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Sdrafyaot

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Sdrafyaot (IPA: ˈstrafyəot), known in English as Stravian or officially Neostravian, is a partially constructed language of heavy North Germanic influence that is the leading of the three national language of the Kingdom of Stravia. The language was constructed originally in 1314 by the Acstuvaci Rebellion leaders Ólafar Gudrunsson, Þorin Erosvard, Vilhjálm Helnkenge and other associates in response to the Paleostravian language being illegalized by the Christian missionaries in the 13th century and following the First Stravian Rising. The language has since evolved to become the Stravian language as it is known today.

Name: Sdrafyaot

Type: Synthetic

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Mixed

Number of genders: None

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


ClassificationEdit

Stravian is an a posteriori Indo-European language and part of the Nordic Germanic group, as it is an evolved form of the West Norse Language. Stravian shows influence from Paleostravian, Icelandic and Old West Norse.

Orthography & PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

The Stravian language has a some significant dialectal difference in phonology, found mostly due to the North/South divide of the Stravian nation, with the southern dialects influenced greater by Icelandic. The language contains monophthongs and diphthongs, which are represented by mono- and digraphs. Only monographs are considered distinct letters in the Stravian alphabet. The language is mostly orthographically phonemic.

Bilabial Labio-Dental Dental Alveolar Alveolar-Palatal Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Stop/Affricate p b t d tʲ ~ ʨ1 c1 k g
Fricative f v θ ð s sʲ ~ ɕ2 ç2 x ɣ
Approximant ʋ l j h3 ɦ3
Trill r
Co-articulate w

1The phonemic value of the digraph tj is [tʲ], [ʨ] or [c] dependent on speaker.

2The phonemic value of the digraph sj is [sʲ], [ɕ] or [ç] dependent on speaker.

3The phonemes [h] and [ɦ] are allophones.

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back Glides
Close i y ʉ u

eɪ̯ eʊ̯

oɪ̯ oʊ̯

æɪ̯

aɪ̯ aʊ̯

Near-close ɪ4 ʊ4
Close-mid e ø ə o
Mid
Near-open æ
Open a5 ɶ ä5 ɑ5

4The phonemes [ɪ] and [ʊ] are found only in diphthongs.

5The phonemic value of a is between [a] and [ä] dependent on speaker, however in the northern dialects of Stravian the value is [ɑ] when preceding l or r.

Vowels can be long or short. They are long when leading or when accented.


AlphabetEdit

The Stravian alphabet is ordered:

Majuscule A Æ B C D Ð E F G H I J L M N O P R S T Þ U V Y
Miniscule a æ b c d ð e f g h i j l m n o p r s t þ u v y

The letters k, q, w, x and z, as well as the Icelandic letter ö, do not appear in the Stravian alphabet, but may be used in loanwords or proper nouns. However they are often replaced with the native Stravian c, cu, u, cs, s and oy respectively.


OrthographyEdit

Grapheme Name Phonetic Realization Example Translation English Equivalent

a


ai/ái

au/áu

a [aː]

[a] ~ [ä]

[ɑ] when preceding l or r

[aɪ̯]

[aʊ̯]

mann

stjarna

bair

rauð

human

star

city

red

hand

father

light

cow

æ

æi/ǽi

æ [æː]

[æ]

[æɪ̯]

hæt

gæiða

hat

trust

close to pet

close to light

b

be [beː]

[b]

[p] when devoiced

buc

isbjur

book

polar bear

bat

sip

c


ch

ce [keː]

[kʰ]

[k] when clustered

[x]

celo

frecti

ech

towards

news

you

cap

cross

loch (Scottish)

d

de [deː]

[d]

[t] when devoiced

dan

vodca

then

vodka

dot

soot

ð

ðe [ðeː]

[ð]

tað

it

this

e

ei/éi

eu/éu

e [eː]

[e]

[eɪ̯]

[eʊ̯]

geþi

nei

eura

please

new

ear

hey (without y)

day

no equivalent

f

af [af]

[f]

hafa

have

fire

g


gh

ge [geː]

[g]

[k] when devoiced

[ɣ]

sig

segt

legh

with

last

leg

gone

neck

lough (Irish)

h

hv

hal [ɦɑl]

[ɦ] / [h]

[ɦʋ]

Hosti

hvitan

autumn

white

aha voiced / hop

close to hw

i

i [iː]

[i]

ig

I

keep

j

joct [jokt]

[j]

[□ʲ] when succeeding consonants

Juni

fjeri

June

fire

yes

y sound in fume

l

lj

ll

al [ɑl]

[l]

[ʎ]

[l̥]

laira

eplji

null

learn

apple

zero

let

like million

close to hl

m

am [am]

[m]

[m̩] when final after stops/nasals

mergn

sinm

morning

these

mind

denim

n


nn

ng

nj

an [an]

[n]

[n̩] when final after stops/nasals

[n̥]

[ŋ]

[ɲ]

ofin

vatn

cenn

fingri

svinj

above

water

not

finger

swine/pig

not

bitten

close to hn

king

close to canyon

o

oe/óe

oi/ói

ou/óu

oy/óy

o [oː]

[o]

[ɶ]

[oɪ̯]

[oʊ̯]

[ø]

o

moeðr

imoir

móu

oyscra

and

mother

ant

may

scream

road with no w sound

close to hand

oil

low

no equivalent

p

pe [peː]

[pʰ]

[p] when clustered

pacta

scipta

package

divide

pound

slipped

r


rr

eir [eɪ̯r]

[r]

[r̩] when final after stops/nasals

[r̥]

trig

cindr

errísta

three

child

snake

trilled r

dinner

close to hr

s

sj

sv

as [as]

[s]

[ɕ] / [ç] / [sʲ]

[sʋ]

soln

husjar

svara

sun

house

answer

sock

like issue / huge / assume

like switch

t


tj

te [teː]

[tʰ]

[t] when clustered

[ʨ] / [c] / [tʲ]

ta

salt

tjod

thanks

salt

nation

top

trip

like chop / tk / tune

þ

aþ [aθ]

[θ]

þoc

fog

think

u


ui/úi

u [uː]

[u]

[w] / [□ʷ] before vowels

[ʉ]

gulr

Januar

uill

yellow

January

shoulder

flute

quit

close to book

v

ve [veː]

[v]

[ʋ] when succeeding h or s

vi

hval

we

whale

vent

west with slight v sound

y

y [yː]

[y]

hynt

dog

like keep but rounded

unstressed vowel

[ə]

fjatla

mountain

unstressed vowel

Letters can only be doubled when in compound or borrowed words, or in the graphemes ll, nn or rr. Stress falls on the fist syllable of multi-syllabic words, except when it is marked by an accented long vowel.


Grammar - MoljegingEdit

Copulae - TengasognesEdit

The Stravian language has only one copula,  (to be), which comes in 9 forms dependent on tense, person and number.

Present Past/Perfect Future
Singular éð eðu eða
2nd person formal eðin eði eðir
Plural/Multiple eður eðar


Articles - ÆrticallaEdit

As Stravian words are genderless, the sole definite article is din, which can be used on plural nouns, and may be omitted in titles or proper nouns. The singular form of din is the suffix -(i)d.

manid - the man

stjarnad - the star

din dalnes - the valleys


The sole positive indefinite article is inn.

inn husjar - a house


There is one negative indefinite article - cenn - which denoted not having or not being something. The word can also denote not doing if placed before a verb, or can denote not being of a certain quality when used as a prefix on adjectives and adverbs. This does not change the stress on the word, which remains on the root.

Ig hafa cenn buc. - I do not have a book. (Lit. I have no book.)

Ech éð cenn talida. - You are not talking.

Tað éð ceblar. - It is not blue.

Er éð cefljasclig laira. - He is not learing quickly (Lit. He is not quickly learning.)


Nouns - NavnesEdit

Nouns decline only to number, and have only a singular and plural form. The plural form is denoted by -(e)s or by -a in nouns ending in the letters l or r.

hynthyntes - dog → dogs

fjatlafjatlas - mountain → mountains

bairbaira - city → cities


Pronouns - FornavnesEdit

Subject Object Possessive Adjective Possessive Reflexive
1st Person Singular ig mig min minn migr
1st Person Plural vi vig vigeu vign vigr
2nd Person Singular ech éd méd médn édr
2nd Person Plural sju du deu deun duar
2nd Person Formal Tjer Tjereð Tjerin Tjerinn Tjeryr
3rd Person Male Singular er der mer merin derar
3rd Person Female Singular ír dír mír mírin dírar
3rd Person Neuter Singular tað tið téu téun tiðr
3rd Person General Singular þóv þód þóveu þóvn þódr
3rd Person General Plural þa þaig þau þaun þaigr
Generic Person mán mana máneu mann manr
Demonstratives Near Far
Singular sin sen
Plural sinm senm

Adjectives - LysaurdesEdit

Adjectives in Stravian may be placed before - as possessive adjectives always are - but most often after their respective nouns, which undergo no declination regardless or number or position. All adjectives except colours, possessives and ordinals end in the letters ci, or t.

inn eplji rauð - a red apple

epljis rauð - red apples


Verbs - SognesEdit

Verbs are conjugated according to tense, aspect and mood. A verb lies at the nucleus of a clause, with a copula, modal or auxiliary verb following the subject if necessary. These control the aspect and mood. A copula, modal or auxiliary verb may start an interrogative sentence. Every standard verb comes in 3 forms due to tense. The present, past and future. The present tense uses the infinitive form of the verb, which in standard verbs aleays ends with the letter a. The past tense is formed by the prefix ca(n)-, and the future tense by the suffix -r.

All the following examples use ig (I) as the subject and ech (you) as the object.

Modal examples use gét (can).

Verb Use Stravian English
Infinitive talida talk
Simple Present Ig talida cel éd. I talk to you.
Simple Past Ig cantálida cel éd. I talked to you.
Simple Future Ig talidar cel éd. I will talk to you.
Progressive Present Ig éð talida cel éd. I am talking to you.
Progressive Past Ig eðu cantálida cel éd. I was talking to you.
Progressive Future Ig eða talidar cel éd. I will be talking to you.
Perfect Present Ig héf talida cel éd. I have talked to you.
Perfect Past Ig héf cantálida cel éd. I had talked to you.
Perfect Future Ig héf talidar cel éd. I will have talked to you.
Passive Present Ig éð ét talida ol éd. I am talked to by you.
Passive Past Ig eðu ét cantálida ol éd. I was talked to by you.
Passive Future Ig eða ét talidar cel ol éd. I will be talked to by you.
Conditional Active Present Ig gét talida cel éd. I can talk to you.
Conditional Active Past Ig gát cantálida cel éd. I could talk to you. (Past)
Conditional Active Future Ig gót talidar cel éd. I could talk to you. (Future)
Con. Perfect Active Ig gát héf cantálida cel éd. I could have talk to you.
Con. Passive Present Ig gét éð ét talida ol éd. I can be talked to by you.
Con. Passive Past Ig gát eðu ét cantálida ol éd. I could be talked to by you. (Past)
Con. Passive Future Ig gót eða ét talidar ol éd. I could be talked to by you. (Future)
Con. Perfect Passive Ig gát héf eðu ét cantálida ol éd. I could've been talked to by you.
Interrogative Con. Active Present Gét ig talida cel éd? Can I talk to you?
Interrogative Con. Active Past Gát ig cantálida cel éd? Could I talk to you? (Past)
Interrogative Con. Active Future Gót ig talidar cel éd? Could I talk to you? (Future)
Int. Con. Perfect Active, Passive, Perfect Passive As with conditional syntax, but with interrogative placed at start.
Affirmative Imperative Talida! Talk!
Negative Imperative Cenn talida! Don't talk! / No talking!

Adverbs - AtvicsaurdesEdit

Adverbs always fall before their respective verbs or adjectives.


Syntax - SetningfriðEdit

Stravian clauses follow a subject-verb-object (SVO) structure, as with most Germanic languages. A modal or auxiliary verb will move between the subject and the verb, while a copula will follow the subject or modal/auxiliary verb. In interrogatives, the copulas, modal or auxiliary verb will lead the clause.

For example:

Stravian: Ig eðu igair cantálida cel Vilhjælm syr mer husjar nei.

Transliteration: I was yesterday talking to William about his house new.

Translation: Yesterday, I was talking to William about his new house.


Affixes - AurdsceitingesEdit

Inflections - BeiginesEdit

Verb Root - Sogn Rout

Affix (Stravian) Affix (English) Example (Stravian) Example (English)
can- -ed (past/perfect tense) talidacantalida talk → talked
-r (future tense) talidatalidar talk → will talk
mas- mis- (do wrong) lesgamaslesga read → misread
in- un- (reversal) geraingera do → undo

Noun Root - Navn Rout

Affix (Stravian) Affix (English) Example (Stravian) Example (English)

-es

-s

-a

-s (plural form)

daln → dalnes

sjo → sjos

bel → bela

valley → valleys

sea → seas

car → cars

-'n -'s (possessive) JonJon'n John → John's
-en -let (diminutive) bairbairen city → town
mis- mis- (be wrong) setlannmissetlann placement → misplacement
-dm -dom (domain) cungecungedm king → kingdom
-(m)ædur -ist (member) bjuvingbjuvingædur creation → creationist
-(i)tru -ism (doctrine, belief) bjuvingBjuvingitru creation → Creationism
-frad -logy/-graphy (study) steinSteinfrad stone → Geology
-fradmann -logist (professional) steinsteinfradmann stone → geologist
-legh -hood (group) broðrbroðrlegh brother → brotherhood
-(a)ti -ship (state of being) vinurvinurati friend → friendship

Adjective Root - Lysaurd Rout

Affix (Stravian) Affix (English) Example (Stravian) Example (English)
-(e)rri -er (quality) altalterri old → older
-(i)st -est (quality) altaltist old → oldest
-(l)eit -ish (like, similar) rauðrauðeit red → reddish (ruddy)
-ov (º) ordinals eineinov (1º) one → first/1st

Derivations - ReicninesEdit

Verb Root - Sogn Rout

Affix (Stravian) Affix (English) Example (Stravian) Example (English)
-a-in -(a)tion (noun, activity) bendabendin suggest → suggestion
-dur -er (noun, agent) raðaraðadur employ → employer
-din -ee (noun, patient) raðaraðadin employ → employee
-nn (noun, manner) gangagangann to walk → a walk

a

-l

(noun, ability)

heuraheur 

sjasjal

to hear → hearing

to see → sight

-a-ogh (noun, result) clyraclyrogh to scratch → a scratch
-a-oning -ing/-ance (noun, object/abstract) bjygabjygoning to build → a building
-a-ic -y/-ing (adjective) oetaoetic to push → pushy
-nligt -able (adjective, ability) isnjartaisnjartanligt to touch → touchable

Noun Root - Navn Rout

Affix (Stravian) Affix (English) Example (Stravian) Example (English)
-(ð)a -(i)fy/-ise (verb) vegsæmdvegsæmda glory → glorify
-(oy)c -al/-y (adjective, relative) miðpyntmiðpyntoyc centre → central

-ot

-land-in

-ian/-ish/-ese (adjective, relative)

SdrafyaSdrafyaot

IslandIsin

Stravia → Stravian (language)

Iceland → Icelandic (language)

-(s)insc -ian/-ish/-ese (adjective, personal) VeilsVeilsinsc Wales → Welsh (person)
-(s)it -ful (adjective, quality) hautvishautvisit tact → tactful
ce- -(s)it -less (adjective, quality) hautviscehautvisit tact → tactless

Adjective Root - Lysaurd Rout

Affix (Stravian) Affix (English) Example (Stravian) Example (English)
-(t)eð -ness (noun) sorgtsorgt sad → sadness
-(v)a -ise (verb) noytimtnoytimta modern → modernise
-lig -ly (adverb) ljoscljosclig light → lightly

Dictionary: AurdbucEdit

Example textEdit

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