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Senan
'
Type
Fusional/Analytic
Alignment
Nominative - Accusative
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
no
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Senan is spoken in the Republic Of Sena, which is located in the north-eastern part of Ireland. It is a Celtic language closely related to Irish, though a good chunk of the vocabulary is taken from English & has a simpler grammar.

PhonologyEdit

The standard orthography of Senan makes the language look less similar to Irish than it really is.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Palatalized Nasal mj nj
Plosive p t c x
Voiced Plosive b d g
Palatalized Plosive pj tj cj
Fricative f s sh h
Voiced Fricative v z zh q
Palatalized Fricative fj sj jh
Labialized Fricative wh
Approximant j w
Flap or tap r
Lateral flap l

VowelsEdit

Far-front Front Near-front Mid Near-back Back Far-back
Far-close i: u:
Close i u
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid e: y o:
Open-mid e o
Near-open
Open
Far-open a a:

AlphabetEdit

Senan uses the Latin Alphabet.

A - a/a:

B - b

C - c

Cj - cj

D - d

E - e/e:

F - f

Fj - fj

G - g

H - h

Jh - jh

I - i/i:

J - j

L - l

M - m

Mj - mj

N - n

Nj - nj

O - o/o:

P - p

Pj - pj

Q - q

R - r

S - s/sh - S is pronounced sh before back vowels.

Sj - sj

T - t

Tj - tj

U - u/u:

V - v

W - w

Wh - wh

X - x

Y - y

Z - z/zh - Z is pronounced zh before back vowels.

The spelling can be compared to Iresh.

Iresh Forms Pronounciation Senan Equivelant Explenation
B bgh B (1) Loss of velarization.
B by Bi (2) See Senan Palatal Phenominon.
Bh w W (3) Difference in spelling.
Bh vy Vi (2)
Bhf w W (3)
Bhf vy Vi (2)
Bp bgh B (1)
Bp by Bi (2)
C k C
C c Cj (2)
Ch x H (3)
Ch ch H (4) Palatals become velars.
D dgh D (1)
D dy Di (2)
Dh gh Q (3)
Dh y J (3)
Dt dgh D (1)
Dt dy Di (2)
F fgh F (1)
F fy Fj (2, 3)
Fh silent none (3)
G g G
G j Gi (2, 4)
Gc g G (3)
Gc j

Gi

(2, 4)
Gh gh Q (3)
Gh y J (3)
H h Q (5) Unvoiced glottals become voiced velars.
L lgh L (1)
L ly Li (2)
Ll lgh L (1)
Ll ly Li (2)
M mgh M (1)
M my Mj (3)
Mb mgh M (1)
Mb my Mj (3)
Mh w W (3)
Mh Vy Vi (2)
N ngh N (1)
N ny Nj (3)
NN ngh N (1)
NN ny Nj (3)
Nc ngk Nc (6) Absent use of ng & ny sound leeds to usage of n as a substitute.
Nc nyc Nc (4, 6)
Nd ngh N (1)
Nd ny Nj (3)
Ng ng N (6)
Ng ngg Ng (6)
Ng ny Nj (3)
Ng nyc Nc (4, 6)
P pgh P (1)

P

py Pj (3)
R rgh R (1)
R ry S (2)

Rr

rgh R (1)
S sgh S (1)
S sh Sj (3)
Sh h Q (5)
Sh ch H (4)
T tgh T (1)
T ty Tj (3)
Th h Q (5)
Th ch H (4)
Th silent none (3)
Ts tgh T (1)
Ts ty Tj (3)
V w W (3)
V vy Vi (2)

The Palatal PhenominonEdit

There is an odd system of what happened to the palatlized consonants.

1, For all voiced stops, voiced fricatives, & phonemes r &l, palatalized consonants loose their palatalization & add a short close front vowel.

2, unvoiced palatal stops become an unvoiced palatalized velar stops.

3, voiced palatal stops become a voiced velar stops with a short close front vowel.

Additional Rules Of PronounciationEdit

Standard Senan pronounces ixi as i:, while many regional dialects pronounce it as ixi.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes No Yes No No
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No Yes No Yes No No No
Article No Yes No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Genders?Edit

The Senan language has no gender distinction, a rarety among Indo-European languages. That is, there is no real way to modify a word to alter gender. In the Senan language, Gender only needs to be addressed by two specific nouns that, more or less, translates to male & female.

Mael - Male

Femali - Female

NounsEdit

Senan nouns have two numbers (singular & plural) & four cases (common, vocative, genitive, & dative). The common case is both nominative & accusative. While Irish has 5 Declensions, Senan has three.

First Declension for words that end with a non-palatalized consonant
Second Declension For words that end with a vowel
Third Declension For words that ends with a palatalized consonant

First Declension

dor = Door

Common Vocative Genitive Dative
Singular dor ador dori dor
Plural dore adora doria dorie

Second Declension

tri = Tree

Common Vocative Genetive Dative
Singular tri atri trini tri
Plural tria atria trina tria

Third Declension

jascj = Fish

Common Vocative Genetive Dative
Singular jascja ajascja jascjea jascja
Plural jascjan ajascjan jascjen jascjan

Verbs Senan verbs have two numbers, tree tenses (past, present, future), & three moods (subjunctive, conditional, imperative). The language has two conjugation classes.

1st Conjugation Present    Past     Future
x -em -es -fir
Conditional -en -enes -enfir
Imperative -ic -ices -icfir
Subjunctive -emam -am -firam
2nd conjugation Present   Past     Future  
x -em -ites -emit
Conditional -un -unites -unemit
Imperative -enja -enjites -enjemit
Subjunctive -umem -um -emitum








PrepositionsEdit

Senan prepositions have three persons (first, second, & third) & two numbers (singular & plural).

Singular Plural
Frist Person -am -aen
Second Person -at -eu
Third Person -i -u

Ag = at

An = on

Aw = from/since

As = from/out of

Dej = from/of

Duw = to/for

Eder = between

Faj = under/about

Hog = to/towards

In = in

La = with

Qar = beyond/over

Rawn = around

Riw = before/in front of

Truw = through

ArticlesEdit

Senan articles have four cases (common, vocative, genitive, & dative).

Common Vocative Genitive Dative
Definite an axan ani den
Indefinite wan awan wani wan

AdjectivesEdit

Senan Adjectives have two numbers (singular & plural), four cases (common, vocative, genitive, & dative), & three comparisons (positive, comparative, & superlative).

Common  Vocative  Genitive Dative
Singular (none) a- -i (none)
Plural -a a-(root)-a (none) -e

Comperative = -r/-er

PronounsEdit

Senan personal pronouns have three persons (first, second, third) & two numbers (singular & plual).

First Person Second Person Third Person
Singular -m -t -si
Plural -d -sp -st

These are combined with the following: Personal - he-

Possessive - a-

Interogative - ca-

Together, they create the following words:

hem (i, me), het (you), hesi (him, she, he, her, it), hed (we, us), hesp (you), hest (they, them, those, these), am (my, mine), at (your, yours), asi (his, hers, its), ad (our, ours), asp (your, yours), ast (their, theirs, its) cam (what, who) cat (what, who) casi (who, which, what, whom) cad (who, whom, what) casp (who, whom, what) cast (who, whom, what)

NumbersEdit

Qaun
Du
Tri
Ceaqer
Cuec
Sei
Seat
Qot
Nar
Dei

SyntaxEdit

Senan generally follows a V-S-O word order.

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


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