I'm What?Ein Gott!
| Name: Sekés
Type: Moderately Synthetic and Agglutinative
Head Direction: Mixed (leaning towards initial)
Number of genders: Six
Setting and InfoEdit
Sekés is meant to be as naturalistic as possible a conlang. It has a bundle of somewhat unusual features (multi-areal affricates, palatal and postalveolar contrasting features, six/seven places of articulation, 9-vowel system) combined with rather commonplace ones (affricates, gemination, split-ergative system and others). It's designed towards realism, fluidity, plausibility and general believability. I plan to make Sekés a language that looks like it could've been plucked off the continents down here.
Note to all greedy idiots from the Germanosphere to which I am related: Hans, no way you stealing this.
|Plosives||p (p)||b (b)||t (t)||d (d)||ʈ (tr)||ɖ (dr)||c (c)||ɟ (j)||k (k)||g (g)||q (q)||( g ) (qg)1||(ʔ)1|
|Affricates||p͡f (pf)||b͡v (bv)1||t͡s (ts)||d͡z (dz)||t͡ʃ (tsh)||d͡ʒ (dzh)|
|Fricatives||f (f )||v (v )||s (s)||z (z)||ʃ (sh)||ʒ (zh)||ç (hj)||ʝ (jy)||x (h)||χ (qh)|
|Lateral Fricatives||ɬ (ll )|
|Nasals||m̥ (mh)||m (m)||n̥ (nh)||n (n)|
|Trills||r (r )||r (rh)|
|Flaps / taps|
|Glides||Approxim.||j (y )|
|Lateral Appr.||l (l )|
1These do not occur outside of sound changes and are not found in native words.
All double consonants (except double " l ") are pronounced as geminate. As an aesthetically more appealing way to write certain geminates, the first consonant of each di/trigraph is doubled (jjy, tts, ppf, qqh)
|Front||Near front||Central||Near back||Back|
|Close||i (i )||y (ü)||ɨ (é)||u (u)|
|Open-mid||ɛ (e)||œ (ö)||ɔ (o)|
All vowels are monothongs
Phonotactics and MorphophonologyEdit
The syllable structure of Sekés is a maximal:
|Maximal Syllable Structure|
"C" represents any non-trill, non-nasal, non-lateral fricative or non-approximant consonant and "N" represents vowels, trills, nasals, lateral fricatives and approximant. Syllables sometimes tend to be "CCV", "CV", "VC" or even just plain "V" and words generally tend to end in a consonant.
Morphophonology, Morphological Sound ChangesEdit
Sekés employs multiple regularised, morphological sound changes.
Glottal reinforcement is a regular sound change in all words. In vowel-initial words, the vowels are reinforced with an unwritten glottal stop. This process is simmilar to word-initial glottal stops in German.
Regressive palatalisation is a regular sound change in which certain consonants move more towards a back place of articulation. It is triggered by " i " and " ü ". The following consonants are palatalised:
Regressive sibilarisation is a regular sound change in which certain consonants sibilise into other consonants when they are followed by "e" or "ö". The following consonants are sibilised:
Crasis is (mostly) regular sound change affecting only vowels in which " i " and "u" that came together due to any circumstance phonetically convert to "ü" but are written as so. There are exceptions to crasis but the exceptions have been mostly regularised, too.
Crasis happens both inside a word and at word boundaries and doesn't discriminate between vowel order or any other boundary except that the vowels must have nothing in between them.
A non-crasified vowel combination uses diastresis over " i " (" ï ") and can sometimes be seen in affixes. The so-called uncrasified " i " is phonetically equal to the classic " i " but phonologically behaves differently. The uncrasified version is written only when near "u" and written classically without it.
Gluttural Regressive VoicingEdit
G.Regressive voicing is a regular sound change in which prepalatal/gluttural plosives (k/g/q) turn into reversedly voiced ones (g/k/qg respectively) when preceding an opposite-voiced fricative or plosive. It is either represented orthographically or left out for etymological reasons. It is solely one-level, so a cluster such as "kgp" would turn into "ggp" but not "kkp".
Affricaton is a regular sound change that occurs only due to suffixing. In it, when a plosive and a fricative come together in that order, if they match an affricate combination, form that affricate.
Approximant Consonance and Rhotic DissonanceEdit
Approximant consonance and rhotic dissonance are actually two sound changes but are grouped as one. They function on different simmilar principles and use the place of articulation as a trigger.
Approximant consonance, also known as the Switch, is a sound change in which approximants come nearer to the following sound's POA and sometimes adjust for voicing. It might be called a variation on consonant hamony,
The table shows the transformations:
Rhotic dissonance is a far simpler sound change than its sister-change approximant, the Switch.
When a rhotic comes in contact with any consonant from its place of articulation, it swaps with the other rhotic. The rhotic dissonance can be called the Switch, even more appropriately.
Moving "Amh" is a semi-regular sound change in which, in certain words multi-syllable that contain an "amh"/"a" in the last syllable, it might dissapear during declension. The dissapearance is extremely random, but where the dissapearance occurs is relatively predictable.
In most words with the moving "amh", the "amh" is preserved in the Genitive, Malefactive, Ablative and Transitive case singulars, Ergative, Transitive and Lative case duals and Absolutive, Privative and Dative plurals.
The sound change got its name from the Sékes name of the letter "A", "Amh".
The grammar of Sekés is divided into three classes: the Verb, the Nominal and the Obliques. The Verb section encompasses verbs, adverbs and additional conjugational help, the Nominal section encompasses nouns, adjectives, numbers, pronouns, nominal articles and simmilar features, and the Obliques section encompasses conjunctions, exclamations and other words that don't fit in other categories.
Don't mind this. <span style="color:#87CEFA;">x</span> Nominals are a moderately-synthetic class of words.
Here is a list of the features common to all nominals. Cases There are 22 cases. They are as listed:
|Name||Desciption and Function|
|Ergative||Primary unmarked core case showing|
the Agent argument
|Absolutive||Primary marked core case showing|
the Subject and Object arguments
|Transitive||Secondary unmarked core case showing|
the Agent and Object arguments
|Intransitive||Secondary marked core case showing|
the Subject argument
|Lative||First of series, denotes motion (in)to...|
|Locative||Second of series, denotes position at...|
|Ablative||Last of series, denotes motion from...|
Is used in ablative constructions
|Translative||First of series, denotes transition (in)to a state...|
|Essive||Second of series, denotes being in a state of...|
|Exessive||First of series, denotes transition from a state...|
|Dative||Denotes motion towards|
Is used in dative constructions
|Genitive||Primarily marks possessed relations, origin (and material)|
|Instrumental||Denotes instrument of agent/subject used in verb|
|Commitative||Denotes company of agent/subject in relation to verb|
|Benefactive||First of series,|
Marks the beneficiary of the situation expressed by the clause
|Malefactive||Last of series, functions opposite of the Benefactive case|
|Vocative||Marks the noun as being addressed by...|
|Privative||Indicates the lack of the marked|
|Causal-Final||Expresses the meaning of "for the purpose of..." and simmilar|
|Distributive-Temporal||Expresses how often something happens and/or frequency of it|
|Possessive||Indicates the possessor of something else|
|Causal||Indicates that the marked is the cause or reason for something|
There are three numbers: singular, dual and plural.
There are three levels of definiteness, the indicated definite, the indicated general and the unindicated indefinite.
There are six genders:
|Feminine||Female animates and female-related inanimates,|
|Human||General genderless or male humans and related inanimates,|
|Emotions, Fire||Emotions, fire, feelings and their ilk|
|Edibles||Class of edibles|
|Neuter||Oblique class of inanimates|
There are three varieties of proximity, the proximate, distal and null proximities.
Nouns are an open word category which generally names ideas, objects, animates and all imaginable terms. They are declined according to case, number, gender and animacy. Like all nominals, definiteness and proximality of nouns is indicated by specialised verb forms.
Being a feature unique to nouns and their pro-forms, animacy needs to be explained here :) There are six inherent animacies, ordered by descending animacy:
|Animacy Name||Explanation||Frequently Associated Genders|
|Force||Uncontrollable, such as:|
Storms, water, ice, fire,
Clouds, the Universe
|Liquid, Fire, Neuter|
|Elder||General class of humans|
That participate in divine activities and such
|Human||General class of humans||Female, Human|
|Animal||General class of animals||Female, Human, Edibles|
|Inanimate||Anything physical not included||Neuter, (rarely) Female|
|Abstraction||Anything non-physical||Emotions, Neuter|