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Sekés

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Name: Sekés

Type: Moderately Synthetic and Agglutinative

Alignment: Split-Ergative

Head Direction: Mixed (leaning towards initial)

Number of genders: Six

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Setting and InfoEdit

Sekés is meant to be as naturalistic as possible a conlang. It has a bundle of somewhat unusual features (multi-areal affricates, palatal and postalveolar contrasting features, six/seven places of articulation, 9-vowel system) combined with rather commonplace ones (affricates, gemination, split-ergative system and others). It's designed towards realism, fluidity, plausibility and general believability. I plan to make Sekés a language that looks like it could've been plucked off the continents down here.

Note to all greedy idiots from the Germanosphere to which I am related: Hans, no way you stealing this.

PhonologyEdit

K'ekköksúkü körffasz

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labiode. Dental Alveol. Postalve. Retrofl. Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn. Epiglot. Glottal
Plosives p (p) b (b) t (t) d (d) ʈ (tr) ɖ (dr) c (c) ɟ (j) k (k) g (g) q (q) g ) (qg)1 (ʔ)1
Affricates p͡f (pf) b͡v (bv)1 t͡s (ts) d͡z (dz) t͡ʃ (tsh) d͡ʒ (dzh)
Fricatives f (f ) v (v ) s (s) z (z) ʃ (sh) ʒ (zh) ç (hj) ʝ (jy) x (h) χ (qh)
Lateral Fricatives ɬ (ll )
Lateral Affricates
Nasals m̥ (mh) m (m) n̥ (nh) n (n)
Trills r (r ) r (rh)
Flaps / taps
Glides Approxim. j (y )
Lateral Appr. l (l )
Co-art. approx.

1These do not occur outside of sound changes and are not found in native words.

All double consonants (except double " l ") are pronounced as geminate. As an aesthetically more appealing way to write certain geminates, the first consonant of each di/trigraph is doubled (jjy, tts, ppf, qqh)

VowelsEdit

Front Near front Central Near back Back
Close i (i ) y (ü) ɨ (é) u (u)
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid ɛ (e) œ (ö) ɔ (o)
Near-open ɜ (ä)
Open a (a)

All vowels are monothongs

Letter NamesEdit

Letter Letter Name
A Amh
B Bajj
Bv Bveke
K Kénh
D Dur
Dr Drah
E Enjy
Ä Äkos
F Föpfa
É Kés
G Goh
H Hahj
Hj Hjish
I Ink
Ü Üpa
Ö Ömel
Q Qalla
L Lam
Ll Llarö
M
Mh Mhäs
N Narf
Nh Nhan
O Otsha
P Pallrh
Pf Pfaf
J Jager
C Cadzh
(Qg) (Qgga)
Qh Qhala
R Rohala
Rh Rham
S Saar
Sh Shayy
T Tafr
U Unük
V Valöc
Jy Jyah
Tr Träne
Ts Tsopa
Dz Dzeke
Tsh Tshätsh
Dzh Dzhukats
Y Yalaa
Z Zmrz
Zh Zhuppf

Phonotactics and MorphophonologyEdit

PhonotacticsEdit

The syllable structure of Sekés is a maximal:

Maximal Syllable Structure
("C") ("C") N ("C")

"C" represents any non-trill, non-nasal, non-lateral fricative or non-approximant consonant and "N" represents vowels, trills, nasals, lateral fricatives and approximant. Syllables sometimes tend to be "CCV", "CV", "VC" or even just plain "V" and words generally tend to end in a consonant.

Morphophonology, Morphological Sound ChangesEdit

Sekés employs multiple regularised, morphological sound changes.

Glottal ReinforcementEdit

Glottal reinforcement is a regular sound change in all words. In vowel-initial words, the vowels are reinforced with an unwritten glottal stop. This process is simmilar to word-initial glottal stops in German.

Regressive PalatalisationEdit

Regressive palatalisation is a regular sound change in which certain consonants move more towards a back place of articulation. It is triggered by " i " and " ü ". The following consonants are palatalised:

Reg. Palatalisation
Non-Palatalised Palatalised
[t] [c]
[d] [ɟ]
[t͡s] [t͡ʃ]
[d͡z] [d͡ʒ]
[s] [ʃ ]
[z] [ʒ]
[x] [ç]
[r] [r]
Regressive SibilarisationEdit

Regressive sibilarisation is a regular sound change in which certain consonants sibilise into other consonants when they are followed by "e" or "ö". The following consonants are sibilised:


Reg. Palatalisation
Non-Palatalised Palatalised
[t] [t͡s]
[d] [d͡z]
[ç] [ʃ ]
[ʝ] [ʒ]
[f] [s]
[v] [z]
[x] [ç]
[r] [sr]
CrasisEdit

Crasis is (mostly) regular sound change affecting only vowels in which " i " and "u" that came together due to any circumstance phonetically convert to "ü" but are written as so. There are exceptions to crasis but the exceptions have been mostly regularised, too.

Crasis happens both inside a word and at word boundaries and doesn't discriminate between vowel order or any other boundary except that the vowels must have nothing in between them.

A non-crasified vowel combination uses diastresis over " i " (" ï ") and can sometimes be seen in affixes. The so-called uncrasified " i " is phonetically equal to the classic " i " but phonologically behaves differently. The uncrasified version is written only when near "u" and written classically without it.

Gluttural Regressive VoicingEdit

G.Regressive voicing is a regular sound change in which prepalatal/gluttural plosives (k/g/q) turn into reversedly voiced ones (g/k/qg respectively) when preceding an opposite-voiced fricative or plosive. It is either represented orthographically or left out for etymological reasons. It is solely one-level, so a cluster such as "kgp" would turn into "ggp" but not "kkp".

AffricationEdit

Affricaton is a regular sound change that occurs only due to suffixing. In it, when a plosive and a fricative come together in that order, if they match an affricate combination, form that affricate.

Approximant Consonance and Rhotic DissonanceEdit

Approximant consonance and rhotic dissonance are actually two sound changes but are grouped as one. They function on different simmilar principles and use the place of articulation as a trigger.

Approximant ConsonanceEdit

Approximant consonance, also known as the Switch, is a sound change in which approximants come nearer to the following sound's POA and sometimes adjust for voicing. It might be called a variation on consonant hamony,

The table shows the transformations:

Preceding Dorsals
Before After
j j
l lj
ɬ ɬ/lj
m mj
m̥/mj
n nj
n̥/nj
Preceding Coronals
Before After
j nj
l l
ɬ ɬ
m m
n n
Preceding Labials
Before After
j mj
l l
ɬ ɬ
m m
n n
n̥/n
Preceding High-Front Vowels
Before After
j ʝ
l lj
ɬ ɬ
m m
n n
Rhotic DissonanceEdit

Rhotic dissonance is a far simpler sound change than its sister-change approximant, the Switch.

When a rhotic comes in contact with any consonant from its place of articulation, it swaps with the other rhotic. The rhotic dissonance can be called the Switch, even more appropriately.

Moving "Amh"Edit

Moving "Amh" is a semi-regular sound change in which, in certain words multi-syllable that contain an "amh"/"a" in the last syllable, it might dissapear during declension. The dissapearance is extremely random, but where the dissapearance occurs is relatively predictable.

In most words with the moving "amh", the "amh" is preserved in the Genitive, Malefactive, Ablative and Transitive case singulars, Ergative, Transitive and Lative case duals and Absolutive, Privative and Dative plurals.

The sound change got its name from the Sékes name of the letter "A", "Amh".

Basic GrammarEdit

The grammar of Sekés is divided into three classes: the Verb, the Nominal and the Obliques. The Verb section encompasses verbs, adverbs and additional conjugational help, the Nominal section encompasses nouns, adjectives, numbers, pronouns, nominal articles and simmilar features, and the Obliques section encompasses conjunctions, exclamations and other words that don't fit in other categories.

NominalsEdit

Don't mind this. <span style="color:#87CEFA;">x</span> Nominals are a moderately-synthetic class of words.

FeaturesEdit

Here is a list of the features common to all nominals. Cases There are 22 cases. They are as listed:

Name Desciption and Function
Ergative Primary unmarked core case showing
the Agent argument
Absolutive Primary marked core case showing
the Subject and Object arguments
Transitive Secondary unmarked core case showing
the Agent and Object arguments
Intransitive Secondary marked core case showing
the Subject argument
Lative First of series, denotes motion (in)to...
Locative Second of series, denotes position at...
Ablative Last of series, denotes motion from...
Is used in ablative constructions
Translative First of series, denotes transition (in)to a state...
Essive Second of series, denotes being in a state of...
Exessive First of series, denotes transition from a state...
Dative Denotes motion towards
Is used in dative constructions
Genitive Primarily marks possessed relations, origin (and material)
Instrumental Denotes instrument of agent/subject used in verb
Commitative Denotes company of agent/subject in relation to verb
Benefactive First of series,
Marks the beneficiary of the situation expressed by the clause
Malefactive Last of series, functions opposite of the Benefactive case
Vocative Marks the noun as being addressed by...
Privative Indicates the lack of the marked
Causal-Final Expresses the meaning of "for the purpose of..." and simmilar
Distributive-Temporal Expresses how often something happens and/or frequency of it
Possessive Indicates the possessor of something else
Causal Indicates that the marked is the cause or reason for something

Numbers
There are three numbers: singular, dual and plural.

Definiteness
There are three levels of definiteness, the indicated definite, the indicated general and the unindicated indefinite.

Genders
There are six genders:

Gender Definition
Feminine Female animates and female-related inanimates,
Female animals
Human General genderless or male humans and related inanimates,
Other animals
Liquid General fluids
Emotions, Fire Emotions, fire, feelings and their ilk
Edibles Class of edibles
Neuter Oblique class of inanimates

Proximity
There are three varieties of proximity, the proximate, distal and null proximities.

NounsEdit

Nouns are an open word category which generally names ideas, objects, animates and all imaginable terms. They are declined according to case, number, gender and animacy. Like all nominals, definiteness and proximality of nouns is indicated by specialised verb forms.

AnimacyEdit

Being a feature unique to nouns and their pro-forms, animacy needs to be explained here :) There are six inherent animacies, ordered by descending animacy:

Animacy Name Explanation Frequently Associated Genders
Force Uncontrollable, such as:
Storms, water, ice, fire,
Clouds, the Universe
Liquid, Fire, Neuter
Elder General class of humans
That participate in divine activities and such
Human
Human General class of humans Female, Human
Animal General class of animals Female, Human, Edibles
Inanimate Anything physical not included Neuter, (rarely) Female
Abstraction Anything non-physical Emotions, Neuter
DecliningEdit
Female
1st Declension
Zero Ergative
Case Suffix
Singular Dual Plural
Ergative -\varnothing -ar -eq
Absolutive -al -ly -e
Transitive -rha -ne -as
Intransitive -er -he -ka
Lative -äq -neq -ha
Locative -uu -rho -ak
Ablative -tta -kel -hee
Translative
Essive
Exessive
Dative
Genitive
Instrumental
Commitative
Benefactive
Malefactive
Vocative
Privative
Causal-Final
Distributive-Temporal
Possessive
Causal
2nd Declension
-ek Ergative
Case Suffix
Singular Dual Plural
Ergative
Absolutive
Transitive
Intransitive
Lative
Locative
Ablative
Translative
Essive
Exessive
Dative
Genitive
Instrumental
Commitative
Benefactive
Malefactive
Vocative
Privative
Causal-Final
Distributive-Temporal
Possessive
Causal
3rd Declension
-i Ergative
Case Suffix
Singular Dual Plural
Ergative
Absolutive
Transitive
Intransitive
Lative
Locative
Ablative
Translative
Essive
Exessive
Dative
Genitive
Instrumental
Commitative
Benefactive
Malefactive
Vocative
Privative
Causal-Final
Distributive-Temporal
Possessive
Causal
4th Declension
-r Ergative
Case Suffix
Singular Dual Plural
Ergative
Absolutive
Transitive
Intransitive
Lative
Locative
Ablative
Translative
Essive
Exessive
Dative
Genitive
Instrumental
Commitative
Benefactive
Malefactive
Vocative
Privative
Causal-Final
Distributive-Temporal
Possessive
Causal
5th Declension
-m Ergative
Case Suffix
Singular Dual Plural
Ergative
Absolutive
Transitive
Intransitive
Lative
Locative
Ablative
Translative
Essive
Exessive
Dative
Genitive
Instrumental
Commitative
Benefactive
Malefactive
Vocative
Privative
Causal-Final
Distributive-Temporal
Possessive
Causal
6th Declension
-l Ergative
Case Suffix
Singular Dual Plural
Ergative
Absolutive
Transitive
Intransitive
Lative
Locative
Ablative
Translative
Essive
Exessive
Dative
Genitive
Instrumental
Commitative
Benefactive
Malefactive
Vocative
Privative
Causal-Final
Distributive-Temporal
Possessive
Causal

DictionaryEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki

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