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Selingian

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Selingian
Gësélïngïskës
Type
Synthetic
Alignment
Nominative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Classification and HistoryEdit

Selingian is an East Germanic language, belonging to the same general branch that its now extinct relatives, Gothic and Vandalic, did. It gets its name from its speaker base, the Selingians, who claim descent from the ancient Vandalic tribe of Silingæ. The Selingians occupy the space of the rough Greater Poland region.

Selingian is a deceptively simple language: it makes up for its relative few contrasts between forms with a fair chunk of unpredictability and very prominent vocalic and accentual alternations that aren't always really predictable synchronically.

Diachronic History

PhonologyEdit

/p b t d ts dz k ɡ/ < p b t d ts dz k g >
/f w θ s ʃ x/ < f w þ s š >
/m n n̥ ŋ ŋ̊/ < m n ṇ ŋ ŋ̇ >
/r r̥ l l̥ j/ < r ṛ l ḷ j >

/i iː ĩ ɨ ɨ̃ ʉ ʉː ʉ̃ u uː ũ/ < i ī į ï ı̨̈ ü ų̈ ǖ u ū ų >
/e eː ẽ ø øː ə o oː õː/ < e ē ę ö ȫ ë o ō ǫ >
/æ æː a aː ã ɔ ɔː/ < ä ǟ a ā ą ɔ ɔ̄ >
/ɔu jæ jø ai øy/ < ɔu jä jö ai öy >

Stressed vowels may have either high or low pitch. High pitch is shown with an acute and low with a grave accent. If the vowel is written by more than one grapheme, the widest grapheme without diacritics gets the pitch marks, giving examples such as < ɔ̀u ài ȍi >. Vowels with macrons tack on circumflexes for high and carons for low pitch. Vowels with diareses tack on double acutes for high and double graves for long pitch.

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Selingian nouns come in one of three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter; the gender of a noun is very often indicated by its nominative shape. They decline for five cases: nominative, accusative, dative, genitive and a marginal vocative. They come only in singular and pural forms.

A common pattern in Selingian nouns is that all countable nouns form their plurals with an additional gë- prefix that is absent in mass nouns and certain irregular plurals. They are all generally grouped into declensions based on the shape of their nominative.

S-StemsEdit

Selingian s-stems are nouns that have a nominative in -s, optionally preceded by a vowel. They are almost exclusively either masculine or feminine. They come in three subclasses:

  • Bare s-stems, with no vowel
  • Primary ës-stems and is-stems
  • Secondary ïs-stems and us-stems
Bare & Primary S-StemsEdit

Bare s-stems include Proto-Germanic nouns that ended in *-az that was preceded by only one consonant, and consonant-stem animates that ended in one consonant followed by *-s/z. They overlap fairly neatly with primary s-stems, which invariably descend from *-az nouns and consonant-stem animates that ended in more than one consonant before the suffix.

Example bare s-stem noun <áls> (knife, masc; *alaz):

Singular Plural
Nominative áls gɔ́lus
Vocative ál
Accusative
Dative ɔ́lu gálëms
Genitive álës gɔ̀lų

The affixes bare s-stems take are generally:

Singular Plural
Nominative Ŕ-s gë-Ŕ-us
Vocative Ŕ
Accusative
Dative Ŕ-u gë-Ŕ-ëms
Genitive Ŕ-ës gë-R̀-ų

Example primary ës-stem noun <wólfës> (wolf, masc; *wulfaz):

Singular Plural
Nominative wólfës gëwólfus
Vocative wólf
Accusative
Dative wólfu gëwolfëms
Genitive wólfës gëwòlfų

The affixes ës-stems usually take are:

Singular Plural
Nominative Ŕ-ës gë-Ŕ-us
Vocative Ŕ
Accusative
Dative Ŕ-u gë-Ŕ-ëms
Genitive Ŕ-ës gë-R̀-ų

Primary is-stems are almost exclusively found in derived nouns that take the -aris agent suffix, deriving from Proto-Germanic *-ār(i)jaz, although a lot of them derive from underived nouns formerly ending in *-(i)jaz.

An example is-stem noun: wáris (commoner/citizen, masc; *warjaz):

Singular Plural
Nominative wáris gëwɔ́ržus
Vocative wárë
Accusative
Dative wɔ́ržu gëwáržëms
Genitive wáržës gëwɔ̀ržų

The affixes is-stems usually take differ slightly based on whether the stem ends in /r x z/ (thus taking -jë- suffixes) or not (taking -i- suffixes). The affixes generally are:

Singular Plural
Nominative Ŕ-is gë-Ŕ-jus
Vocative Ŕ-ë
Accusative
Dative Ŕ-ju Ŕ-jëms
Ŕ-ims
Genitive Ŕ-jës
Ŕ-is
Ŕ-jų̄
Secondary S-StemsEdit

Secondary ïs-stems and the quite rarer us-stems are derived from Proto-Germanic nouns that ended in *-iz/uz and *-wiz/wuz in the nominative, respectivelly. The two Germanic declensional classes have merged uniformly in the plural; some nouns have a distinct dative and gneitive descended not from the common merged cases but from the original Proto-Germanic u-stem dative and genitive forms.

An example ïs-stem noun: <îftïs> (cramp, fem; *jihtiz):

Singular Plural
Nominative îftïs gîftis
Vocative îftë
Accusative
Dative îfti gîftëms
Genitive îftis gǚftų

The affixes ïs-stems generally take are:

Singular Plural
Nominative Ŕ-ïs gë-Ŕ-is
Vocative Ŕ-ë
Accusative
Dative Ŕ-i gë-Ŕ-ëms
Genitive Ŕ-is gë-R̀-ų

An example outlier ïs-stem noun: <kústïs> (thing, object; *kustuz):

Singular Plural
Nominative kústïs gëkústis
Vocative kústë
Accusative
Dative kústu gëkústëms
Genitive kústus gëkùstų

Such nouns generally take the following suffixes:

Singular Plural
Nominative Ŕ-ïs gë-Ŕ-is
Vocative Ŕ-ë
Accusative
Dative Ŕ-u gë-Ŕ-ëms
Genitive Ŕ-us gë-R̀-ų

I-StemsEdit

Selingian i-stems are nouns that have a nominative in -i. They are exclusively feminine. They derive from Proto-Germanic ī/jō-stems.

Example i-stem noun <bandi> (rope; *bandī):

Singular Plural
Nominative bándi gëbɔ̀ndjus
Vocative
Accusative
Dative bɔ́ndjui gëbándims
Genitive bɔ́ndjus gëbɔ̀ndjų

Such nouns generally take the following suffixes:

Singular Plural
Nominative Ŕ-i gë-R̀-jus
Vocative
Accusative
Dative Ŕ-jui gë-Ŕ-ims
Genitive Ŕ-jus gë-R̀-jų

VerbsEdit

Selingian verbs follow a traditionally Germanic model: they inflect for person and number of the subject, for two tenses, present and preterite, and three moods, the indicative and subjunctive; they come in weak, strong, mixed and irregular types.

Every Selingian verb is cited in five parts: it's listed by its infinitive, it being the dictionary form, and uses the 3rd person singular present, 1st person singular preterite, 1st person plural preterite and the past participle as its principal citation parts. Weak verbs merely get suffixes while other verbs get the full verb form cited.

Auxiliaries and IrregularsEdit

Selingian employs a few irregular and suppletive auxiliaries to provide additional morphosemantic information. Most of its irregulars follow a preterite-present conjugation pattern, taking a strong preterite in the present and having a weak regular preterite derived from an unattested present; many of them are suppletive and may feature irregular patterns or preserve archaic features.

The primary copula in the language is wézą:

Present Preterite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Indicative 1st ím ízı̨̈ wás wêzı̨̈
2nd ís ízïþ wást wêzïþ
3rd ístë índë wás wêzë
Subjunctive 1st síju síjim sáj sújı̨̈
2nd síjis síjiþ sájt sújïþ
3rd síji síjį sáj sújı̨̈
Imperative 1st sìjim
2nd sìjis sìjiþ
Participle wéząts wézats

Weak VerbsEdit

Selingian weak verbs are the most regular group of verbs in the language: they inflect in very straightforward and generally regular ways, with very little stem modification outside of the transparent processes of umlaut. There are four classes of weak verbs that primarily differ only in how they form the present indicative; the subjunctive and preterite forms of the verbs are generally inflected consistently across the classes.

Preterites of weak verbs mostly follow a generalised class four inflection, and their subjunctives follow a generalised class one inflection. Their participles all end in -ąts (present) and -ats (past), and their imperatives are a hybrid, levelled class. A generalised verb inflection table for weak verbs:

Present Preterite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Indicative 1st Ŕ-nudų R̀-nudų
2nd Ŕ-nudis R̀-nudis
3rd Ŕ-nudi R̀-nudį̈
Subjunctive 1st Ŕ-i Ŕ-ims R̀-nudį
2nd Ŕ-is Ŕ-iþ R̀-nudis
3rd Ŕ-id Ŕ-į R̀-nudi R̀-nudį̈
Imperative 1st R̀-ims
2nd R̀-iþ
Weak Class IEdit

The first class of weak Selingian verbs is generally made of transitive and causative verbs, inherited from Proto-Germanic *-ij- and *-j- verbs of the first and third classes. Their infinitives usually end in , from *-(i)janą. Example verb <álį> (cause to grow, cultivate, farm (of plants)):

Present Preterite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Indicative 1st ɔ́lju álims ɔ́lnudų ɔ̀lnudų
2nd ális áliþ ɔ́lnudis ɔ̀lnudis
3rd álid álį ɔ́lnudi ɔ̀lnudį̈
Subjunctive 1st áli álims ɔ̀lnudį
2nd ális áliþ ɔ̀lnudis
3rd álid álį ɔ̀lnudi ɔ̀lnudį̈
Imperative 1st àlims
2nd àl àliþ
Weak Class IIEdit

The second class of weak Selingian verbs is made up of varying kinds of regular verbs, inherited from Proto-Germanic *-ō- verbs. Their infinitives usually end in , from *-ōną. Example verb <brúzdų> (stab):

Present Preterite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Indicative 1st brúzdu brúzdums brúzdnudų brùzdnudų
2nd brúzdus brúzduþ brúzdnudis brùzdnudis
3rd brúzdud brúzdų brúzdnudi brùzdnudį̈
Subjunctive 1st brúzdi brúzdims brùzdnudį
2nd brúzdis brúzdiþ brùzdnudis
3rd brúzdid brúzdį brùzdnudi brùzdnudį̈
Imperative 1st brùzdims
2nd brùzd brùzdiþ
Weak Class IIIEdit

The third class of weak Selingian verbs is made up of varying kinds of regular verbs, inherited from Proto-Germanic *-ā- verbs of the third class. Their infinitives usually end in , from *-āną. Example verb <dágą> (dawn):

Present Preterite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Indicative 1st dɔ́gu dágams dɔ́gnudų dɔ̀gnudų
2nd dágas dágaþ dɔ́gnudis dɔ̀gnudis
3rd dágad dágą dɔ́gnudi dɔ̀gnudį̈
Subjunctive 1st dági dágims dɔ̀gnudį
2nd dágis dágiþ dɔ̀gnudis
3rd dágid dágį dɔ̀gnudi dɔ̀gnudį̈
Imperative 1st dàgims
2nd dàg dàgiþ
Weak Class IVEdit

The fourth class of weak Selingian verbs is made up various deponent, causative, intransitive and impersonal verbs, inherited from Proto-Germanic *-na- verbs of the fourth class. Their infinitives usually end in -ną, from *-naną. Example verb <dúbną> (die):

Present Preterite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Indicative 1st dúbnu dúbnams dúbnudų dùbnudų
2nd dúbnas dúbnaþ dúbnudis dùbnudis
3rd dúbnad dúbną dúbnudi dùbnudį̈
Subjunctive 1st dúbni dúbnims dùbnudį
2nd dúbnis dúbniþ dùbnudis
3rd dúbnid dúbnį dùbnudi dùbnudį̈
Imperative 1st dùbnims
2nd dùb dùbniþ

Strong VerbsEdit

Strong verbs are a specific, semi-regular category of Selingian verbs: they all take the same set of affixes, distinct from weak verbs, but possess prominent and extensive ablaut due to which they are divided into eleven classes. Each verb has four different grades: a present grade, a preterite one grade, a preterite two grade and a past participle grade. These make up the four principal parts of the verb.

All strong verbs share an infinitive generally in (from Proto-Germanic *-aną) and go by the following pattern of inflection:

Present Preterite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Indicative 1st Ŕ₁-u Ŕ₁-ëms Ŕ₂ Ŕ₃-ïm
2nd Ŕ₁-ïs Ŕ₁-ïþ Ŕ₂-st Ŕ₃-ïþ
3rd Ŕ₁-ïþ Ŕ₁-ą Ŕ₂ Ŕ₃-ı̨̈
Subjunctive 1st Ŕ₁-u Ŕ₁-im Ŕ₃-i Ŕ₃-im
2nd Ŕ₁-is Ŕ₁-iþ Ŕ₃-is Ŕ₃-iþ
3rd Ŕ₁-i Ŕ₁-į Ŕ₃-i Ŕ₃-į
Imperative 1st R̀₁
2nd R̀₁-im R̀₁-iþ
Participle Ŕ₁-ąts Ŕ₄-ąts
Class I VerbsEdit

Class I strong verbs are inherited from Proto-Germanic class I strong verbs, and they exhibit the following generalised alternation of the stressed vowel:

Princ. Part Grade
R₁ -ī-
R₂ -ai-
R₃ -i-
R₄

Example verb <bîdą> (expect, await; *bīdaną):

Present Preterite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Indicative 1st bîdu bîdëms báiþ bídïm
2nd bîdïs bîdïþ báist bídïþ
3rd bîdïþ bîdą báiþ bídı̨̈
Subjunctive 1st bîdu bîdim bídi bídim
2nd bîdis bîdiþ bídis bídiþ
3rd bîdi bîdį bídi bídį
Imperative 1st bǐd
2nd bǐdim bǐdiþ
Participle bîdąts bídąts
Class IIa VerbsEdit

Class IIa strong verbs are inherited from Proto-Germanic class II strong verbs, and they exhibit the following generalised alternation of the stressed vowel:

Princ. Part Grade
R₁ -jo-
R₂ -ɔu-
R₃ -u-
R₄

Example verb <rjoką> (boil, bubble; *reukaną):

Present Preterite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Indicative 1st rjóku rjókëms rɔ́uk rúkïm
2nd rjókïs rjókïþ rɔ́ukst rúkïþ
3rd rjókïþ rjóką rɔ́upþ rúkı̨̈
Subjunctive 1st rjóku rjókim rúki rúkim
2nd rjókis rjókiþ rúkis rúkiþ
3rd rjóki rjókį rúki rúkį
Imperative 1st rjòk
2nd rjòkim rjòkiþ
Participle rjókąts rúkąts
Class IIb VerbsEdit

Class IIb strong verbs are inherited from anomalous Proto-Germanic class II strong verbs, and they exhibit the following generalised alternation of the stressed vowel:

Princ. Part Grade
R₁ -ū-
R₂ -ɔu-
R₃ -u-
R₄ -ɔu-

Example verb <dûfką> (fall; *dūb[k]aną):

Present Preterite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Indicative 1st dûfku dûfkëms dɔ́ufk dúfkïm
2nd dûfkïs dûfkïþ dɔ́ufkst dúfkïþ
3rd dûfkïþ dûfką dɔ́uft dúfkı̨̈
Subjunctive 1st dûfku dûfkim dúfki dúfkim
2nd dûfkis dûfkiþ dúfkis dúfkiþ
3rd dûfki dûfkį dúfki dúfkį
Imperative 1st dǔfk
2nd dǔfkim dǔfkiþ
Participle dûfkąts dɔ́ufkąts
Class III VerbsEdit

Class III strong verbs are inherited from Proto-Germanic class III and IV strong verbs, and they exhibit the following generalised alternation of the stressed vowel:

Princ. Part Grade
R₁ -i-
R₂ -a-
R₃ -u-
R₄ -a-

Example verb <bíndą> (tie, bind; *bindaną):

Present Preterite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Indicative 1st bűndu bíndëms bánd búndïm
2nd bíndïs bíndïþ bánst búndïþ
3rd bíndïþ bíndą bánd búndı̨̈
Subjunctive 1st bűndu bíndim búndi búndim
2nd bíndis bíndiþ búndis búndiþ
3rd bíndi bíndį búndi búndį
Imperative 1st bìnd
2nd bìndim bìndiþ
Participle bíndąts bándąts
Class IV VerbsEdit

Class IV strong verbs are inherited from Proto-Germanic class V strong verbs, and they exhibit the following generalised alternation of the stressed vowel:

Princ. Part Grade
R₁ -e/jaCC-
R₂ -a-
R₃ -ē/jāCC-
R₄ -e/jaCC-

Example verb <pjágją> (take, accept item; *þigjaną):

Present Preterite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Indicative 1st pjɔ́gju pjágims þági pjâgim
2nd pjágis pjágiþ þágist pjâgiþ
3rd pjágiþ pjágą þági pjâgį
Subjunctive 1st pjágju pjàgim pjǎgi pjǎgim
2nd pjàgis pjàgiþ pjǎgis pjǎgiþ
3rd pjàgi pjàgį pjǎgi pjǎgį
Imperative 1st pjàg
2nd pjàgim pjàgiþ
Participle pjágąts pjágąts
Class Va VerbsEdit

Class Va strong verbs are inherited from normal Proto-Germanic class VI strong verbs, and they exhibit the following generalised alternation of the stressed vowel:

Princ. Part Grade
R₁ -a-
R₂ -ō-
R₃ -ō-
R₄ -a-

Example verb <báką> (bake; *bakaną):

Present Preterite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Indicative 1st bɔ́ku bákëms bôk bôkïm
2nd bákïs bákïþ bôkst bôkïþ
3rd bákïþ báką bôk bôkı̨̈
Subjunctive 1st bɔ́ku bákim bôki bôkim
2nd bákis bákiþ bôkis bôkiþ
3rd báki bákį bôki bôkį
Imperative 1st bàk
2nd bàkim bàkiþ
Participle bákąts bákąts
Class Vb VerbsEdit

Class Vb strong verbs are inherited from j-present Proto-Germanic class VI strong verbs, and they in general share vowel alternations with class Va verbs; they primarily differ in that they take low tone in places class Va verbs don't. They are usually a bit more irregular than class Va verbs.

Example verb <ḷašą> (laugh, cackle; *hlahjaną):

Present Preterite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Indicative 1st ḷɔ́šu ḷášëms ḷôk ḷôgïm
2nd lášïs lášïþ ḷôkst ḷôgïþ
3rd ḷášïþ ḷášą ḷôk ḷôgı̨̈
Subjunctive 1st ḷɔ́šu ḷàšim ḷǒji ḷǒjim
2nd ḷàšis ḷàšiþ ḷǒjis ḷǒjiþ
3rd ḷàši ḷàšį ḷǒji ḷǒjį
Imperative 1st ḷàš
2nd ḷàšim ḷàšiþ
Participle ḷóšąts ḷàgąts
Class CëREdit

Class CëR strong verbs are reduplicative verbs derived from Proto-Germanic class VII strong verbs that formed their preterites with simple reduplication. In Selingian, they form their preterites by reduplicating the first consonant of the verb and using ë as the nucleus of the resulting cluster (if it starts with one) or by prefixing <iw-> (if the verb's vowel-initial). They don't feature ablaut as a productive feature.

Example verb <banną> (forbid; *bannaną):

Present Preterite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Indicative 1st bɔ́nnu bánnëms bëbánn bëbánnïm
2nd bánnïs bánnïþ bëbánnst bëbánnïþ
3rd bánnïþ bánną bëbánn bëbánnı̨̈
Subjunctive 1st bɔ́nnu bànnim bëbánni bëbànnim
2nd bánnis bánniþ bëbànnis bëbànniþ
3rd bánni bánnį bànni bànnį
Imperative 1st bànn
2nd bànnim bànniþ
Participle bánnąts bëbànnąts
Class gëgREdit

Class CëR strong verbs are reduplicative verbs derived from some Proto-Germanic irregular strong verbs that formed their preterites with ablaut. In Selingian, they form their preterites by prefixing <g-> and then reduplicating this resulting first syllable. They usually feature ablaut as a semi-productive feature. Most of these verbs feature gemination in their preterite forms; this derives from older vowel length.

Example verb <etą> (eat; *etaną):

Present Preterite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Indicative 1st ǿtu étëms gëgjǽtt gëgjǽttïm
2nd étïs étïþ gëgjǽst gëgjǽttïþ
3rd étïþ étą gëgjǽtt gëgjǽttı̨̈
Subjunctive 1st ǿtu ètim gëgjǽtti gëgjæ̀ttim
2nd étis étiþ gëgjæ̀ttis gëgjæ̀ttiþ
3rd éti étį gëgjæ̀tti gëgjæ̀ttį
Imperative 1st èt
2nd ètim ètiþ
Participle étąts gëgjæ̀ttąts

Mixed VerbsEdit

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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