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Sdrafyaot

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Sdrafyaot (IPA: ˈstrafyəot), known in English as Stravian or officially Neostravian, is a partially constructed language of heavy North Germanic influence that is the leading of the three national language of the Kingdom of Stravia. The language was constructed originally in 1314 by the Acstuvaci Rebellion leaders Ólafar Gudrunsson, Þorin Erosvard, Vilhjálm Helnkenge and other associates in response to the Paleostravian language being illegalized by the Christian missionaries in the 13th century and following the First Stravian Rising. The language has since evolved to become the Stravian language as it is known today.

Name: Sdrafyaot

Type: Synthetic

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Mixed

Number of genders: None

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


ClassificationEdit

Stravian is an a posteriori Indo-European language and part of the Nordic Germanic group, as it is an evolved form of the West Norse Language. Stravian shows influence from Paleostravian, Icelandic and Old West Norse.

Phonology & OrthographyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

The Stravian language has a some significant dialectal difference in phonology, found mostly due to the North/South divide of the Stravian nation, with the southern dialects influenced greater by Icelandic. The language contains monophthongs and diphthongs, which are represented by mono- and digraphs. Only monographs are considered distinct letters in the Stravian alphabet. The language is mostly orthographically phonemic.

Bilabial Labio-Dental Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d k g
Fricative f v θ ð s x
Approximant l j h
Trill r

Voiced stops and nasals devoice in voiceless clusters.

The phoneme [v] is approximated to [ʋ] following voiceless consonants.

The voiced trill [r] may be reduced to a single tap intervocalically.

Word ending, the following lenition occurs: [v] to [ʋ], [ð] to [ð̞], [d] to [ð̠], and [g] to [ɣ].

VowelsEdit

Front

(Long)

Centralised

(Short)

Back Diphthongs
Close i y ɪ ʏ u

ei̯ eu̯

oi̯ ou̯

ai̯ au̯

Close-mid e ø œ o
Open-mid ɛ æ
Open a ä

Vowels are retracted or centralised in some speakers when short.

Phonotactics Edit

The following image describes phonotactic syllable structure:

Phonotactic Chart-1

† May not precede [j]

Additionally, voiced nasals, and voiceless stops and fricatives can be geminated.

Nasals are syllabic if word ending after stops or nasals.

The phonemes [l] and [r] are syllabic if word ending.

AlphabetEdit

The Stravian alphabet is ordered:

Majuscule: A Æ B C D Ð E F G H I J L M N O Ø P R S T Þ U V Y

Minuscule: a æ b c d ð e f g h i j l m n o ø p r s t þ u v y

The letters k, q, w, x and z, as well as the Icelandic letter ö, do not appear in the Stravian alphabet, but may be used in loanwords or proper nouns. However they are often replaced with the native Stravian c, cv, v, cs, s and ø respectively.


OrthographyEdit

Grapheme Name Phonetic Realization Example Translation English Equivalent
a

ai/ái

au/áu

á [aː] [a] ~ [ä]

[ai̯]

[au̯]

stjarna

bair

rauð

star

city

red

hand / father

light

cow

á [aː] sjág from hand (long)
æ ǽ [ɛː] [ɛ] ~ [æ] hæt hat pet
ǽ [ɛː] hotǽl hotel pet (long)
b be [be] [b]

[p] when devoiced

buc

isbjur

book

polar bear

bat

sip

c

ch

ce [ke] [k]

[x]

celo

ech

towards

you

cross

loch (Scottish)

d de [de] [d]

[ð̠] when final

[t] when devoiced

dan

claid

vodca

then

dress

vodka

dot

with (retracted)

soot

ð ða [ða] [ð]

[ð̞] when final

ðeg

tað

day

it

this

with (approximated)

e

ei/éi

eu/éu

é [eː] [e] ~ [e̞]

[ei̯]

[eu̯]

geþi

nei

eura

please

new

ear

hey (without y)

day

tell (Cockney)

é [eː] jés yes hey (long)
f fa [fa] [f] hafa have fire
g ge [ge] [g]

[ɣ]

[k] when devoiced

auga

leg

segt

eye

leg

last

gone

lough (Irish)

neck

h

hl

hn

hr

hal [hal] [h]

[l̥]

[n̥]

[r̥]

Hosti

hlaia

hní

hrista

autumn

dress

knee

shake

hop

voiceless l

voiceless n

voiceless r

i í [iː] [i] ~ [ɪ] ig I keep
í [iː] í in keep (long)
j joct [jokt] [j] Juni June you
l ál [aːl] [l]

[l̩] when word ending

laira

costl

learn

castle

let

castle

m ám [aːm] [m]

[m̥] when devoiced

[m̩] when final after stops/nasals

mergn

slaimt

sinm

morning

bad

these

mind

voiceless m

denim

n


ng

án [aːn] [n]

[n̥] when devoiced

[n̩] when final after stops/nasals

[ŋ]

[ŋ̊] when devoiced

ofin

Ventur

vatn

fingri

langt

above

winter

water

finger

far

not

voiceless n

button

king

voiceless ng

o

oi/ói

ou/óu

ó [oː] [o]

[oi̯]

[ou̯]

o

imoir

móu

and

ant

may

road with no w sound

oil

low

ó [oː] jóground road (long)
ø ǿ [øː] [ø] ~ [œ] øscra scream French sœur
ǿ [øː] ǿnst opposite German schön
p pe [peː] [p] pacta package pound
r eir [ei̯r] [r]

[r̩] when final after stops/nasals

trig

cindr

three

child

trilled r

better (trilled)

s sa [sa] [s] soln sun sock
t te [te] [t] tá thanks top
þ þa [θa] [θ] þoc fog think
u ú [uː] [u] gulr yellow flute
ú [uː] fút clothing shoe
v va [va] [v]

[ʋ] when succeeding voiceless consonants

vi

hval

we

whale

vent

west with slight v sound

y ý [yː] [y] ~ [ʏ] hynt dog German müssen
ý [yː] sumýr some German über

Stress falls on the first syllable of multi-syllabic words, except when it is marked by an accented long vowel.


Grammar - MoljegingEdit

Copulae - TengasognesEdit

The Stravian language has only one copula,  (to be), which comes in 9 forms dependent on tense, person and number.

Present Past/Perfect Future
Singular eðun eður
2nd person formal eði eðin eðir
Plural/Multiple eða eðan eðar

Articles - ÆrticallaEdit

As Stravian words are genderless, the definite article is de, which is used for singular nouns, and may be omitted in titles or proper nouns. The plural form is din.

de man - the man

(de) Jorð - (the) Earth

din dalnes - the valleys

The sole positive indefinite article is in.

in husjar - a house


There is one negative indefinite article - sín - which denoted not having or not being something. The word can also denote not doing if placed before a verb, or can denote not being of a certain quality when used as a prefix (se-) on adjectives and adverbs. This does not change the stress on the word, which remains on the root.

Ig hafa sín buc. - I do not have a book. (Lit. I have no book.)

Du  sín talida. - You are not talking.

Ør eð seblar. - It is not blue.

Er eð seflasclig laira. - He is not learning quickly (Lit. He is not quickly learning.)


Nouns - NaunesEdit

Nouns decline only to number, and have only a singular and plural form. The plural form is denoted by -es or by -s where phonotactics allow.

bairbaires - city → cities

fjatlafjatlas - mountain → mountains

hynthynts - dog → dogs


Pronouns - FornaunesEdit

Subject Object Possessive

Adjective

Possessive Reflexive
1st Person Singular ig mig min mina migr
1st Person Plural vi vig vin vina vigr
2nd Person Singular du dig dun duna digr
2nd Person Plural sju sig sun suna sigr
2nd Person Male Formal Jer Jer Jern Jernin Jernr
2nd Person Female Formal Fra Fra Fran Franin Franr
3rd Person Male Singular er der ern erna ernr
3rd Person Female Singular ir dir irn irna irnr
3rd Person Neuter Singular ør dør ørn ørna ørnr
3rd Person General Singular ar dar arn arna arnr
3rd Person General Plural þju þjug þjun þjuna þjug
Generic Person mán mána maun manin manr
Demonstratives Near Far
Singular set þa
Plural seur þaur

Adjectives - LysaurdesEdit

Adjectives in Stravian may be placed before - as possessive adjectives and number always are - but most often after their respective nouns, which declines only when plural.

in epli rauð - a red apple

tver eplis rauð - two red apples


Verbs - SognesEdit

Verbs are conjugated according to tense, aspect and mood. A verb lies at the nucleus of a clause, with a copula, modal or auxiliary verb following the subject if necessary. These control the aspect and mood. A copula, modal or auxiliary verb may start an interrogative sentence. Every standard verb comes in 3 forms due to tense. The present, past and future. The present tense uses the infinitive form of the verb, which in standard verbs aleays ends with the letter a. The past tense is formed by the prefix ca(n)-, and the future tense by the suffix -r.

All the following examples use ig (I) as the subject and ech (you) as the object.

Modal examples use gét (can).

Verb Use Stravian English
Infinitive talida talk
Simple Present Ig talida cel éd. I talk to you.
Simple Past Ig cantálida cel éd. I talked to you.
Simple Future Ig talidar cel éd. I will talk to you.
Progressive Present Ig éð talida cel éd. I am talking to you.
Progressive Past Ig eðu cantálida cel éd. I was talking to you.
Progressive Future Ig eða talidar cel éd. I will be talking to you.
Perfect Present Ig héf talida cel éd. I have talked to you.
Perfect Past Ig héf cantálida cel éd. I had talked to you.
Perfect Future Ig héf talidar cel éd. I will have talked to you.
Passive Present Ig éð ét talida ol éd. I am talked to by you.
Passive Past Ig eðu ét cantálida ol éd. I was talked to by you.
Passive Future Ig eða ét talidar cel ol éd. I will be talked to by you.
Conditional Active Present Ig gét talida cel éd. I can talk to you.
Conditional Active Past Ig gát cantálida cel éd. I could talk to you. (Past)
Conditional Active Future Ig gót talidar cel éd. I could talk to you. (Future)
Con. Perfect Active Ig gát héf cantálida cel éd. I could have talk to you.
Con. Passive Present Ig gét éð ét talida ol éd. I can be talked to by you.
Con. Passive Past Ig gát eðu ét cantálida ol éd. I could be talked to by you. (Past)
Con. Passive Future Ig gót eða ét talidar ol éd. I could be talked to by you. (Future)
Con. Perfect Passive Ig gát héf eðu ét cantálida ol éd. I could've been talked to by you.
Interrogative Con. Active Present Gét ig talida cel éd? Can I talk to you?
Interrogative Con. Active Past Gát ig cantálida cel éd? Could I talk to you? (Past)
Interrogative Con. Active Future Gót ig talidar cel éd? Could I talk to you? (Future)
Int. Con. Perfect Active, Passive, Perfect Passive As with conditional syntax, but with interrogative placed at start.
Affirmative Imperative Talida! Talk!
Negative Imperative Cenn talida! Don't talk! / No talking!

Adverbs - AtvicsaurdesEdit

Adverbs always fall before their respective verbs or adjectives.


Syntax - SetningfriðEdit

Stravian clauses follow a subject-verb-object (SVO) structure, as with most Germanic languages. A modal or auxiliary verb will move between the subject and the verb, while a copula will follow the subject or modal/auxiliary verb. In interrogatives, the copulas, modal or auxiliary verb will lead the clause.

For example:

Stravian: Ig eðu igair cantálida cel Vilhjælm syr mer husjar nei.

Transliteration: I was yesterday talking to William about his house new.

Translation: Yesterday, I was talking to William about his new house.


Affixes - AurdsceitingesEdit

Inflections - BeiginesEdit

Verb Root - Sogn Rout

Affix (Stravian) Affix (English) Example (Stravian) Example (English)
can- -ed (past/perfect tense) talidacantalida talk → talked
-r (future tense) talidatalidar talk → will talk
mas- mis- (do wrong) lesgamaslesga read → misread
in- un- (reversal) geraingera do → undo

Noun Root - Navn Rout

Affix (Stravian) Affix (English) Example (Stravian) Example (English)

-es

-s

-a

-s (plural form)

daln → dalnes

sjo → sjos

bel → bela

valley → valleys

sea → seas

car → cars

-'n -'s (possessive) JonJon'n John → John's
-en -let (diminutive) bairbairen city → town
mis- mis- (be wrong) setlannmissetlann placement → misplacement
-dm -dom (domain) cungecungedm king → kingdom
-(m)ædur -ist (member) bjuvingbjuvingædur creation → creationist
-(i)tru -ism (doctrine, belief) bjuvingBjuvingitru creation → Creationism
-frad -logy/-graphy (study) steinSteinfrad stone → Geology
-fradmann -logist (professional) steinsteinfradmann stone → geologist
-legh -hood (group) broðrbroðrlegh brother → brotherhood
-(a)ti -ship (state of being) vinurvinurati friend → friendship

Adjective Root - Lysaurd Rout

Affix (Stravian) Affix (English) Example (Stravian) Example (English)
-(e)rri -er (quality) altalterri old → older
-(i)st -est (quality) altaltist old → oldest
-(l)eit -ish (like, similar) rauðrauðeit red → reddish (ruddy)
-ov (º) ordinals eineinov (1º) one → first/1st

Derivations - ReicninesEdit

Verb Root - Sogn Rout

Affix (Stravian) Affix (English) Example (Stravian) Example (English)
-a-in -(a)tion (noun, activity) bendabendin suggest → suggestion
-dur -er (noun, agent) raðaraðadur employ → employer
-din -ee (noun, patient) raðaraðadin employ → employee
-nn (noun, manner) gangagangann to walk → a walk

a

-l

(noun, ability)

heuraheur 

sjasjal

to hear → hearing

to see → sight

-a-ogh (noun, result) clyraclyrogh to scratch → a scratch
-a-oning -ing/-ance (noun, object/abstract) bjygabjygoning to build → a building
-a-ic -y/-ing (adjective) oetaoetic to push → pushy
-nligt -able (adjective, ability) isnjartaisnjartanligt to touch → touchable

Noun Root - Navn Rout

Affix (Stravian) Affix (English) Example (Stravian) Example (English)
-(ð)a -(i)fy/-ise (verb) vegsæmdvegsæmda glory → glorify
-(oy)c -al/-y (adjective, relative) miðpyntmiðpyntoyc centre → central

-ot

-land-in

-ian/-ish/-ese (adjective, relative)

SdrafyaSdrafyaot

IslandIsin

Stravia → Stravian (language)

Iceland → Icelandic (language)

-(s)insc -ian/-ish/-ese (adjective, personal) VeilsVeilsinsc Wales → Welsh (person)
-(s)it -ful (adjective, quality) hautvishautvisit tact → tactful
ce- -(s)it -less (adjective, quality) hautviscehautvisit tact → tactless

Adjective Root - Lysaurd Rout

Affix (Stravian) Affix (English) Example (Stravian) Example (English)
-(t)eð -ness (noun) sorgtsorgt sad → sadness
-(v)a -ise (verb) noytimtnoytimta modern → modernise
-lig -ly (adverb) ljoscljosclig light → lightly

Dictionary: AurdbucEdit

Example textEdit

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