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Schaikeul

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Schaikeul
'
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m (m) n (n) ŋ (ng)
Plosive

pʰ (p)

b (b)

tʰ (t)

d (d)

kʰ (k)

g (g)

Fricative

f (f)

v (v)

s (s)

z (z)

ʃ (sch)

ʒ (zh)

ʁ (rh) h (h)
Affricate

ʧ (ch)

ʤ (j)

Approximant j (y) w (w)
Flap or tap ɾ (r)
Lateral app. l (l)

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Back
Close i (i) y (ÿ) ɯ (eu) u (u)
Near-close ɪ (ì)
Close-mid ᴏ (o)
Mid ə (e)
Open-mid ɛ (è) œ (oe)\
Open a (a)

AlphabetEdit

Schaikeul has its own writing system. However, the Latin alphabet is used to teach the language. 

The modified Latin alphabet represents 23 consonants, 5 of which are represented by multigraphs:

B b Ch ch D d F f G g H h J j K k L l M m N n O o P p R r Rh rh S s T t
V v W w Y y Z z Sch sch Zh zh Ng ng X x

and represents 9 vowels: 

A a È è I i O o U u Ÿ ÿ Eu eu Ì ì E e Oe oe

The grapheme ⟨X⟩,⟨x⟩ represents [ks].

The order of the letters of the alphabet are as follows: 

i ÿ eu u ì o e è a h rh w k g ng y ch j sch zh l r s z t d n f v p b m

PhonotacticsEdit

Schaikeul allows multiconsonantal onsets and codas, but syllables with such onsets cannot have a semivowel. Syllables that can have semivowels allow multiconsonantal codas, but do not allow multiconsonantal onsets.    Diphthongs are not allowed in Schaikeul. However, adjacent vowels may sound like diphthongs when spoken.  Therefore, the largest syllables are MVM and CSVM; where "M" stands for multiple consonants, and "S" represents the semivowel.

GrammarEdit

Schaikeul is primarily SVO, but SOV, OSV, and VSO are also used in literature and to denote topics.  

Pronouns Edit

Schaikeul pronouns are divided into three groups: Common, Literary, and Official. 

"Common" pronouns are used in everyday conversations only. They vary in degrees of politeness. Common pronouns are never used when writing formal works such as essays, treatises, and documents. They are, however, allowed in creative pieces and fiction.  

"Literary" pronouns, as their name suggests, are used in literary forms, though they are found in some official documents. Literary pronouns are usually not spoken, and politeness does not vary.

"Official" pronouns are found in documents and any form of formal writing. Official pronouns are the most common pronouns in writing. In general, official pronouns are used when addressing superiors, but not anyone you are familiar with. Government officials, employers, and military officers are addressed with official pronouns.  

Number Person (+Gender) Pronoun
Singular First-Person Na
Wasso
Zaix
Second-Person Ki
Gal
Mei
Third-Person (male) Ra
Sorè
Hwa
(female) Scho
Souyo
Zhèl
Third-Person (non-human) Sunei
Plural First-Person Wo
Atai
Second-Person Ÿn
Third-Person  Kinu

Pro-forms Edit

Demonstrative Quantifier Interrogative
Proximal Distal Existential Elective Universal Negative Alternative
Determiner i, ièo nu, noeul sot joeul sèìn mu nanè
Pronoun Human ikkiru nukkiru sokkiru jokkiru sèkkiru mukkiru tèkkiru nakkiru
Non-human inè nunè sonè jonè sènè munè tènè nanè
Out of many igè nugè sogè jogè sègè mugè tègè nagè
Pro-adverb Location illyo nullyo sollyo jollyo sèlyo mullyo tèllyo nallyo
Time iru nuru soru joru sèru muru tèru naru
Manner idu noeuldu sodu jodu sèdu mudu tèdu zèndou
Reason ièdou noeuldou nandou
Quantity ikiyu nokyu sokyu jokyu sèkyu mukyu nanyu

VerbsEdit

Verbs conjugate to tense, aspect, mood, and voice. 

CopulaEdit

Schaikeul has three copulas: , ih, and ssan.

yè is used to equate one thing with another, it also means "to exist". 

ih means "to become", and ssan means "to seem like"

ConjugationsEdit

Verbs ending in a vowel:

Indicative Conditional Volitive Imperative Negative
Simple Present -ta -sèki -ge -schai
Past -nè -da -nèki -neschai
Future -rè -rèki -reschai

Progressive

Present -neun -teun -neuschai
Past -reun -deun -reuschai
Future -rheun -rheuschai
Perfect Present -m -tagèn -meschai
Past -bèn -dazèn -beschai
Future -zèn -tarhèn -zeschai
Infinitive Gerund Present Participle Past Participle
-do -na -ra

Verbs ending in a consonant:

Indicative Conditional Volitive Imperative Negation
Simple Present -ita -isèki -ige -ischai
Past -inè -ida -inèki -ineschai
Future -ìrè -irèki -ireschai

Progressive

Present -ineun -iteun -ineuschai
Past -ireun -ideun -ireuschai
Future -irheun -irheuschai
Perfect Present -is -itagèn -ischai
Past -ibèn -idazèn -ibeschai
Future -izèn -itarhèn -izeschai
Infinitive Gerund Present Participle Past Participle
-odo -ona -ora

Passive VoiceEdit

To construct the passive voice, add the prefix "be-" to the verb. For example, "has been eaten" would be "behazhen", which consists of "be-" (passive prefix), "-hazh-" (to eat), and "-en" (present perfect indicative suffix). 

Compound VerbsEdit

Add "-vel" to the initial verb, which carries all markers. Add "-(eu)do" to the main verb, which carries the meaning. For example, "start reading" would be "schaixvel sorukèdo", which consists of "schaix" (to start), "-vel" (compound marker), "-sorukè" (to read) and "-do" (main verb marker). 

Modal VerbsEdit

Modal verbs will not carry any markers, and therefore do not conjugate. Instead, the main verb will carry all markers and will conjugate.

Ability Permission Suggestion Obligation Assumption Likelihood Challenge

nim

(can)

hara

(may)

skè

(should)

mazo

(must)

inim

(should)

(may)

darè

(dare)

NounsEdit

Nouns decline to number and do not have any articles. 

Nouns can be made plural either by adding "-i" or repeating the noun. 

For example, the noun "kiru" (person) can become "kirui" (people) or "kirukiru" (all people) when pluralized. 

Note that pluralizing a noun by repeating it will have a meaning that is similar to the noun with the universal determiner, but can only be used in literary works and official documents. Therefore, "kirukiru" cannot be substituted for "sèkiru".

Adjectives and AdverbsEdit

Schaikeul adjectives are essentially verbs. They will follow the same conjugation rules as verbs. Adjectival conjugations are limited, as they do not have future tense and only have indicative forms.

ConjugationEdit

Adjectives that end with a vowel: 
Positive Negative Predicative Positive Predicative Negative

Attributive Marker

Adverb
Present -eschai yèschai no -ndè
Past nè -neschai yènè yèneschai no
Adjectives that end with a consonant: 
Positive Negative Predicative Positive Predicative Negative Attributive Marker Adverb
Present -eu -ai yèschai no -eundè
Past -eun -eunai yènè yèneschai no

The attributive marker links the adjective to the noun and pairs with the positive and negative conjugations. For example, adjective A (after conjugating) will have no attached to noun X. The result is: A no X

The predicative adjective is based on the copula yè. The copula itself will undergo all conjugations, and the adjective will remain the same. With adjective A and noun X, "X is A" will be Y yè X

When more than one attributive adjective is attached to a noun, the adjectives will be listed with no. Similarly with predicative adjectives, they will be listed with 

Adverbs do not conjugate and usually precede the modified verb or adjective. 

ComparisonEdit

Adverbs for comparison precede the adjectives they modify.

  • kèdè is the comparative form.
  • sakundè is the superlative form.

When two objects are being compared, the adjective will take the comparative form and the word van is precedes the second object. So, "X is A-er than Y" would be X yè A-kèdè van Y, where X and Y are objects and A stands for a single or multiple adjectives. 

The attrubitive marker, when used, will be placed after the comparative/superlative form. So, "The A-est X" would be A-sakundè no X.

DerivationsEdit

  • Verbs to nouns: -do
  • Verbs to adjectives: -nim
  • Adjectives to verbs: hen-
  • Adjectives to nouns: -do / -èdo
  • Adjectives to adverbs: -ndè / -eundè
  • Nouns to verbs: -ma / -euma
  • Nouns to adjectives: sang-

NumeralsEdit

Numerals in Schaikeul are attributive. When they are used, they will replace any quantifiers and the noun itself will be in its singular form. Numbers in Schaikeul also follow the long scale rather than the short scale.

Cardinal NumbersEdit

Numeral

Schaikeul Short Scale Long Scale
0.001 sènst "Thousandth" "Thousandth"
0.01 hwaxst "Hundredth" "Hundredth"
0.1 yast "Tenth" "Tenth"
0 nìt "Zero" "Zero"
1 zhè "One" "One"
2 sang "Two" "Two"
3 trhai "Three" "Three"
4 syot "Four" "Four"
5 im "Five" "Five"
6 rhu "Six" "Six"
7 cha "Seven" "Seven"
8 ba "Eight" "Eight"
9 kyo "Nine" "Nine"
10 ya "Ten" "Ten"
11 yana "Eleven" "Eleven" 
20 nya "Twenty" "Twenty"
21 nyazhè "Twenty-one"  "Twenty-one" 
40 syotya "Forty" "Fourty"
100 hwax "Hundred" "Hundred"
1,000 sèn "Thousand" "Thousand"
10⁶ myot "Million" "Million"
10⁹ wa "Billion" "Milliard"
10¹² sang-myot "Trillion" "Billion"
10¹⁵ sang-wa "Quadrillion" "Billiard"
10¹⁸ trhai-myot "Quintillion" "Trillion"
10²¹ trhai-wa "Sextillion" "Trilliard"

Note that numerals such as 100 are read as if the "one" did not exist. 100 would be read as hwap, not zhè-hwap.

Ordinal NumbersEdit

Ordinal forms are made by adding -st to the end of the numeral. So "sixth" would be rhust.

Negative NumbersEdit

Negative numbers are made by the word schai, which precedes the numeral.

Decimals and FractionsEdit

Decimals will have their digits read instead of giving the value. The decimal points is read as ku. So, 3.14159265 would be read as san-ku-zhè-syot-zhè-im-kyo-ni-rhu-im

Fractions can be read in the following ways:

  • "A B-ths", where B is in the ordinal form. "Three-elevenths" is san-yazchèst.
  • "A out of B". "Three out of eleven" is san ju yazchè.'

Multiplicative Edit

The multiplicative form describes the noun in an n-fold system, where the quantity of the noun is n. Multiplicative words include adverbs ("once", "twice", "thrice") and adjectives/verbs ("single", "double", "triple").  To create multiplicative adjectives, the suffix -(g)en is added. Adverbs will be derived. 

Examples: 

  • "Single" - zhègen
  • "Double" - sangen
  • "Triple" - trhaigen

PrepositionsEdit

Schaikeul prepositions must precede the noun phrase, stranding is not allowed. 

Preposition English Equivalent Meaning and Usage
issÿn with
  • in the company of
ìn in
  • indicates location; surrounded by
  • within a time constraint
und until
  • up to the time of
an at 
  • indicates a specific location
  • indicates time
wèi for
  • for the purpose of
  • directed to
wan  toward
  • in the direction of
ku behind, after
  • to the back of
  • immediately after a period of time
kèzhèk against
  • in contrary direction
kèn before
  • in front of
  • earlier in time
kan between
  • in a position that separates two objects
  • intermediate in quantity or degree
ja concerning, regarding
  • on the subject of
som from
  • indicates origins
sa near
  • to be in proximity to
ni to
  • indicates a target (indirect object)
fÿl for
  • during a time period
bin by
  • by means of
  • indicates actor in a clause with passive voice
mal on
  • to be touching
  • to be on the surface of

Conjunctions Edit

Conjunction English Equivalent Logical Representation Usage/Meaning
ihai but --
  • implies that the following clause contrasts with the preceding clause 
  • implies that the following clause is contrary to prior belief
  • cannot begin a sentence
itayo or P ∨ Q
  • connects at least two alternative words, phrases, clauses, etc. 
  • each alternative can make the passage true
yu...so... if-then P → Q
  • introduces a condition or choice P
  • explains what will happen if the condition is satisfied/if the choice is made
yunai...sonai... unless --
  • except on a specified condition
  • "if not... then not..."
yèppul whether or not --
  • declare a clause, usually initial
  • demonstrates disregard for both positive and negative of following clause
janai...ita... whether-or --
  • declares clause, usually final
  • demonstrates disregard for two alternatives
suyìn although --
  • in spite of that fact that
  • placed at beginning of its clause
soudou because P ← Q
  • explains the cause of Q, which (assuming P → Q) is P
soyìn therefore P → Q; P; ∴Q
  • by consequence; refers to something previously stated
somnoru since --
  • from a certain point of time to the present
sanggè...itayo... either-or P ⊕ Q 
  • connects two alternatives, offers two choices
  • one alternative must be true, the other must be false
  • one choice must be fufilled, the other must not
to and P ∧ Q
  • connects two similar words, phrases, clauses, etc. 
  • both P and Q must be satisfied
daru as --
  • at the same time that an event occurred
-nai...-nai... neither-nor ¬P ∧ ¬Q
  • introduces two terms
  • indicates both terms are not true
  • -nai is attached to the end of the term
fÿru while --
  • during the same time that an event occurred
modeun but; however --
  • implies that the following clause contrasts with the preceding clause
  • can be used to begin a sentence

Example textEdit

  • "There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved."
    Amè mazhèdir ja idu ni sèkiwa no okyufu, bin sunei no sottèsu nufulnesa, someundè ippunibènodo ni sonè itayo zhè nè; to nu, fÿru i pèhèlzènt kirisvèl suyokido somÿn churoku no lègèsch. Som kèntan no schaixeudo, musu mèita no to kyokiwa no nè -iben, to -ineun, jikihèn.
  • "We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender..."
    Atai kirirèvèl ischtèr und keutot. Atai schèktèrè in Frans; atai schèktèrè in sièvhè to daihè; atai schèktèrè issÿn gaeunim jeushìn to gaeunim kèjjang; atai soschèrè wo no isslan, yèppul nanè du hèamè. Atai schèktèrè mal hibyon, atai schèktèrè mal ryudèlyo, atai schèktèrè in chodyo to in geutrhada, atai schèktèrè in sosan to in kataru; atai schaide tosafurhu.
  • "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."
    Kirukiru, somnoru sèmiyÿdo, yè fÿjat to yè èital ja kwonyu to challo. Kinu habèndètora raidou to shalshinè, inim schokutot bin yang songdi no du ni fÿrhakiru.
  • "A strip of water's spread in the setting sun, Half the river's emerald, half is red. I love the third night of the ninth month,The dew is like pearl; the moon like a bow." -- "Song of Sunset on the River" 
    "Mal nèsèchi sÿ sinschìn rèmin yìn, hanja rèiyèna yè mijìl, hanja yè hurèso. Na schìssang nyo yÿè no trhaist èmìnyon, iyu ssan su to yÿè ssan hwal." --"Rèmin Rèiyèna Rèn"
  • "I slumbered this spring morning, and missed the dawn, From everywhere I heard the cry of birds. That night the sound of wind and rain had come, Who knows how many flowers had fallen?" -- "Spring Dawn"
    "I hyonto no chin ih sÿyìminè, to chèschai an sumìn. Som sèlyo ih hèninè nimin no taigol. Nu èminyon kommtinè kasa to règèn no sang. Nakkiru èsanum nanyu hana korukirabèn?  --"Hyonto no Sumìn"

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