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| Name: Sentaquish
Number of genders: 1
|c||-q||qu + vwl|
|ɟ||-g||gu + vwl|
|ç||-h||hu + vwl|
|ʝ||vwl + y + vwl|
|s||s ç ss|
|ɱ||m + v,f|
The Sentaguish alphabetEdit
From the above table we have the following 29 letters in the Sentaguish alphabet.
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R Ʀ S T U V X Y Z þ ş ƻ çß
|ae||/æ/||The only way of expressing æ|
|ai||/e/||2nd way of expressing e|
|au||/o/||2nd way of expressing o|
|oe||/œ/||Primary way of expressing œ|
|eu||/œ/||2nd way of expressing œ|
|ui||/y/||2nd way of expressing y|
|ue||/y/||3rd way of expressing y. Used mostly in endings.|
|ou||/u/||The only way of expressing u|
|èi||/'ai/||When stressed e meets i or vice versa, e is pronounced a|
When o meets i, o becomes u and i becomes a
|dh||/ð/||ð is mostly represented by þ. In word building, ending d becomes dh.|
|ch||/x/||h alone isn't pronounced. ch is the only way of expressing x.|
|sh||/ʃ/||sh is the only way of expressing ʃ.|
|zh||/ʒ/||zh is the only way of expressing ʒ.|
|nn, ni||/ɲ/||In early Sentaguish it was ni+vwl. Later it was replaced by nn+vwl.|
|-ng||/ŋ/||ŋ is found only at the end of a word. -ng is the oly way of expressing it.|
|-cq||/k/||A c cannot be alone at the end of a word, so we add a q.|
Stress is irregular and might occur in the last three syllables. Stress mark is grave accent' (`).
|Last syllable||Pre-last syllable||Third-to-last syllable|
In all vowel digraphs, apart from èi and ue, the stress is noted on the second letter.
- Words ending in -ue cannot be stressed on the third-to-last syllable.
- Never stress digraphs ae or oe. When oe needs to be stressed it turns to eu. When ae needs to be stressed, the stress isn't noted at all
- In Functional mood of verbs the stress in on the last syllable. (For Group 1 verbs) In Subjunctive mood we keep the orthography the same but we move the stress on the pre-last syllable.
- Y when stressed is stressed with acute accent.
- Vowel digraphs are always stressed on the second letter. If they are stressed on the second letter, each letter represents a different sound (Eg. aì => /'e/ ài => /'ai/
vwl. + y + vwl. -> /vjv/ eg. aye ->/aje/
cons. + y -> /ci/ eg. my -> /mi/
vwl. + ÿ + vwl. -> /viv/ eg. aÿe -> /aie/
consonant + ÿ -> /cj/
- vwl. + y -> /vj/ eg. -ay -> -/aj/
- vwl. + ÿ -> /vij/ eg. -aÿ -> /aij/
To pronounce ending y before a vowel /i/ we transform it to ii. In other words, ii indicates an y that had to be pronounced /i/
-aii -> /ai/
-e -> /e/ eg. fe -> /fe/
vwl + consonant + ë -> /vc/ eg. ifë -> /if/
-ille -> /ij/
-èille -> /aij/ -èille = aÿ
LL in -ille is pronounced /j/
E in -ille isn't pronounced at all
To reset -ille /ij/ to /iʎe/:
Put diaelytic mark on e:
-illë -> /iʎe/
C/CH/G/Ʀ - QU/GU/Y/HUEdit
c/ch/g/Ʀ + a, o, ou, ae, au, oi, èi, => k/x/ɣ/g
C + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui -> Qu + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui => c
Ch + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui -> Hu + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui => ç
g + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui -> Gu + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui => ɟ
vwl + Ʀ + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui -> vwl + Y + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui => j
cons. + Ʀ + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui -> cons. + Ÿ + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui => j
S /s/ vs. /z/ vs. /ʃ/Edit
consonant + s => /s/
s + voiceless consonant => /s/
vowel + s + vowel => /z/
vowel + s + voiced consonant => /z/
s vs. ss vs. çEdit
vowel + ss + vowel => /s/
vowel + ç + voiced consonant => /s/
/s/ vs. /ʃ/
s+i+vwl => /ʃ/ eg siaìr /ʃer/
Verb is a word used to describe an action or a state. They form 105 different forms according to their tense, mood and person.
On the table below thare are all tenses of Sentaguish and their descriptions:
|Present||describes actions that happen either while speaking or generally this period but now right now.|
|Past||describes actions of the past.|
|Future||describes actions that will/might happen in the future.|
|Indefinite||is used for general truths, things that were true facts in the past, are true facts now and will be in the future|
|Perfect||describes an action that happened before another action.|
|Imperfect||describes an action that will happen before another action happens.|
On the table below there are all moods used in Sentaguish, and their descriptions:
|Indicative||It describes true facts|
|Subjunctive||It is used in some secondary clauses and in wish|
|Imperative||It is used to state an order|
|Functional||It is used in several occasions eg. after modals or to form subjunctive.|
Persons and numbersEdit
On the table below you will see all persons and numbers:
|1st incl.||1st singular||1st plural inclusive|
|1st excl.||-||1st plural exclusive|
|2nd||2nd singular||2nd plural|
|3rd||3rd singular||3rd plural|
On the table below there are all Sentaguish voices and their desriptions:
|Active||When a transmitive verb's subject is in nominative case||I read a book|
|Passive||When a transmitive verb's subject (agent) is in ablative case||A book is read (by me).|
|Reflexive||When a transmitive verb's object is its subject||I hit myself/ I was hit by myself|
|Stative||For non transmitive verbs||I sleep.|
Because the inflection of the verb doesn't change according to its voice, the table below show how to recognise a verb's voice.
Aspects are expressed by time expressions that show a period of time, certain (for an hour) or uncertain (for hours)
Verb group 1: verbs ending in consonant + vowel (digraph) (CV verb scheme)Edit
We dispose of the vowel (or vowel digraph) and form the tenses according to the table below.
|Subjunctive||Subjunctive is formed by the particle nà before the Functional mood.|
- Infinitive is the basic form of a verb that is used to refer to the verb. It is neither a tense or a mood
These verb tense forms correspond to the 1st singular person. On the table below you will see inflections for each tense of a Group 1 Verb:
Verb Group 2: verbs ending in consonant (VC verb scheme)Edit
We don't dispose of any letters as the last consonant of a verb shows its stem, which remains in all forms.
E.g. The stem of naloì is nal-. The stem of pùƦ is pu'Ʀ.
We use the Group 1 endings to form the verb conjugations.
Verb Group 2, however, forms a subjunctive form too.
Verb Group 3: Irregular verbsEdit
Irregular verbs have irregular changes to their stem apart from the endings above. Most verbs ending in -Ʀ are irregular. Irregular verbs form Subjunctive as VC but they don't form Indefinite Tense (as CV).
Nouns have 6 cases and 2 numbers.
Group A: nouns ending in a vowel (digraph) (CV/VV)Edit
The basic rule is that they form their cases and numbers like that: The following suffices are added:
|Nominative||a, e, i, o, u/ue/ui, ou, ae, oe/eu||ai, au, oi||ai||ais|
(* "-" means no change to nominative)
- For monograph ending nouns: Stress remains on the same syllable in all forms.
- For digraph ending nouns: Stress is on tha last syllable on all singular and plural cases.
Group B: nouns ending in a vowel (digraph) before a consonant (VC)Edit
The vowel changes according to the table below:
|Nominative||- vowel -||monographs -> - ai -||digraphs -> - u -|
|Genitive||- e -||- a -|
|Dative||- ea -||- ii -|
|Ablative||- ui -||- (a)vai -|
|Accusative||- ai -||- (i)va -|
- For monograph-before-consonant ending nouns: Stress remains on the same syllable in all forms.
- For digraph-before-consonant ending nouns: Stress remains on last syllable on all singular and plural cases except plural ablative and plural accusative.
Group C: Nouns ending in double consonant (CC)Edit
We add the following suffices at the end of the word
|Dative||-ia||-enia / -enna|
Stress rule: Stress is on last syllable on singular and on the pre-last syllable on plural
There are three types of adjectives: A-group inflected, B-group inflected and C-group inflected. A-group inflected are inflected according to the noun group A inflections, B-group inflected are inflected according to the noun group B inflections and C-group-inflected are inflected according to the noun group C inflections. Noun stress rules do not apply on adjectives. Adjectives have irregular stress.
Personal Pronouns are the pronouns that show the three people of speech:
- 1st person: is the one that speaks
- 2nd person: is the person to whom we're speaking
- 3rd person: is the one that we refer to, without being neither the first nor the second person.
|Case||1st person||2nd person||3rd person|
- the form "çu" is rarely usedin imperative of third person.
Plural forms are formed by the suffix -en after the corresponding singular form (ro - roen/reun | er - eren | nar - naren| etc.)
There are two categories of Demonstrative pronouns: for objects (or persons) that can be felt (seen, touched, heard, smelt) (1st degree) and for objects that cannot be felt. In English, objects that are near (to which we refer to with "this") and objects that are not (to which we refer to with "that") (2nd degree).
The NOM forms of these pronouns are below. They are declined like nouns.
Each of the above form is declined according to it's number. E.g. nom. laiq. - gen. laq - dat. liiq etc.
The particle ii before the demonstrative pronoun gives the following meaning: "the following" as in: "The cosequences of this are the following:" This is the 2nd form of the Demonstrative pronoun and it has only a second degree.
Defining Pronoun has the following meaning: by myself/ yourself/ himself/ herself/ itself/ ourselves/ yourselves/ themselves. It is formed by adding the prefix te- before any of the personal pronoun case. E.g. nom. tero - gen. tair - dat. teier - abl. teir - voc. tero/tairo - acc. tero | pl. nom. tereun etc.