Fandom

Conlang

Sekés

3,251articles on
this wiki
Add New Page
Talk2 Share

I'm What?Ein Gott!

Progress 0%


Name: Sekés

Type: Moderately Synthetic and Agglutinative

Alignment: Split-Ergative

Head Direction: Mixed (leaning towards initial)

Number of genders: Six

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Setting and InfoEdit

Sekés is meant to be as naturalistic as possible a conlang. It has a bundle of somewhat unusual features (multi-areal affricates, palatal and postalveolar contrasting features, six/seven places of articulation, 9-vowel system) combined with rather commonplace ones (affricates, gemination, split-ergative system and others). It's designed towards realism, fluidity, plausibility and general believability. I plan to make Sekés a language that looks like it could've been plucked off the continents down here.

Note to all greedy idiots from the Germanosphere to which I am related: Hans, no way you stealing this.

PhonologyEdit

K'ekköksúkü körffasz

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labiode. Dental Alveol. Postalve. Retrofl. Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn. Epiglot. Glottal
Plosives p (p) b (b) t (t) d (d) ʈ (tr) ɖ (dr) c (c) ɟ (j) k (k) g (g) q (q) g ) (qg)1 (ʔ)1
Affricates p͡f (pf) b͡v (bv)1 t͡s (ts) d͡z (dz) t͡ʃ (tsh) d͡ʒ (dzh)
Fricatives f (f ) v (v ) s (s) z (z) ʃ (sh) ʒ (zh) ç (hj) ʝ (jy) x (h) χ (qh)
Lateral Fricatives ɬ (ll )
Lateral Affricates
Nasals m̥ (mh) m (m) n̥ (nh) n (n)
Trills r (r ) r (rh)
Flaps / taps
Glides Approxim. j (y )
Lateral Appr. l (l )
Co-art. approx.

1These do not occur outside of sound changes and are not found in native words.

All double consonants (except double " l ") are pronounced as geminate. As an aesthetically more appealing way to write certain geminates, the first consonant of each di/trigraph is doubled (jjy, tts, ppf, qqh)

VowelsEdit

Front Near front Central Near back Back
Close i (i ) y (ü) ɨ (é) u (u)
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid ɛ (e) œ (ö) ɔ (o)
Near-open ɜ (ä)
Open a (a)

All vowels are monothongs

Letter NamesEdit

Letter Letter Name
A Amh
B Bajj
Bv Bveke
K Kénh
D Dur
Dr Drah
E Enjy
Ä Äkos
F Föpfa
É Kés
G Goh
H Hahj
Hj Hjish
I Ink
Ü Üpa
Ö Ömel
Q Qalla
L Lam
Ll Llarö
M
Mh Mhäs
N Narf
Nh Nhan
O Otsha
P Pallrh
Pf Pfaf
J Jager
C Cadzh
(Qg) (Qgga)
Qh Qhala
R Rohala
Rh Rham
S Saar
Sh Shayy
T Tafr
U Unük
V Valöc
Jy Jyah
Tr Träne
Ts Tsopa
Dz Dzeke
Tsh Tshätsh
Dzh Dzhukats
Y Yalaa
Z Zmrz
Zh Zhuppf

Phonotactics and MorphophonologyEdit

PhonotacticsEdit

The syllable structure of Sekés is a maximal:

Maximal Syllable Structure
("C") ("C") N ("C")

"C" represents any non-trill, non-nasal, non-lateral fricative or non-approximant consonant and "N" represents vowels, trills, nasals, lateral fricatives and approximant. Syllables sometimes tend to be "CCV", "CV", "VC" or even just plain "V" and words generally tend to end in a consonant.

Morphophonology, Morphological Sound ChangesEdit

Sekés employs multiple regularised, morphological sound changes.

Glottal ReinforcementEdit

Glottal reinforcement is a regular sound change in all words. In vowel-initial words, the vowels are reinforced with an unwritten glottal stop. This process is simmilar to word-initial glottal stops in German.

Regressive PalatalisationEdit

Regressive palatalisation is a regular sound change in which certain consonants move more towards a back place of articulation. It is triggered by " i " and " ü ". The following consonants are palatalised:

Reg. Palatalisation
Non-Palatalised Palatalised
[t] [c]
[d] [ɟ]
[t͡s] [t͡ʃ]
[d͡z] [d͡ʒ]
[s] [ʃ ]
[z] [ʒ]
[x] [ç]
[r] [r]
Regressive SibilarisationEdit

Regressive sibilarisation is a regular sound change in which certain consonants sibilise into other consonants when they are followed by "e" or "ö". The following consonants are sibilised:


Reg. Palatalisation
Non-Palatalised Palatalised
[t] [t͡s]
[d] [d͡z]
[ç] [ʃ ]
[ʝ] [ʒ]
[f] [s]
[v] [z]
[x] [ç]
[r] [sr]
CrasisEdit

Crasis is (mostly) regular sound change affecting only vowels in which " i " and "u" that came together due to any circumstance phonetically convert to "ü" but are written as so. There are exceptions to crasis but the exceptions have been mostly regularised, too.

Crasis happens both inside a word and at word boundaries and doesn't discriminate between vowel order or any other boundary except that the vowels must have nothing in between them.

A non-crasified vowel combination uses diastresis over " i " (" ï ") and can sometimes be seen in affixes. The so-called uncrasified " i " is phonetically equal to the classic " i " but phonologically behaves differently. The uncrasified version is written only when near "u" and written classically without it.

Gluttural Regressive VoicingEdit

G.Regressive voicing is a regular sound change in which prepalatal/gluttural plosives (k/g/q) turn into reversedly voiced ones (g/k/qg respectively) when preceding an opposite-voiced fricative or plosive. It is either represented orthographically or left out for etymological reasons. It is solely one-level, so a cluster such as "kgp" would turn into "ggp" but not "kkp".

AffricationEdit

Affricaton is a regular sound change that occurs only due to suffixing. In it, when a plosive and a fricative come together in that order, if they match an affricate combination, form that affricate.

Approximant Consonance and Rhotic DissonanceEdit

Approximant consonance and rhotic dissonance are actually two sound changes but are grouped as one. They function on different simmilar principles and use the place of articulation as a trigger.

Approximant ConsonanceEdit

Approximant consonance, also known as the Switch, is a sound change in which approximants come nearer to the following sound's POA and sometimes adjust for voicing. It might be called a variation on consonant hamony,

The table shows the transformations:

Preceding Dorsals
Before After
j j
l lj
ɬ ɬ/lj
m mj
m̥/mj
n nj
n̥/nj
Preceding Coronals
Before After
j nj
l l
ɬ ɬ
m m
n n
Preceding Labials
Before After
j mj
l l
ɬ ɬ
m m
n n
n̥/n
Preceding High-Front Vowels
Before After
j ʝ
l lj
ɬ ɬ
m m
n n
Rhotic DissonanceEdit

Rhotic dissonance is a far simpler sound change than its sister-change approximant, the Switch.

When a rhotic comes in contact with any consonant from its place of articulation, it swaps with the other rhotic. The rhotic dissonance can be called the Switch, even more appropriately.

Moving "Amh"Edit

Moving "Amh" is a semi-regular sound change in which, in certain words multi-syllable that contain an "amh"/"a" in the last syllable, it might dissapear during declension. The dissapearance is extremely random, but where the dissapearance occurs is relatively predictable.

In most words with the moving "amh", the "amh" is preserved in the Genitive, Malefactive, Ablative and Transitive case singulars, Ergative, Transitive and Lative case duals and Absolutive, Privative and Dative plurals.

The sound change got its name from the Sékes name of the letter "A", "Amh".

Basic GrammarEdit

The grammar of Sekés is divided into three classes: the Verb, the Nominal and the Obliques. The Verb section encompasses verbs, adverbs and additional conjugational help, the Nominal section encompasses nouns, adjectives, numbers, pronouns, nominal articles and simmilar features, and the Obliques section encompasses conjunctions, exclamations and other words that don't fit in other categories.

NominalsEdit

Don't mind this. <span style="color:#87CEFA;">x</span> Nominals are a moderately-synthetic class of words.

FeaturesEdit

Here is a list of the features common to all nominals. Cases There are 22 cases. They are as listed:

Name Desciption and Function
Ergative Primary unmarked core case showing
the Agent argument
Absolutive Primary marked core case showing
the Subject and Object arguments
Transitive Secondary unmarked core case showing
the Agent and Object arguments
Intransitive Secondary marked core case showing
the Subject argument
Lative First of series, denotes motion (in)to...
Locative Second of series, denotes position at...
Ablative Last of series, denotes motion from...
Is used in ablative constructions
Translative First of series, denotes transition (in)to a state...
Essive Second of series, denotes being in a state of...
Exessive First of series, denotes transition from a state...
Dative Denotes motion towards
Is used in dative constructions
Genitive Primarily marks possessed relations, origin (and material)
Instrumental Denotes instrument of agent/subject used in verb
Commitative Denotes company of agent/subject in relation to verb
Benefactive First of series,
Marks the beneficiary of the situation expressed by the clause
Malefactive Last of series, functions opposite of the Benefactive case
Vocative Marks the noun as being addressed by...
Privative Indicates the lack of the marked
Causal-Final Expresses the meaning of "for the purpose of..." and simmilar
Distributive-Temporal Expresses how often something happens and/or frequency of it
Possessive Indicates the possessor of something else
Causal Indicates that the marked is the cause or reason for something

Numbers
There are three numbers: singular, dual and plural.

Definiteness
There are three levels of definiteness, the indicated definite, the indicated general and the unindicated indefinite.

Genders
There are six genders:

Gender Definition
Feminine Female animates and female-related inanimates,
Female animals
Human General genderless or male humans and related inanimates,
Other animals
Liquid General fluids
Emotions, Fire Emotions, fire, feelings and their ilk
Edibles Class of edibles
Neuter Oblique class of inanimates

Proximity
There are three varieties of proximity, the proximate, distal and null proximities.

NounsEdit

Nouns are an open word category which generally names ideas, objects, animates and all imaginable terms. They are declined according to case, number, gender and animacy. Like all nominals, definiteness and proximality of nouns is indicated by specialised verb forms.

AnimacyEdit

Being a feature unique to nouns and their pro-forms, animacy needs to be explained here :) There are six inherent animacies, ordered by descending animacy:

Animacy Name Explanation Frequently Associated Genders
Force Uncontrollable, such as:
Storms, water, ice, fire,
Clouds, the Universe
Liquid, Fire, Neuter
Elder General class of humans
That participate in divine activities and such
Human
Human General class of humans Female, Human
Animal General class of animals Female, Human, Edibles
Inanimate Anything physical not included Neuter, (rarely) Female
Abstraction Anything non-physical Emotions, Neuter
DecliningEdit
Female
1st Declension
Zero Ergative
Case Suffix
Singular Dual Plural
Ergative -\varnothing -ar -eq
Absolutive -al -ly -e
Transitive -rha -ne -as
Intransitive -er -he -ka
Lative -äq -neq -ha
Locative -uu -rho -ak
Ablative -tta -kel -hee
Translative
Essive
Exessive
Dative
Genitive
Instrumental
Commitative
Benefactive
Malefactive
Vocative
Privative
Causal-Final
Distributive-Temporal
Possessive
Causal
2nd Declension
-ek Ergative
Case Suffix
Singular Dual Plural
Ergative
Absolutive
Transitive
Intransitive
Lative
Locative
Ablative
Translative
Essive
Exessive
Dative
Genitive
Instrumental
Commitative
Benefactive
Malefactive
Vocative
Privative
Causal-Final
Distributive-Temporal
Possessive
Causal
3rd Declension
-i Ergative
Case Suffix
Singular Dual Plural
Ergative
Absolutive
Transitive
Intransitive
Lative
Locative
Ablative
Translative
Essive
Exessive
Dative
Genitive
Instrumental
Commitative
Benefactive
Malefactive
Vocative
Privative
Causal-Final
Distributive-Temporal
Possessive
Causal
4th Declension
-r Ergative
Case Suffix
Singular Dual Plural
Ergative
Absolutive
Transitive
Intransitive
Lative
Locative
Ablative
Translative
Essive
Exessive
Dative
Genitive
Instrumental
Commitative
Benefactive
Malefactive
Vocative
Privative
Causal-Final
Distributive-Temporal
Possessive
Causal
5th Declension
-m Ergative
Case Suffix
Singular Dual Plural
Ergative
Absolutive
Transitive
Intransitive
Lative
Locative
Ablative
Translative
Essive
Exessive
Dative
Genitive
Instrumental
Commitative
Benefactive
Malefactive
Vocative
Privative
Causal-Final
Distributive-Temporal
Possessive
Causal
6th Declension
-l Ergative
Case Suffix
Singular Dual Plural
Ergative
Absolutive
Transitive
Intransitive
Lative
Locative
Ablative
Translative
Essive
Exessive
Dative
Genitive
Instrumental
Commitative
Benefactive
Malefactive
Vocative
Privative
Causal-Final
Distributive-Temporal
Possessive
Causal

DictionaryEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.