllables

Stage 2: First open vowel shift and rise of new diphthongs:

(stressed open syllable) [ɛː, aː, ɔː] CAELUM, CANEM, BONUM > [eə, aə, oə] > /iə, əː, uə/ cialo, cane, buano

(other syllables) /ɛ, a, ɔ/ SEMPER, PARTEM, NOSTRAM > /e, a, o/ sempre, parte, nostra

(before coda /r/) /ɛ/ CERTUM, ERVILIAM, SERPENS, *versoria > [æ] > /a/ > zarto, arvella, sarpe, vassura

CŌGITĀRE, FACTUM, GLORIAM, MAGIS, NŌS, LEGEM > /aj, ej, oj, uj/ cuidar, feito, gloira, mai, noi, lei

CASĀS, MANŪS, PONTĒS > [aj#, ej#, oj#] > /e#, i#, u#/ case, manu, ponti

CAPITĀLEM, CĪVITĀTEM, CUBITUM, EQUAM, VIDUUM > /aw, ew, iw, ow/ caudale, ciudade, coudo, euga, veudo

Stage 3: New loss of vowel quantity and shift from decrescent to crescent diphthongs:

/iə, əː, uə/ cialo, cane, buano > /jɛ, ɛ, wɛ/ ciàlo, càne, buàno

/aj, ej, oj, uj/ cuidar, feito, gloira, mai, noi, lei > /aj, e, we, wi/ or /VCʲ/ cughar, fecho, gluera, mai, nue, lé

(final unstressed) /e, i, u/ case, manu, ponti > [e, (¨)e, (¨)o] > (analogy) /(¨)e/ càse, mene, punte

/e.(')V, i.(')V, o.(')V, u.(')V/ coallare, coerente, leone > /jV, wV/ quallàr, qüerente, lion

/aw, ew, iw, ow/ caudale, ciudade, coudo, euga, veudo > /aw/wa, jo/ju , ju, o/u/ caduàl, ciudàz, codo, ioga, viuda

Stage 4: Second open vowel shift and decrease of diphthongs:

/tj, jt, dj, jd/ cuidàr > /c, ɟ/ cughàr

/sj, js, zj, jz/ eglesia > /ʃ, ʒ/ egleja

/nj, jn, lj, jl/ colonia, liàve, lion, niàbla > /ɲ, ʎ/ > /(i)ɲ, ɟ/ colonna, gheve, ghon, innàbla

/θj, ðj, rj/ ciudàz, feccion/faccion (learned), riàz, vigario (learned) > /θ, ð, r/ zudàz, fezzon/fazzon, ràz, vigaro

(other) /Cj/ quiedo, principio (learned), arra(b)bia, vision (l.) > /C(j)/ quiedo, principo, arraba, vison

/Cw/ arduo, guarra, individuo (learned) > /C(w)/ ardo, garra, individo

/Clj, Clw, Crj, Crw/ cliente (learned), gluera, griàgo, pruàva > /Cl, Cw/ clente, glera, gràgo, pràva

(stressed) /ɛ, a/ buàno, ciàlo, càn, danza, á > /æ, ɑ/ buàno, zàlo, càn, danza, á

(unstressed) /a/ casca, danzàr, mazzàna > /æ ~ ɑ/ casca, danzàr, mazzàna (*vowel harmony with stressed vowel)

c) Prothesis before initial trill:

/#r/ RĒGEM, RECOLLIGERE, RIGIDUM > /#ar/ arré, arrecogher, arrijo

d) Rhotacism of /d/ (at the time of general plosive lenition):

/d/ CAUDAM, DĒ, DECEM, DUPLUM, DVŌS > /ɾ/ cora, re, ràz (< riàz), roblo, rue

/d/ DĀRE, DEXTERUM, DĪRECTUM, DORMĪRE = /d/ dàr, destro, derecho, dormir (blocked by a near /ɾ/)

e) Assimilation of ND and related processes:

/nd/ CANDIDUM, FACIENDA, MUNDUM, PREHENDERE > /nn/ > /ɲ/ cando (<*cánnido), facenna, monno, prenner

(some) /nde#, ntV#/ *ad onde, CENTUM, GRANDEM, QUANTUM, SANCTUM > /n/ ron, cen, gran, quan, san

/mb/ LAMBERE, PLUMBUM > /mm/ > /m/ lamer, chomo

f) Merger of /b/ and /v/ as well as the remaining /p/ and /f/ when before the sonorants /ɾ, l/:

*blancu, *haver hemos, PAUPER > /bl, br, vl, vr/ blanco, avremo, pobre > /bl, br/ blanco, abremo, pobre

FLUXUM, FRĪGIDUM, PLACERE, PRŌVIDENTIAM > /fl, fr, pl, pr/ > /pl, pr/ ploxo, prio, placer, prudenza

f) Merger of /j/ and /ʎ/ to become a voiced counterpart to /c/:

EGŌ, AD HERĪ > /j/ io, aier > /ɟ/ gho, agher

CUBICULUM, FAMILIAM > /ʎ/ covello, famella > /ɟ/ covegho, famegha

h) Fortition of initial /w/:

AUDĪRE, HODIĒ, HOMŌ, OVUM > /#oV, #oj, #we/ oir, oi, huàmo, huàvo > /gwV/ güir, güe, guàmo, guàvo

i) Loss of final unstressed /n/:

ILLŌS AMANT, IUVENEM, VIRGINEM > /n#/ ellu àman, joven, vergen > /#/ eghe àma, jove, verge

j) Minor changes:

*ad sic, LĪLIUM, QUASĪ, SĪC, SŪCUM, VENĪRE, VESĪCAM > axin, ghigho, quàge, xi, xugo, vennir, vexiga

/b/ *barone, *bassiu, BUCCAM, EPISCOPUM > /v/ varon (sir, lord) / baron (baron) (borrowed), vaxo, voca, vispo

/Cr, Cs/ ABROGĀRE, EXAGIUM > /r, s/ arrogàr (*abrrogàr), essagho (< *ensagho)

ANTE, MEDIUM, tio > ance, mezo, cio

QUATERNUM, *muliera, PECTEN, PIGNORAM > cardano, mughara, prente, prenda (< pendra)

PLUVIAM, QUAERERE, RECEPTAM > chuva (< chouva < choiva), queder, arrececha

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Phonology Edit

Consonants Edit

Bilabial Labio-dental dental alveolar post-alveolar velar
nasal m n ɲ
plosive p b t d c ɟ k g
fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ (x)
tap / trill ɾ r
lateral l (ʎ)

- /n/ has many allophones that are homorganic with a following consonant.

- The phonemes /c, ɟ/ were conventioned in transcriptions because they are perceived as plosives by native speakers, They are realized as palatalized alveolars [tʲ, dʲ], with little frication but less frication in comparison to [tʃ, dʒ].

- A dental or alveolar fricative in coda position does not present voice distinction. That means, their voice parameter depends on the next sound (e. g. they assimilate). When before pause, they are devoiced.

- Sarran has two contrastive rhotic sounds, but their distribution is different from that of other Iberian languages. /r/ only appears in intervocalic position and is realized as a patalized [rʲ] that sounds like a combination of a trill and a voiced palatal fricative /ʝ/.

- /x/ is only used in some loanwords to convey the sound /h/ or any other back fricative. It is oftentimes not pronounced at all.

- /ʎ/ and /j/ have become rare in Sarran as independent consonants, since they historically merged and became /ɟ/. They appear in proper names and some loanwords. Some people tend to pronounce them as [ɟ] word initially, even though it is considered inappropriate. Also, when trying to pronounce /ʎ/, native tendency is to add a prothetic vowel /i/.

- Similarly, the foreign phoneme /w/ has gained acceptance through borrowing from English, but it is sometimes mispronounced as [gw] word initially. It is gradually replacing the plain /v/ pronunciation on the letter W.

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Vowels Edit

Front Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open æ ɑ

- The open phoneme /æ/ started as an allophone and became a partially independent phoneme. The unstressed archiphoneme /A/ varies between /æ/ and /ɑ/ through vowel harmony with the stressed vowel. The resulting vowel is usually notated in general transcriptions, even though some dialects merge final A into an unstressed [ɐ].

- The mid vowels are realized as close-mid vowels, but sometimes they can be a bit more open when they are in closed stressed syllables.

- When the final unstressed vowels /A, e, o/ are followed by an initial unstressed vowel, they are dropped. This also happens with weak monosyllables: in that case, they must have their vowel replaced by an apostrophe (') in orthography.

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Alphabet Edit

Officially, all the 26 letters of modern Latin alphabet are taught, but K, W and Y don't appear in Sarran native vocabulary. Also, there are vowels with an acute accent to mark unpredictable stress and the vowel À to represent the stressed front open vowel. The letters C, N, R, S and Z (as well as L in proper names and loanwords) can be doubled. The additional characters are collated together with their simpler counterparts, and the double consonants are treated as simple sequences, although the resulting sounds are different.

The letters are treated as feminine nouns and their names are as follows:

A - a /ɑ/, and À - a prontera /ˌɑ pɾon'teɾæ/ or just À - à /æ/

B - be /be/

C - ce /'θe/

D - de /de/

E - e /e/

F - efe /'efe/

G - ge /ʒe/

H - acha /'ɑcɑ/

I - i /i/

J - joda /'ʒodɑ/

K - kapa /'kɑpɑ/

L - ele /'ele/

M - eme /'eme/

N - ene /'ene/

O - o /o/

P - pe /pe/

Q - cu /ku/

R - arre /'ɑre/

S - esse /'ese/

T - te /te/

U - u /u/

V - ve /ve/

W - ve germánica /ve ʒeɾ'mɑnikɑ/, or less commonly ve robla /ve 'ɾoblɑ/

X - xe /ʃe/, former ics /iks/

Y - i gràga /i 'gɾægæ/

Z - zàda /'θædæ/

* The double consonants are called by their basic letter plus robla /'ɾoblɑ/ (double).

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Phonotactics Edit

Most natively, Sarran phonotactics is composed of relatively simple syllables, in which the only mandatory part is a nucleus formed by at least one vowel sound. The basic Sarran syllable structure can be demonstrated as follows:

(C)(C)V(C): where the fist (C) can be any consonant; the second (C) can be L, R, I or U (as semivowels); and the last (C) can be L, N, R, S, I or U (as semivowels), or Z.

Post-alveolar consonants (/ɲ, c, ɟ, ʃ, ʒ, r, ʎ/) don't appear in coda position for historical reasons, and sometimes they can be preceded by consonants. Among those, the sonorants /ɲ, r, ʎ/ don't appear in initial position since they either received a prothetic vowel (/i/ before /ɲ/; /a/ before /r/) or changed into a plosive sound (as is the case with /ʎ/ historically changing into /ɟ/). Initial /ʎ/ may appear in some names and loanwords, but native speakers tend to add an /i/ sound before it or change it into /ɟ/.

There is also a native Sarran restriction: if the second (C) is /l/ or /ɾ/, then the first (C) must be a plosive.

Beside that basic model, some more complex syllables may appear due to borrowing or preservation of original words in Latin, Greek or others.

Here go some examples:

V - a /ɑ/

CV - /le/

VC - en /en/

CCV - tre /tɾe/

CVC - sàl /sæl/

V.CV - anno /'ɑ.ɲo/

CV.CV.CV - cavagho /kɑ'vɑ.ɟo/

CVC.CCVC - mostràr /mos'tɾæɾ/

A distinctive feature in Sarran, as in most other Romance languages, is syllable stress. It can be placed in the last, second or third to last syllable on a word and it usually don't affect its phonotactics, except for one active restriction on post-tonic syllables: they tend to be reduced to a simple CV structure. For instance, when learning English, a native Sarran speaker tends to pronounce the English word shopping (/ˈʃɑːpɪŋ/) as xape, and dollar becomes dala.

Since most syllables are of the type CV, the overall utterance usually happens at a faster pace.

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Orthography Edit

Sarran orthography is considered to be shallow. However, some traditions have been preserved. One remarkable feature separating it from other Iberian languages is the doubling of C and Z.

The letters B, D, E, F, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, T, U, V represent their basic phonemic values.

Other representations in writing are presented below:

/ɑ/ and /æ/: A and À when stressed; A when unstressed. Á is used when /ɑ/ is on an unpredictable stressed syllable.

/ɲ/: NN (Not seen word initially; Ñ can be seen in some texts until recent times by Spanish influence).

/c/ and /ɟ/: CH and GH.

/k/: C before A, O, U; QU before E, I.

/g/: G before A, O, U; GU before E, I.

/kw/: QU before A, O; QÜ before E, I.

/gw/: GU before A, O; GÜ before E, I.

/θ/: Z before A, O, U; C before E, I; doubled when intervocalic.

/ð/: Z before A, O, U; C before E, I in intervocalic position.

/s/: S; doubled when intervocalic.

/z/: S in intervocalic position.

/ʃ/: X.

/ʒ/: J before A, O, U; G before E, I.

/ɾ/: R.

/r/: RR (not seen word initially).

/x/ (or not pronounced at all): H, only in proper names and loanwords.

/ʎ/: LL, only in proper names and loanwords (it may appear word initially).

/j/: I or Y, only in proper names and loanwords; written as I in diphthongs.

/w/ (or /v/): U or W, only in proper names and loanwords; written as U in diphthongs.

As for diacritics, the diaresis is used over U to keep it pronounceable before a front vowel. The acute accent marks a stressed syllable under the following conditions: a) open oxytone; b) paroxytone with a closed last syllable; c) proparoxytone; d) stressed open monosyllable if not using it may cause confusion. For /æ/, not only does the grave accent mark quality, but also any stressed circumstance.

An apostrophe is used when an unstressed vowel in a monosyllable is followed by another unstressed vowel. In that case, the first unstressed vowel is replaced. For instance, te in te amaró (I will love you) becomes t'amaró, but te in te àmo (I love you) is still pronounced and therefore remains. Similarly, the final a in ala is not dropped in orthography even if followed by an unstressed vowel such as in egleja (church) because the word is not a monosyllable.

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Historical grammatical changes Edit

Sarran shows most traits from the Common and Western Romance period, with some Italian influence at first. Later on, it began to suffer some influence from Spanish as well as Portuguese and Catalan. This section will be focused on changes in nominal and verbal morphology and will also present some general information on syntax and vocabulary.

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Nominal morphology Edit

In its first stage of development, Sarran is believed to have had a somewhat simple but still preserved case system for nouns and adjectives. The vocative case had been lost earlier (merged with nominative); the ablative, genitive and dative fused and formed an oblique case. The nominative and accusative were still distinguished at least in common nouns referring to persons and other living beings which were more likely to act as agents (some modern instances are: guàmo (man), màz (mother) and sarpe (snake)). On the other hand, nouns referring to less animate concepts, such as objects and elements, tended to merge the two cases.

As prepositions assumed the role of giving information about case, the oblique case was absorbed by the accusative, not without leaving some traces, especially in former -men ending nouns. After a while, the nominative and accusative also merged, with preservation of nominative forms only in a few common, animate nouns.

The five Latin declensions were reduced to three (-a, -o, -(e)) since the fourth merged with the second, and the fifth merged with the third declension. Most neuter nouns were absorbed into the masculine gender while some were reinterpreted as feminine nouns, just as other Romance languages did. As for adjectives, the tendency was remodeling to an -o/-a declension, although several common adjectives, such as gran (big) and zarre (fast), resisted it. The comparative and superlative degrees eroded to the extent that only a handful of irregular words survived, such as meghor (better) and mássimo (most). The formation of adverbs from adjectives follows the common Western Romance construction "adjective (with -a or -e ending)"mente.

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CASA ("house", feminine noun, first declension)
Latin First stages Final stage
CASA, CASAE (nom./voc.) *casa, *casas (nom./acc.) casa, case càsa, càse
CASAM, CASĀS (acc.)
CASAE, CASĪS (dat.) *case, *casis (obl.)
CASĀ, CASĪS (abl.)
CASAE, CASĀRUM (gen.)

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LUPUS ("wolf", masculine noun, second declension)
Latin First stages Final stage
LUPUS, LUPĪ (nom.) *lopos, *lopos (nom.) lovo, lovu lovo, love
LUPE, LUPĪ (voc.)
LUPUM, LUPŌS (acc.) *lopo, *lopos (acc.)
LUPŌ, LUPĪS (dat./abl.) *lopo, *lopis (obl.)
LUPĪ, LUPŌRUM (gen.)

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HOMŌ ("man", masculine noun, third declension)
Latin First stages Final stage
HOMŌ, HOMINĒS (nom./voc.) *homo, *homines (nom.) huamo, ombri (nom.) guàmo,

guàme

(men)

/ umbre

(human beings)

HOMINEM, HOMINĒS (acc.) *homine, *homines (acc.) *ombre, ombri (acc./obl.)
HOMINĪ, HOMINIBUS (dat.) *homine, *hominis (obl.)
HOMINE, HOMINIBUS (abl.)
HOMINIS, HOMINUM (gen.)

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NŌMEN ("name", neuter noun, third declension)
Latin First stages Final stage
NŌMEN, NŌMINA (nom./voc./acc.) *nome, *nomines (nom./acc.) nombre, nombri nombre, numbre
NŌMINĪ, NŌMINIBUS (dat.) *nomine, *nominis (obl.)
NŌMINE, NŌMINIBUS (abl.)
NŌMINIS, NŌMINUM (gen.)

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Formation of plural was firstly stabilized in -s. After that, there was a sound change that turned final -s into a palatal semivowel, written -i at first, and the resulting diphthongs underwent monothongization: -ai, -ei and -oi rapidly became -e, -i and -u. The high final vowels made preceding vowels raise their height by one level, while the final vowels were themselves merging with -e and -o. This caused singular nouns ending in -o (of masculine gender) to form their plural by metaphony in contrast to feminine nouns (most of them ending in -a) to form their plurals in -e without metaphony. It was by force of analogy that a new masculine plural was formed in the same way as the feminine plural, although the metaphonic vowels were mostly maintained in nouns of invariable gender of former ending -e and also some of singular -o (for instance, lo sol (the sun) and la màno (the hand) are pluralized as le sule (the suns) and le mene (the hands) whereas el mozzo (the boy, the male child) and la mozza (the girl, the female child) merge their plural into le mocce (the children)).

Sarran numerals are conservative when compared with other Romance languages, not only retaining sece from Latin SĒDECIM and cinque from Latin QUĪNQUE as in Italian, but also preserving the ending -enta from Latin -ĀGINTĀ and quinnente from Latin QUĪNGINTŌS as in Spanish and Portuguese. Another conservative trait is the retention of three points of reference in space shown, for intance, in the demonstrative pronouns questo, quesso, quegho (from *ac istu, *ac ipsu, *ac illu) and the so-called local pronouns ca, i, ghi/ghen (from VL eccu hac, AD HĪC, AD ILLĪ / AD ILLINC). Latin QUI and QUEM were preserved under the invariable forms que and quiàn, but CUI is seen as the variable cujo, cuja, cuje, which came from the old, declinable CUIUS. On the other hand, a number of combinations were created in Romance and are still used in Sarran. One of them is ECCE HOC, which became the neuter relative pronoun zo.

The personal pronouns underwent a simplification in their case system. All the cases apart from the nominative eventually collapsed into an objective case. Forms from Latin ILLE supplied the third person in gender, number and case, with the addition of the reflexive pronoun se. Old Sarran had a special dative pronoun lle, which was crystalized as modern ghe before lo, la, le to avoid cacophony. Unstressed forms from ILLE also gave rise to the formation of definite articles, which then caused the implementation of indefinite articles from ŪNUS and partitive articles from DĒ ILLE.

Latin had weak and strong forms for the possessives. It was the strong forms that survived into modern Sarran, although a few literary sources indicate that the weak forms were also used at the earliest stages of the language. Sarran has developed possessive constructions in combination with mandatory articles, just as in Italian. However, singular possessives drop their endings when they go before the noun. Compare the two viable constructions la càsa mia vs. la mi càsa (my house).

Apart from grammatical words, the general Sarran vocabulary has been formed mainly by inherited words from Vulgar Latin, but it also received influence from a number of other sources as well: firstly Celtic and Visigothic, then Arabic, Germanic, Greek, French, Latin and others through its relationship with other Romance languages, especially Spanish and Italian. More recently, it also has borrowed some words from French and English.

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Verbal morphology Edit

When the verbal morphology of Classical Latin is compared to that of most known Romance languages, one can say it changed greatly. Sarran shared Common Romance developments and also some developments from its Iberian neighbors. That is not to say it did not have its own innovations. In this section, changes in verbal morphology will be presented as a list and then as comparison tables from classical to modern structures.

So, the changes in the verbal structure are (more or less ordered from Common to Sarran):

- Loss of passive synthetic forms, being replaced by a reflexive construction;

- Transformation of deponent verbs into active verbs;

- Loss of future indicative due to phonetic reasons, being replaced by a construction using the infinitive plus present indicative of HABĒRE, which in turn agglutinated and became the new synthetic future indicative;

- Creation of a conditional tense from the infinitive plus imperfect of HABĒRE in the same fashion as the one above;

- Merging of imperfect subjunctive and future subjunctive into modern future subjunctive using the main stem (except in a few irregular verbs, where the perfect stem is preserved);

- Displacement of pluperfect subjunctive into the role of past subjunctive, also being remodelled to the main stem, like the new future subjunctive;

- Use of the ending -ENT for third person plural in present indicative instead of -(I)UNT;

- Merger of new second and third conjugation in the imperfect indicative;

- Use of present subjunctive for the negative imperative, also supplying forms for the affirmative other than the second person;

- Merger of second and third conjugation, repelling some of their verbs to the fourth conjugation, in a way similar to Portuguese and Spanish;

- Interaction between -ESCERE and -ĪRE verbs, forming a group of hibrid conjugation verbs, with later redistribution to one or another category;

- Loss of the yod in first person singular in present indicative (hence, also in the whole present subjunctive), except in cases it could coalesce. This is somewhere between Portuguese and other Romance languages;

- Extension of first person singular -o ending from present indicative to imperfect and conditional but not to any tense of the subjunctive mood;

- Present participle forms in -and-, -end- and -ind- for each of the new three conjugations through merger of gerund and present participle, with gender/number agreement. Similarly, regularization of past participles forms in -àd-, -ud- and -id-, although many irregular past participles survive;

- Eventual loss of synthetic perfect, being completely replaced by analytical constructions using ESSE or HABĒRE plus the past participle, later extended to STĀRE;

- Merger of second, third singular and third plural personal endings due to loss of unstressed final consonants. Monosyllables were different at first, but the difference was lost by analogy. The same happened to final stressed forms in the future indicative. The exception is one verb, ser.

The tables below show the origins of Sarran conjugations:

Latin Present Indicative > Sarran Present Indicative
1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj. 4th conj. 1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj.
1ps -EŌ -IŌ -o -*o
2ps -ĀS -ĒS -IS -ĪS -a -e
3ps -AT -ET -IT -IT
1pp -ĀMUS -ĒMUS -IMUS -ĪMUS -àmo -emo -imo
2pp -ĀTIS -ĒTIS -ITIS -ĪTIS -àz -ez -iz
3pp -ANT -ENT -UNT -IUNT -a -e

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Latin Present Subjunctive > Sarran Present Subjunctive
1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj. 4th conj. 1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj.
1ps -EM -EAM -AM -IAM -e -*a
2ps -ĒS -EĀS -ĀS -IĀS
3ps -ET -EAT -AT -IAT
1pp -ĒMUS -EĀMUS -ĀMUS -IĀMUS -emo -*àmo
2pp -ĒTIS -EĀTIS -ĀTIS -IĀTIS -ez -*àz
3pp -ENT -EANT -ANT -IANT -e -*a

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Latin Imperfect Indicative > Sarran Past Indicative
1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj. 4th conj. 1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj.
1ps -ĀBAM -ĒBAM -IĒBAM -àvo -io
2ps -ĀBĀS -ĒBĀS -IĒBĀS -àva -ia
3ps -ĀBAT -ĒBAT -IĒBAT
1pp -ĀBĀMUS -ĒBĀMUS -IĒBĀMUS -àvamo -íamo
2pp -ĀBĀTIS -ĒBĀTIS -IĒBĀTIS -àvaz -íaz
3pp -ĀBANT -ĒBANT -IĒBANT -àva -ia

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Latin Pluperfect Subjunctive (perfect stem) > Sarran Past Subjunctive (main stem)
1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd c. 4th c. 1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj.
1ps -ĀVISSEM -VISSEM -ĪVISSEM -asse -esse -isse
2ps -ĀVISSĒS -VISSĒS -ĪVISSĒS
3ps -ĀVISSET -VISSET -ĪVISSET
1pp -ĀVISSĒMUS -VISSĒMUS -ĪVISSĒMUS -ássemo -éssemo -íssemo
2pp -ĀVISSĒTIS -VISSĒTIS -ĪVISSĒTIS -ássez -éssez -íssez
3pp -ĀVISSENT -VISSENT -ĪVISSENT -asse -esse -isse

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Infinitive plus Present Indicative of HABĒRE > Sarran Future Indicative
1st person singular *-re habeo -ró
2nd person singular *-re habes -rá (former -ray)
3rd person singular *-re habet -rá
1st person plural *-re habemus -remo
2nd person plural *-re habetis -rez
3rd person plural *-re habent -rá (former -ran)

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Latin > Sarran
Imperfect Subjunctive (main stem) Future Perfect Subjunctive (perfect stem) Future Subjunctive (main stem)
1ps -REM -VERŌ -r
2ps -RĒS -VERIS
3ps -RET -VERIT
1pp -RĒMUS -VERIMUS -rmo
2pp -RĒTIS -VERITIS -rde
3pp -RENT -VERINT -r

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Infinitive plus Imperfect Indicative of HABĒRE > Sarran Conditional
1st person singular *-re habebam -rio
2nd person singular *-re habebas -ria
3rd person singular *-re habebat
1st person plural *-re habebamus -ríamo
2nd person plural *-re habebatis -ríaz
3rd person plural *-re habebant -ria

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Latin Present Imperative > Sarran Imperative
1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj. 4th conj. 1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj.
2nd p.s. -E -a / -e -e / -*a
3rd p.s. - - - - -e -*a
1st p.p. - - - - -emo -*àmo
2nd p.p. -ĀTE -ĒTE -ITE -ĪTE -àz / -ez -ez / -*àz -iz / -*àz
3rd p.p. - - - - -e -*a

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Latin > Sarran
1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj. 4th conj. 1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj.
Present participle -AND- -END- -IEND- -and- -end- -ind-
Past participle -AT- -IT- -*- -ĪT- -àd- -ud- / -*- -id-
Infinitive -ĀRE -ĒRE -ERE -ĪRE -àr -er -ir

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Syntax Edit

As the inflectional cases collapsed, the SVO (subject-verb-object) word order became the main device to maintain the basic nominative-accusative distinction in the sentences when there is no other way to tell. In most other situations, however, different word orders are established in a number of commonly used constructions.

Examples of nominative-accusative distinction in basic sentences:

Latin: FELES MVREM EDIT (SOV, default) / FELES EDIT MVREM (SVO) / MVREM FELES EDIT (OSV) / ...

Sarran: Lo gato manja l'arrato. (SVO, default) / Al arrato manja lo gato. (OVS, enabled by accusative a)

English: The cat eats the rat. (SVO, default)

Nominative pronouns are still dropped when context is sufficient, but since second singular and both third persons now present the same endings in most verbs, the pronouns tu, el, egha and eghe started to appear more regularly. Both nominative and objective pronouns acquired a fixed unstressed position before the verb or a group of verbs, known as preverbal. The former adverbs of place ca, i, ghi and ghen were attracted to the preverbal position and started to be known as local pronouns.

Latin: PANEM NOSTRVM COTIDIANVM DA NOBIS HODIE (DVIA order)

Sarran: Ne da güe lo nostro pàn jornàl. (IVAD order, not fixed)

English: Give us this day our daily bread. (VIAD order, A not fixed)

Also, the verb migrated from the final position to an "opposing" position, causing a redistribution of arguments and adverbs around the sentence, similar to a V2 word order. The main verb became the first one when there is a series of verbs.

Latin: NAVIS VENIET (SV) / NAVIS CRAS VENIET (SAV)

Sarran:La nàve chegará. (SV, not fixed for intransitive verbs) / Remàn chegará la nàve. (AVS, not fixed but preferred)

English: The ship will come. (SV, fixed) / Tomorrow the ship will come. (ASV, but could be AVS through V2 order)

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Grammar Edit

This section will mainly approach morphological as well as syntactical aspects of the language.

Sarran word classes are: sostantivo (noun), pronombre (pronoun), cipra (number), agetivo (adjective), averbàl (adverb), partegha (particle) (comprising articles, prepositions, conjunctions and exclamations) and verbo (verb).

Nouns, pronouns, numbers, adjectives and adverbs form a bigger class simply called nombre (name). They are believed to contribute to the mental process of creating and modifying stactic images. Particles are thought to relate those images to each other, while verbs give sense and movement to the whole sentence.

Morphologically, some grammatical distinctions can be observed in Sarran:

- gendro (gender): masculine vs. feminine; applied to nouns, pronouns and adjectives.

- cantidàz (number): singular vs. plural; applied to all classes but particles.

- caso (case): nominative vs. objective; only seen in personal pronouns and articles.

- passona (person): first, second and third; mainly applied to pronouns and verbs.

- tempo (tense) and modo (mode): applied to verbs.

Grammatical case inflection was lost since Latin, although it did survive in the personal pronouns and also can now be identified by looking at prepositions and the el article. Verbal inflections for voice and aspect were also lost and are now achieved through periphrasis. The table below summarizes the possibility of inflection among noun classes:

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Gender Number Case Person Tense Mood
Noun yes yes no no no no
Pronoun yes yes yes yes no no
Number yes yes no no no no
Adjective yes yes no no no no
Adverb no no no no no no
Particle no no no no no no
Verb no yes no yes yes yes

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Nouns Edit

They can be used as the head of a subject, object or nominal complement. Morphologically, every noun is assigned a grammatical gender, masculine or feminine, that affects its own form and also the form of related adjectives and other modifying words. Beside gender, other parameters affecting their form are grammatical number, which can be defined as singular or plural, and degree, like diminutive, augmentative and superlative.

At the semantic level, nouns can be classified as:

concrete: barco (boat), mazzàna (apple) vs. abstract: candeza (beauty), arreduzzon (reduction)

common: zapato (shoe), chuva (rain) vs. proper: Mateo (Matthew), Ostragha (Australia)

simple: chàno (ground), quejo (cheese) vs. compound: lavarropa (washing machine, from làva and arropa)

primitive: triste (sad), piàdra (stone) vs. derived: tristeza (sadness), piadràda (stone strike)

collective: cacho (bunch), cardume (school (of fish))

Gender and number interact differently depending on the word, especially in the modern language since masculine and feminine plural endings have merged into -e. Such plural has been assigned a new gender category called comun (common) when singular words still are distinguished by their endings, although several words have preserved gender distinction in plural forms by suffixation. Thus, it is costumary to ommit number information on singular nouns and conversely to ommit gender information on plural nouns.

Most Latin vowel endings were preserved and became representative of the two genders, but a new group of nouns had their final vowel dropped or maintained in -e and now inflect for number through metaphony on the last stressed vowel (ɑ > æ, æ > e, e > i, i = i; o > u, u = u). Some common words ending in -o also show metaphony in plural forms for historical reasons. The following examples will be presented with the corresponding definite article.

Masculine: lo zàlo (m., the sky), le cele (p., the skies)

Feminine: la càsa (f., the house), le càse (p., the houses)

Variable: el conde, la condessa (m., the count, f. the countess), le cunde, le condesse ((m)p., (f)p.)

Semivariable: lo gato, la gata (m., f., the cat), le gate (p. the cats)

Invariable: la passona (f., the person), le passone (p., the people)

Nouns can also receive special endings denoting size, endearment, deprecation, collection and others. Information about size can be added by using the augmentative or diminutive degree. The main endings are -on (always of masculine gender) for augmentative and -ino (of variable gender) for diminutive but there are many others, including root changes in some words and substitutions. Analytical ways of expressing size, such as adding the adjective gran (big) after or before the noun, are also used.

gato ((male) cat), gata (female cat), gate (cats), gatino (little (male) cat), gatina (little female cat), gaton (big cat), gatucho (dear little cat), gateria (a lot of cats).

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Pronouns Edit

This class contains a restricted number of words that can occupy the position of an argument in a sentence and whose meaning generally depends on another referent. They fullfill a variety of functions, from replacing an aforementioned noun to giving quantitative information. The personal pronouns are the only subgroup that has maintained case distinction.

- Passonele (personal pronouns):

Number Person Nominative Objective
Singular First gho me
Second tu te
Third el (m.), egha (f.) lo (m.), la (f.)
Plural First nue ne
Second vue ve
Third eghe le

The objective pronouns reflect a variety of meanings that must be understood by context. For the reflexive meaning, there is a special form se for third person (both singular and plural). Also, a relic dative form ghe appears in combination with objective third person pronouns in order to avoid cacophony. For instance, compare Ghe l'ó dado. vs. *Lo l'ó dado. (I gave it to him/her/them.)

Loquele (local pronouns):

ca (here, "where I am"), (there, "where you are"), ghi (there, "where it is", proximal), ghen (there, "where it is", distal)

This classification is specific to Sarran. The above pronouns are usually classified as adverbs of place or adverbial pronouns in other Romance languages, but here they acquired the same syntactic and prosodic properties as the personal pronouns, differing only in their reference to places. They can even be related to the persons of speech: ca (1st), i (2nd) and ghi/ghen (3rd).

- Demostrative (demonstrative pronouns):

questo, questa, queste (this, these); queghoqueghaqueghe (that, those, the one(s)); tàltel (such); lolale (the one(s)); and others.

Enquiritive (interrogative pronouns):

que (what), quiàn (who), quàl, qüele (which (one(s))), ron (where), quan (when), como (how).

Indefinide (indefinite pronouns):

alguno, alguna, algune (some(one)); algo (something); nennuno, nennuna, nennune (no(one)); nugha (nothing); todo, toda, tode (all, every(one)); molto, molta, molte (much, many); poco, poca, poque ((a) few); altro, altra, altre (other); cascuno, cascuna, cascune (each(one)); zarto, zarta, zarte ((a) certain); vare (various); tanto, tanta, tante (so much, so many, "an unspecified number"); calquiàrcalquiere (any); ame (both); and others.

Relative (relative pronouns):

que (that, which), quiàn (who), ron (where); el quàl, la quàl, le qüele (who/which), cujo, cuja, cuje (whose); quanto, quanta, quante (who/which); zo (that); and others.

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Numbers Edit

This class contains words indicating quantity and numerical order. In order to avoid confusion with the term nombre, used for names, Sarran speakers replaced the old term nombro with cipra, a term borrowed from Arabic and cognate with English cipher. There are basically four types of number: cardinàlordinàlmoltiplicativo (multiplicative) and prazzonaro (fractional).

The tables below show Sarran cardinal, ordinal and multiplicative numbers ranging from 1 to one bilion. Fractional numbers will be dealt below the tables.

Cardinal Ordinal Multiplic. Cardinal Ordinal Multiplic.
0 cero - - 10 ràz ràzmo décuplo
1 uno primo (simple) 11 once unàzmo -
2 rue segonno roblo 12 roce ruàzmo -
3 tre tarzo triplo 13 trece tràzmo -
4 quatro quarto quádrulo 14 catorce ràzmo quarto -
5 cinque quinto quíntuplo 15 quince ràzmo quinto -
6 sei sesto séstuplo 16 sece ràzmo sesto -
7 sete sétimo sétuplo 17 racissete ràzmo sétimo -
8 ocho ochàvo óchuplo 18 razocho ràzmo ochàvo -
9 nuàve nono nónuplo 19 racinuàve ràzmo nono -
Cardinal Ordinal Multiplic. Cardinal Ordinal Multiplic.
10 ràz ràzmo décuplo 100 cen centesmo céntuplo
20 vinte vigesmo - 200 rocente rocentesmo -
30 trinta trigesmo - 300 trecente trecentesmo -
40 carenta caresmo - 400 catorcente catorcentesmo -
50 cinquenta quincag.. - 500 quinnente quinnentesmo -
60 sessenta sessag... - 600 seiccente seiccentesmo -
70 setenta setage... - 700 seteccente seteccentesmo -
80 ochenta ochage... - 800 ochoccente ochoccentesmo -
90 noventa nonage... - 900 nuaveccente nuaveccentesmo -
Cardinal Ordinal Multiplicative
1,000 mil milesmo míluplo
2,345 rue mil, trecente e carenta cinque (ruemilesme / segonno milesmo), trecentesmo caresmo quinto -
1,000,000 (un) mighon mighonesmo -
1,000,000,000 (un) bighon bighonesmo -

Fractional numbers are either the same as the ordinal numbers (from 3 to 13, then from 100 to one bilion) or the cardinal numbers followed by àve. Since they represent the bottom number in a fraction, they are preceded by an ordinal number and then inflect for number (for instance, 3/4 is tre quarte, and 5/16 is cinque sece àve or simply cinque cima sece). The fractional number for 2 has the special form mezo (half).

As noted above, the conjunction e is used between hundreds and dozens but not between dozens and units.

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Adjectives Edit

In this class are words that add information about a referent, usually a noun. Most adjectives have the same morphological properties tha can be found on nouns, although their inflection depends on the head in either attributive or predicative position. This is called concordanza (concord).

Inflection for comparative and superlative degrees fell into disuse as adverbs such as chu and assàz came to be combined with adjectives to convey the same meanings. Yet, adjectives can still inflect for the superlative degree (usually by adding -issim-), while a few words have retained the comparative degree as well.

El quàgo é buàno. (The (male) cook is good.)

La quàga é buàna. (The female cook is good.)

Le quàgue son buàne. (The cooks are good.)

Questo quàgo é meghor. (This cook is better.)

Questo quàgo é ótimo. (This cook is great.)

Lo toro era forte. (The bull was strong.)

Lo toro era chu forte quel torero. (The bull was stronger than the bullfighter.)

Lo toro era fortissimo / assàz forte. (The bull was very strong.)

The possessive (possessives) form a subgroup of the adjective class and show information about who possesses the modified referent (they can inflect by person, gender and number) as well as gender and number of the possessed referent. In attributive position, an article must be used before the possessive: this allows singular person possessives to not inflect for gender and number when they are prepositioned.

Lo mi gato tàva manjando. / Lo gato mio tàva manjando. (My cat was eating.)

Quegha tazza é tua? (Is that cup yours?)

El Mateo é un amigo nostro. (Matthew is a friend of ours.)

Somo chegàde cola vostra màz. (We have arrived with your [pl.] mother.)

Revo ajudàr le su amigue! / Revo ajudàr l'amigue sue! (I must help his/her/their friends!)

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Adverbs Edit

This class is composed by invariable words that mofify a verb, an adjective, another adverb or a whole sentence as they add information about circumstance, doubt, intensity, mood, negation, place, time, and others. Most adjectives can become adverbs through the -mente suffix. Conversely, some adverbs can inflect to show information about degree (superlative, diminutive, etc) just as adjectives do.

Affirmation, negation, doubtxi (yes), no(n) (no), quissá (perhaps), talvez (maybe).

Moodaxin (this way, like this), biàn, meghor (well, better), màl (bad), -mente (-ly).

Time: agher (yesterday), güe (today), remàn (tomorrow); ance (before), ja (now, already), ora (now), pue (after); cedo (early), tarde (late).

Otherassàz (very, enough), chu (more), quàge (almost), mai (anymore).

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Particles Edit

Words in this class don't have an independent or even dependent (anaphoric) semantic value but are important elements as they define relations among the arguments of a sentence, giving information about definiteness, grammatical case or linking different sentences in many ways. Isolated words like the entrejezzune (exclamations) are grouped in this class as well.

Articlesel, lo (m.), la (f.), le (p.) (the, "definite"); un (m.), una (f.), une (p.) (a(n), some, "indefinite"); rel (m.), rela (f.), rele(p.) (some, "partitive").

The masculine definite article is lo is used for most masuline noun in any grammatical case. However, a more restrict article, the preserved nominative el, is only used for words referring to a person, profession, name or deity in the masculine gender. Therefore, Sarran preserves a residual distinction between nominative and objective cases, while, with the same article, it has developed a distinction between highly animated and less animated referents.

Conjunctionscomo (like, as), (and), mai, paro (but), mo (so that, in order to), nen (nor, "and not"), (or), que (that), si(if); and others.

Exclamationsài, au (ouch), chau (bye), ei (hey), ola (hi).

Prepositions(at, to), vaxo (under), cima (on, over), con (with), en (in, at), entre (between, among), par (for), re(of, from), sen (without); and others.

- The short prepositions a, con, en, par and re fuse with the definite articles. Additionally, the relative pronoun que also features the same kind of fusion. This is shown in the table below:

Masculine Feminine Plural
a al ala ale
con col cola cole
en nel nela nele
par pal pala pale
que quel quela quele
re rel rela rele

Articles and prepositions usually lose their final unstressed vowel when followed by a word beginning with an unstressed vowel. This actually happens with any boundaries with unstressed vowels, where only the last survives, but it is only shown in orthography when the dropped vowel is in a monosyllable, in which case the vowel must be replaced by an apostrophe. However, several short, common words, such as the pronoun el (he) and the noun água (water), cause a preceding article or preposition to lose its final vowel as well. For instance, el (he) plus the preposition en becomes nel (or n'El if it is referring to God); re is contracted before água in the sentence Ó carenza r'água (I need water).

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Verbs Edit

In this class are words indicating action, state or phenomenon. They inflect differently from words in the nombre big class in order to supply information about tense and mood as well as agreeing with the subject in person and number. Verbs are the only mandatory part of a sentence, although in a few situations they can be ommited if one can retrieve them from a previous sentence.

When concerning verbs, Sarran follows a similar path like other West-Iberian languages such as Portuguese and Spanish. The number of conjugations was reduced from four to three since its development from Latin, in that original or new verbs that were found on the third conjugation at the time of Common Romance migrated either to the second or fourth conjugation or even formed a restricted group of irregular verbs. As for the tenses, new future and conditional tenses were formed with the combination of the infinitive plus conjugated HABĒRE, the pluperfect subjunctive came to represent the imperfect subjunctive, and eventually the whole perfect was replaced by periphrastic constructions with ESSERE, STĀRE or HABĒRE. Many forms stressed on the root show metaphony, although it is not considered to be a real irregular conjugation.

First conjugation (-ar). Ex.: amàr (to love)
Present Past Future Conditional
Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub.
àmo àme amàvo amasse amaró amàr amario
àma àme amàva amasse amará amàr amaria
àma àme amàva amasse amará amàr amaria
amàmo amemo amàvamo amassemo amaremo amàrmo amaríamo
amàz amez amàvaz amassez amarez amàrde amaríaz
àma àme amàva amasse amará amàr amaria
Present participle Past participle Infinitive Imperative
amando amàdo amàr (2ps.) àma
(2pp.) amàz

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Second conjugation (-er). Ex.: temer (to fear)
Present Past Future Conditional
Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub.
temo tema temio temesse temeró temer temerio
teme tema temia temesse temerá temer temeria
teme tema temia temesse temerá temer temeria
tememo temàmo temíamo teméssemo temeremo temermo temeríamo
temez temàz temíaz teméssez temerez temerde temeríaz
teme temva temia temesse temerá temer temeria
Present participle Pat participle Infinitive Imperative
temendo temudo temer (2ps.) teme
(2pp.) temez

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Third conjugation (-ir). Ex.: dormir (to sleep)
Present Past Future Conditional
Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub.
dormo dorma dormio dormisse dormiró dormir dormirio
dorme dorma dormia dormisse dormirá dormir dormiria
dorme dorma dormia dormisse dormirá dormir dormiria
dormimo dormàmo dormíamo dormíssemo dormiremo dormirmo dormiríamo
dormiz dormàz dormíaz dormíssez dormirez dormirde dormiríaz
dorme dorma dormia dormisse dormirá dormir dormiria
Present participle Past participle Infinitive Imperative
dormindo dormido dormir (2ps.) dorme
(2pp.) dormiz

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The next tables show the conjugation of important, common but highly irregular verbs:

Irregular conjugation. Ex.: ser (to be)
Present Past Future Conditional
Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub.
sue seja ero fosse seró for serio
ei seja era fosse será for seria
é seja era fosse será for seria
somo sejàmo éramo fóssemo seremo formo seríamo
soz sejàz éraz fóssez serez forde seríaz
son seja era fosse será for seria
Present participle Past participle Infinitive Imperative
sendo xudo ser (2ps.) sé
(2pp.) sez

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Irregular conjugation. Ex.: tàr (to be)
Present Past Future Conditional
Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub.
to teja tàvo tovesse taró toviàr tario
ta teja tàva tovesse tará toviàr taria
ta teja tàva tovesse tará toviàr taria
tàmo tejàmo tàvamo tovéssemo taremo toviàrmo taríamo
tàz tejàz tàvaz tovéssez tarez toviàrde taríaz
ta teja tàva tovesse tará toviàr taria
Present participle Past participle Infinitive Imperative
tando tàdo tàr (2ps.) ta
(2pp.) tàz

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Irregular conjugation. Ex.: aver (to have)
Present Past Future Conditional
Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub.
ó aja avio ovesse abró oviàr abrio
á aja avia ovesse abrá oviàr abria
á aja avia ovesse abrá oviàr abria
avemo ajàmo avíamo ovéssemo abremo oviàrmo abríamo
avez ajàz avíaz ovéssez abrez oviàrde abríaz
á aja avia ovesse abrá oviàr abria
Present participle Past participle Infinitive Imperative
avendo avudo aver (2ps.) á
(2pp.) avez

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Some Romance languages have developed a distinction between permanent and momentary actions and conditions. In Italian, there is a construction with estare plus the gerund indicating the continuous or progessive aspect (see, for instance, canto vs. sto cantando). In Spanish and Portuguese, not only can one find the same construction (cf. PT canto vs. estou cantando), but also one can choose between the linking verbs ser or estar to show whether a state is perceived as more permanent or not (see, for instance, SP ella es vieja vs. ella está vieja). Sarran has gone further as it also benefits from the above constructions but, since it did not lose the transitive/intransitive distinction on the periphrastic perfect, it has found a way to express permanence through the use of ser or tàr when intransitive. This is seen below.

The perfect aspect had once a sole survivor among the synthetic forms much like Spanish pretérito perfecto simple. However, Sarran personal forms gained an amount of irregularity due to phonological changes such as coalescence of coronals and /j/ and were eventually replaced by a periphrastic construction formed by conjugated ser, tàr or aver plus the past participle. Forms with ser or tàr (also showing the distinction between permanent and momentary) are used for instransitive and reflexive verbs and the participle agrees with the subject, while forms with aver are used for transitive verbs and the participle agrees with the object.

Ó pardude le cheve. (I lost my keys.)

To ida al arrestorante. (I went to the restaurant.)

Me sue casàdo en 1985. (I got married in 1985.)

Some verbs can be combined with non-finite verb forms to represent other aspects and specific nuances: exir (to be able, to manage), poder ("can", to be permitted to), arremaner (to stay, to keep (doing something)), voler (to want), and others.

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Syntax Edit

This section will approach word order and formation of sentences starting from simple sentences.

Sarran is a partly pro-drop language. It means that pronouns referring to the subject can be dropped from the sentence, although this happens mostly in combination to unambiguous verb forms, like the ones referring to first person (singular and plural) and second person plural in the indicative mood. This property leads to the simplest complete sentences made of a sole conjugated verb.

Manjo. (I eat., (S)V order, indicating an action)

Marchàz! ([You (pl.)] march!, V(S) order, indicating a command)

Chuàve. (It rains., V order, indicating a natural phenomenon, without subject)

When the verb forms can represent more than one person, the pronoun is not dropped and appears before the verb. In some contexts, even ambiguous forms appear with dropped pronouns.

Manja. (He/she/it/you[sing.]/they eat., or even: Eat. (as a command), ambiguous, up to context)

Eghe canta. (They sing., SV order, unambiguous)

Beve? (Do you drink? Usually used in quick questions)

The subject can also be represented by a noun or a word in "noun" position, which can be surrounded by other words that add information to it. Conjunctions can be used to join two or more subjects together in a single sentence. Although the main order is Subject-Verb, some intransitive verbs, like those conveying movement or existence, repel the subject to the the right when it is fully expressed (contrary to weak pronouns, which stay to the left).

El guàmo manja. (The man eats., SV order, *Nouns are usually accompanied by at least a modifier)

Estughar fazga. (To study tires (one) out., SV order, *The infinitive of a verb can be used as a noun)

Chegará tre cargue re zucre. (Three loads of sugar will arrive., VS order, *Prepositions are used to embed more nouns)

Arremanna tode le candidàte selezzonàde. (All the selected candidates stay., VS order, *command)

Modifiers can appear before or after the noun. Words adding grammatical or quantitative information as well as some short, common adjectives usually go before the noun, whereas words adding qualitative and other subjective information usually go after the verb. Adjectives, articles, possessives and some pronouns agree in gender and number with the subject. The main order in a single noun phrase is: article - unstressed possessive - number - some pronouns - some adjectives - noun - most adjectives - stressed possessive.

El nostro único figho maxo danzàva. (Our only male child danced/used to dance., SV order)

La nostra única figha fembra danzàva. (Our only female child danced/used to dance., SV order)

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A type of sentence is formed by a subject, a linking verb and predicative information about the subject, and the predicative words also agree with the subject in gender and number. This creates a harmony of information in which one can access, for instance, gender information even if the subject is the first person singular. The perfect aspect is represented by a construction using this type of sentence where participial forms of verbs inflect accordingly.

Questo fuàgo ta plàco. (This fire is weak.)

La camija é varmegha(The shirt is red.)

Le màstre sembla buàne. (The teachers seem good.)

Sue apartàda(I'm divorced., says a woman.)

Le chure ta crexude(The flowers have grown.)

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There are verbs requiring more arguments that the subject. They are called transitive verbs and require a direct or indirect object, or even both types of objects and more. The object can be represented by an objective pronoun or by an entire noun phrase, just as subjects can. Direct objects don't require a preposition to mark case but they must oppose the subject in the sentence so that one knows the hierarchy (i.e, the whole sentence mostly displays a fixed SVO order). On the other hand, indirect objects are preceded by a preposition as a case marker. In that case, they can go before the verb but the subject is repeled to the opposite side if there isn't a direct object in the same sentence. Even direct objects can be turned into grammatical indirect objects by adding a before them so they can swap positions with the subject. Objective and local pronouns can be either unstressed, in preverbal position, or stressed, after the verb by adding the preposition a. Constructions representing the perfect aspect of transitive verbs and the reflexive require that the participle agree with the object, even though the participle is fixed after the auxiliary verb.

A subject using the el article is called an el-subject (el sogecho). Since the special article is only used in the nominative case, a sentence containing an el-subject can break the syntactic rules explained above.

Te / àmo. (I love you., direct object / verb (containing the subject))

Àmo a te. (I love you., verb (with subj.) / direct object aided by a)

Ó / un gran orto. (I have a big garden., verb (with subj.) / direct object)

Lo osso / me / ta oghando. (The bear is looking at me., subject / indirect object (a (prep.) "packed") / verb)

Quegho arble / da / molto prucho. (That tree bears much fruit., subject / verb / direct object)

Ó taghàda / la fogha(I have cut the leaf., verb (with subj.) and participle agreeing with the object / direct object)

El Jovàn / dará / al pàz / la caxa. (John will give his father the box., subject / verb / indirect object / direct object)

El Jovàn / lo / dará / la caxa. (John will give him the box., subject / indirect object / verb / direct object)

El Jovàn / la / dará / al pàz. (John will give it to his father., subject / direct object / verb / indirect object)

El Jovàn / ghe / la / dará. (John will give it to him., subject / indirect object (dative form) / direct object / verb)

Ghe / la / dará el Jovàn. (John will give it to him., indirect object (dative form) / direct object / verb / subject, *alternative)

Nennuno / convassa / con egha. (Nobody talks to her., subject / verb / indirect object)

La mi mughara / va / ala egleja. (My wife goes to the church., subject / verb / indirect object)

Ghen / va. ((She) goes there., indirect object / verb (with subj.))

I / viàn / un gran successo rela televison. (A great TV success is coming., indirect object / verb / subject)

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The sentence can be complemented by adverbs indicating place, time, manner and others, which have a relatively free position in the sentence, sometimes also causing an intransitive verb to oppose its argument. Other complements are: nominal complement, relative clause, clause embeded by a conjunction.

Le gaghe cantará remàn(The roosters will sing tomorrow., time adverb at the end)

Remàn cantará le gaghe. (Tomorrow will the roosters sing., time adverb at the beginning)

El màstro á brujàda la su carta al diretor(The teacher has burnt your letter to the director., nominal complement)

La moccina que ó vista agher é la su figha? (Is the little girl I saw yesterday your daughter?, relative clause)

T'enquiro si non é meghor que el arremanna(I ask you if it isn't better that he stay., use of conjunctions)

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Sarran conveys some common expressions by using special constructions:

Reflexive: it is formed by adding an objective pronoun (using se instead of lo, la, le for third person) referring back to the subject before the verb. Semantically, not only can this construction be used to convey a real reflexive action, but also the passive voice, mutual relationships and even more active meanings. Instransitive verbs take the ser / tàr auxiliary verb.

Me to lavàdo. (I washed myself., reflexive meaning)

Lo cardano se da pal govarno estatàl. (The book is supplied by the state government., passive voice)

Lo cavagho s'azzarra libramente. (The horse runs freely., active meaning)

N'avemo bejàde. (We have kissed each other., mutual meaning)

Existential: it is formed by existential verbs (ser / tàr, esistir, correr), which repel the full subject to the right. Some of these verbs must be accompanied by a local pronoun, which can appear in unstressed, preverbal position or can be positioned after the verb by adding the preposition (it becomes stressed, just as personal pronouns do).

Esiste lo prio? (Does the cold exist?, no mandatory place. Sometimes the subject precedes this verb)

Ta cossa una tragegha. (There was a tragedy / A tragedy happened., no mandatory place)

Nugha corre màl en questa vigha. (Nothing bad happens in this village., preceding pronominal subject)

Ghen ta trinta passone. (There is thirty people (there)., mandatory place)

Possessive: although there are specific possessive words, Sarran speakers prefer dropping them or using a construction with a dative pronoun.

El mozzo á enquirido lo su pàz cima lo cosso. (The boy asked his father about what happened., explicit possessive)

El mozzo á enquirido lo pàz cima lo cosso. (lit. "The boy has asked the father over the happened [event]", dropped)

La ronna volia tocàr le labe mie. (The woman wanted to touch my lips., explicit possessive)

La ronna me volia tocàr le labe. (lit. "The woman me[dat.] wanted to touch the lips., dative construction)

La luz t'acharexa lo trigho. (May the light clear your path., literally "(That) the light you[dat.] clear the path.")

Below are other instances of special constructions for common expressions:

Avemo carenza re chu tempo. (We need more time., literally "We have need of time.")

Me plàz lo xugo re limon. (I like lemon juice., literally "Me[dat.] pleases the juice of lemon.")

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Vocabulary Edit

Sarran vocabulary is mainly composed of words naturally evolved from Vulgar and Classical Latin, but it also contains a number of native Greek words. Many romance words are preserved from the Common Romance period, unlike Spanish and Portuguese, for instance, due to a relative isolation at the time of the Moorish invasions. At a later time, though, Sarran received some influence from their Iberian neighbors concerning technical terms and words coming from Arabic.

One can say Sarran vocabulary is somewhat conservative when compared to the other Romance languages. Many words from the Common period, cognate with Catalan and/or Italian words, are still in use, while some words align more with the "Western side" and some with the "Iberian side". Below is a vocabulary comparison with Catalan, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish, and the word origin, separated by thematic tables:

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Amorzo (breakfast)
Sarran (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
leche (f.) "milk", from LĀCTEM leite leche llet latte
miàl (m.) "honey", from MEL mel miel mel miele
pàn (m.) "bread", from PĀNEM pão pan pa pane
quejo (m.) "cheese", from CĀSEUM queijo queso formatge formaggio
zucre (m.) "sugar", from Arabic açúcar azúcar sucre zucchero

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Beste (animals)
Sarran (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
bue (m.) "ox", from BOVEM boi buey bou bue
càn (m.) "dog", from CANEM cachorro perro gos cane
cavagho (m.) "horse", from CABALLUM cavalo caballo cavall cavallo
gato (v.) "cat", from CATTUM gato gato gat gatto
occegho (m.) "bird", from Late aucellu pássaro pájaro ocell uccello
pexe (m.) "fish", from PISCEM peixe pez peix pesce

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Colure (colors)
Sarran (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
aranja (c.) "orange", from Sanscrit laranja naranja taronja arancia
azul (i.) "blue", from Persian azul azul blau blu
blanco (v.) "white", from Germanic branco blanco blanc bianco
grijo (v.) "grey", from Germanic cinza gris gris grigio
jalde (c.) "yellow", from Germanic amarelo amarillo groc giallo
nero (v.) "black", from NIGRUM preto negro negre nero
porpla (c.) "purple", from PURPURAM roxo púrpura porpra porpora
varmegho (v.) "red", from RUSSEUM vermelho rojo vermell rosso
verde (c.) "green", from VIRIDEM verde verde verd verde

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Corpo (body)
Sarran (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
cavezza (f.) "head", from VL capitia cabeça cabeza cap testa
màno (f.) "hand", from MĀNUM mão mano mano
nàso (m.) "nose", from NĀSUM nariz nariz nas naso
ogho (m.) "eye", from OCULUM olho ojo ull occhio
piàz (m.) "foot", from PEDEM pie peu piede
voca (f.) "mouth", from BUCCAM boca boca boca bocca

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Famegha (family)
Sarran (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
figho (m.) "son", from FĪLIUS (m.) filho hijo fill figlio
figha (f.) "daughter", from FĪLIA (m.) filha hija filla figlia
jarmàno (m.) "brother", from GERMĀNUS (m.) irmão hermano germà fratello
jarmàna (f.) "sister", from GERMĀNA (f.) irmã hermana germana sorella
màz (f.) "mother", from MĀTER (m.) mãe madre mare madre
pàz (m.) "father", from PATER (m.) pai padre pare padre

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Natura (nature)
Sarran (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
água (f.) "water", from AQUAM água agua aigua acqua
àr (m.) "air", from AEREM ar aire aire aria
arble (m.) "tree", from ARBOREM árvore árbol arbre albero
chumbre (m.) "river", from *flumine rio río riu fiume
estegha (f.) "star", from STELLAM estrela estrella estrella stella
fuàgo (m.) "fire", from FOCUM fogo fuego foc fuoco
luna (f.) "moon", from LŪNAM lua luna lluna luna
màr (m.) "sea", from MARE mar mar mar mare
piàdra (f.) "stone, rock", from PETRAM pedra piedra pera pietra
sol (m.) "sun", from SŌLEM sol sol sol sole
tarra (f.) "earth, ground", from TERRAM terra tierra terra terra
zàlo (m.) "sky, heaven", from CAELUM céu cielo cel cielo

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Ogete (objects)
Sarran (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
cardano (m.) "book", from QUATERNUM (m.) livro libro llibre libro
cesta (f.) "basket", from CISTA (f.) cesta cesta cistella cestino
tabla (f.) "table", from TABULAM (f.) mesa mesa taula tavolo
segha (f.) "chair", from SELLAM (f.) cadeira silla cadira sedia
tazza (f.) "cup", from Arabic tassah copo taza tassa tazza

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Pruche (fruits)
Sarran (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
celeja (f.) "cherry", from *ceresia cereja cereza cerera ciliegia
durazno (m.) "peach", from DŪRĀCINUM pêssego melocotón prèssec pesco
mazzàna (f.) "apple", from MĀTTIĀNAM maçã manzana poma mela
melon (m.) "melon", from MELONEM melão melón meló melone
pragha (f.) "strawberry", from *fragula morango fresa maduixa fragola

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Semàna (week)
Sarran (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
romengo (m.) "Sunday", from DOMENICUM domingo domingo diumenge domenica
lun (m.) "Monday", from LŪNAE segunda-feira lunes dilluns lunedi
màrte (m.) "Tuesday", from MARTIS terça-feira martes dimarts martedì
mercle (m.) "Wednesday", from MERCURIĪ quarta-feira mièrcoles dimecres mercoledì
juàve (m.) "Thurday", from IOVIS quinta-feira jueves dijous giovedi
vindre (m.) "Friday", from VENERIS sexta-feira viernes divendres venerdì
xabàz (m.) "Sabbath", from Hebrew sábado sábado dissabte sabato

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Sentimente (feelings)
Sarran (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
amor (m.) "love", from AMOREM amor amor amor amore
celume (m.) "jealousy, zeal", from *zelumen ciúme celos gelosia gelosia
goja (f.) "joy", from GAUDIA gozo gozo goig gioia
paxon (f.) "passion", from PASSIONEM paixão pasión passió passione
soltuz (f.) "loneliness", from SŌLITŪDINEM solidão soledad solitud solitudine

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Verdure (vegetables)
Sarran (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
agho (m.) "garlic", from ĀLIUM alho ajo all aglio
fejolo (m.) "beans", from Greek feijão frijol fesol fagiolo
lechuga (f.) "lettuce", from LACTŪCAM alface lechuga enciam lattuga
tomato (m.) "tomato", from Nahuatl tomate tomate tomáquet pomodoro
zanora (f.) "carrot", from Arabic cenoura zanahoria pastanaga carota

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Sarran inherited most of its vocabulary from Vulgar Latin. However, it received many words from other sources as well either directly (inherited, learned or borrowed) or indirectly through contact with other Romance languages.

Arabic: aceche (oil), café (coffee), cipra (number), xaqueca (migraine).

Celtic: bruxa (witch), colmena (hive), mina (mine), quàto (hill), texon (badger).

English: clube (club), forclor (folklore), naghon (or nàilon, "nylon"), xampú (shampoo).

French: bigheto (ticket), comité (comittee), danzàr (to dance), message (message).

Germanic: blanco (white), fornexer (to provide), guia (guide), norde (north), arrobàr (to steal).

Greek: biologia (biology), problema (problem), vangegho (gospel), xilófono (xylophone).

Italian: aquarela (watercolor), medagha (medal, badge), innoque (gnocchi), partitura (music score).

Latin: anexo (annex, pronounced /a'neʃo/), fazzon (faction, vs. inherited fezzon, "appearance"), vigaro (vicar).

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There are a number of words that evolved naturally but don't have natural cognates in other Romance languages or have diverged their meaning and use. These regional items, added by innovations not found elsewhere, form a distinctive part of the Sarran vocabulary.

Arroz: this adjective shifted its meaning from "rough, not refined" to "ugly". It came from Latin RUDEM and produced derivations such as arruexer (to become ugly) and arrueza (ugliness). Portuguese arroz (rice) is a false cognate.

Brenna: this noun doesn't come from Latin, but instead from a hispano-celtic word *brigna, from briga (fortress). At first, it meant "rocky terrain", shifting to "any place difficult to reach", and finally "hideout". Its derived verb embrennàr was then generalized to mean "to hide" and is cognate with Portuguese embrenhar (to hide in the woods).

Cando: this adjective means "pretty, beautiful" and comes from Latin CANDIDUM. Its derivations are: candeza(beauty) and encandexer (to embellish).

Correr: this verb acquired an existential meaning, equivalent to English "to happen, there to be" and Spanish "haber". It can be found with a similar use in the Portuguese expression correr bem/mal (to go well/bad).

Fucina: this noun means "bee" and came from a regional form *fucina, from Latin FŪCUM (drone) which gave the modern noun fugo, cognate with Italian fuco.

Trigho: this noun means "path, way" and comes from Latin TRĪBULUM. Although cognates are found in other Romance languages (cf. Portuguese trilho (railway)), its derived verb trighàr (to walk) managed to replace earlier forms such as annàr and caminàr.

Zarre: this adjective means "fast" and comes from Latin CELEREM. From it came the verbs azzarràr (to accelerate, to make run) and s'azzarràr (to run), as well as zarridàz (speed) and zarràda (race).

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Sample texts Edit

Below are some examples of texts and excerpts from common sources used by conlangers.

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Declarazzon Universal rele Dereche Umane (Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

"Tode passone naxe libre e egüele en rennidàz e dereche. Pue sende rotàde r'arrazon e coxenza, eghe se reve trechàr con espírito re jarmandàz."

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Pàz nostro (Lord's Prayer)

Pàz nostro que é nel zàlo:

se santifique lo tu nombre,

ca venna lo tu arrenno,

se fazza la tu voluntàz

nela tarra e tamiàn nel zàlo.

Ne da güe lo nostro pàn jornàl,

e ne pardona le nostre riode,

axin como pardonàmo le nostre riodore,

e non ne dexa cair en tentazzon,

mai ne libra rel màlo.

(Pue son tue l'arrenno, lo poder e la glera par sempre. Amen.)

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El Vento Norde e el Sol (The North Wind and the Sun)

El Vento Norde e el Sol tàva contennende quàl era chu forte, quan ghen vinna un viagero envolto en un manto caldo. Eghe á fexàde que quiàn exisse fàr primo lo viagero togher lo manto reva ser consideràdo chu forte quel altro.

Repué el Vento Norde á soplàdo lo chu forte que podia, paro tan chu el soplàva quan chu vecino lo viagero roblàva lo manto entorno; e, parfin el Vento Norde á arrenunzàdo al entento.

Repué ta brighàdo calorosamente el Sol, e re soto lo viagero á tolto lo manto. E axin el Vento Norde se ta obligàdo a confessàr quel Sol era lo chu forte rele rue.

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La torre re Babel (The Babel Tower)

Entonce era una sola lenga nel monno e un solo gecho re fablàr.

Pue salinde rel Oriente le umbre, eghe á achàda una chanura en Xinàr e ghen se son assentàde. Eghe s'á dicho: "fazzàmo ladreghe e le cozàmo biàn." Eghe á usàdo ladregho en vez re piàdra e asfalto en vez re mescla. Repué eghe s'á dicho: "n'eguàmo una zudàz con una torre que chegue al zàlo. Axin faremo famoso lo nostro nombre e non ne regecharemo pala tarra entera."

Mai el Sennor ta vaxàdo mo el vesse la zudàz e la torre quele umbre tàva eguande. E el Sennor á dicho: "Si como un puàblo que fabla la mesma lenga eghe ta comenzàde a fàr quesso, entonce nugha que eghe ententa le será impossible. Vennàmo, vaxàmo e confonnàmo la su lenga mo eghe ja non comprenna elexe."

Axin el Sennor l'á regechàde pala tarra entera e eghe son dexàde r'eguàr la zudàz. Par zo s'é chamàda Babel: pue el Sennor ghen á confonnida la lenga rel monno entero. Re quel logàr l'á regechàde pala tarra entera.

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