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Sentaguish

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Name: Sentaquish

Type: Fusional

Alignment:

Head Direction:

Number of genders: 1

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


SettingEdit

PhonologyEdit

Consonants (28)Edit

Bilabial Labiode. Dental Alveol. Postalve. Palatal Velar
Plosives p b d t c ɟ k g
Fricatives v f θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ç  j x ɣ
Nasals m ɱ n ɲ ŋ
Trills r
Glides
Lateral Appr. l ʎ

Vowels (8)Edit

Front Central Back
Close i y u
Close-mid e o
Open-mid œ
Near-open æ
Open a

Sound RepresentationEdit

Sound Represantation
m m
p p
b b
v v
f f
n n
t t
d d
ð dh þ
θ ş ƻ
k c -cq
g g
x ch
ɣ Ʀ
c -q qu + vwl
ɟ -g gu + vwl
ç -h hu + vwl
ʝ vwl + y + vwl
s s ç ss
z s z x
ʃ sh ß
ʒ zh
l l
ʎ ll
r r
ɱ m + v,f
ɲ nn ni+vwl
ŋ -ng
a a
i i y
u ou
æ ae
œ oe eu
e e ai
o o au
y u ui

ue

The Sentaguish alphabetEdit

From the above table we have the following 29 letters in the Sentaguish alphabet.

A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R Ʀ S T U V X Y Z þ ş ƻ çß

DigraphsEdit

Vowels:Edit

Digraph IPA Description
ae /æ/ The only way of expressing æ
ai /e/ 2nd way of expressing e
au /o/ 2nd way of expressing o
oe /œ/ Primary way of expressing œ
eu /œ/ 2nd way of expressing œ
ui /y/ 2nd way of expressing y
ue /y/ 3rd way of expressing y. Used mostly in endings.
ou /u/ The only way of expressing u
èi /'ai/ When stressed e meets i or vice versa, e is pronounced a
/i'a/
oi /ua/

When o meets i, o becomes u and i becomes a

Consonants:Edit

Digraph IPA Description
dh /ð/ ð is mostly represented by þ. In word building, ending d becomes dh.
ch /x/ h alone isn't pronounced. ch is the only way of expressing x.
sh /ʃ/ sh is the only way of expressing ʃ.
zh /ʒ/ zh is the only way of expressing ʒ.
nn, ni /ɲ/ In early Sentaguish it was ni+vwl. Later it was replaced by nn+vwl.
-ng /ŋ/ ŋ is found only at the end of a word. -ng is the oly way of expressing it.
-cq /k/ A c cannot be alone at the end of a word, so we add a q.

StressEdit

Stress is irregular and might occur in the last three syllables. Stress mark is grave accent' (`).

Last syllable Pre-last syllable Third-to-last syllable

In all vowel digraphs, apart from èi and ue, the stress is noted on the second letter.

Stress rules:Edit

  1. Words ending in -ue cannot be stressed on the third-to-last syllable.
  2. Never stress digraphs ae or oe. When oe needs to be stressed it turns to eu. When ae needs to be stressed, the stress isn't noted at all
  3. In Functional mood of verbs the stress in on the last syllable. (For Group 1 verbs) In Subjunctive mood we keep the orthography the same but we move the stress on the pre-last syllable.
  4. Y when stressed is stressed with acute accent.
  5. Vowel digraphs are always stressed on the second letter. If they are stressed on the second letter, each letter represents a different sound (Eg. aì => /'e/ ài => /'ai/

Irregular SchemesEdit

YEdit

Y Phonotactics:

vwl. + y + vwl. -> /vjv/ eg. aye ->/aje/

cons. + y -> /ci/ eg. my -> /mi/

Diaelyted Y

vwl. + ÿ + vwl. -> /viv/ eg. aÿe -> /aie/

consonant + ÿ -> /cj/

Ending Y

- vwl. + y -> /vj/ eg. -ay -> -/aj/

- vwl. + ÿ -> /vij/ eg. -aÿ -> /aij/

To pronounce ending y before a vowel /i/ we transform it to ii. In other words, ii indicates an y that had to be pronounced /i/

-aii -> /ai/

EEdit

Ending E

-e -> /e/ eg. fe -> /fe/

vwl + consonant + ë -> /vc/ eg. ifë -> /if/

-ILLEEdit

-ille -> /ij/

-èille -> /aij/ -èille = aÿ

LL in -ille is pronounced /j/

E in -ille isn't pronounced at all

To reset -ille /ij/ to /iʎe/:

Put diaelytic mark on e:

-illë -> /iʎe/

C/CH/G/Ʀ - QU/GU/Y/HUEdit

c/ch/g/Ʀ + a, o, ou, ae, au, oi, èi, => k/x/ɣ/g

C + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui -> Qu + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui => c

Ch + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui -> Hu + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui => ç

g + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui -> Gu + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui => ɟ

vwl + Ʀ + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui -> vwl + Y + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui => j

cons. + Ʀ + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui -> cons. + Ÿ + e, i, u, oe, iè, ai, eu, ui => j

S /s/ vs. /z/ vs. /ʃ/Edit

consonant + s => /s/

s + voiceless consonant => /s/

vowel + s + vowel => /z/

vowel + s + voiced consonant => /z/

s vs. ss vs. çEdit

vowel + ss + vowel => /s/

vowel + ç + voiced consonant => /s/

/s/ vs. /ʃ/

s+i+vwl => /ʃ/ eg siaìr /ʃer/

GrammarEdit

VerbsEdit

Verb is a word used to describe an action or a state. They form 105 different forms according to their tense, mood and person.

TensesEdit

On the table below thare are all tenses of Sentaguish and their descriptions:

Tense Description
Present describes actions that happen either while speaking or generally this period but now right now.
Past describes actions of the past.
Future describes actions that will/might happen in the future.
Indefinite is used for general truths, things that were true facts in the past, are true facts now and will be in the future
Perfect describes an action that happened before another action.
Imperfect describes an action that will happen before another action happens.

MoodsEdit

On the table below there are all moods used in Sentaguish, and their descriptions:

Mood Description
Indicative It describes true facts
Subjunctive It is used in some secondary clauses and in wish
Imperative It is used to state an order
Functional It is used in several occasions eg. after modals or to form subjunctive.

Persons and numbersEdit

On the table below you will see all persons and numbers:

Numbers
Persons Singular Plural
1st incl. 1st singular 1st plural inclusive
1st excl. - 1st plural exclusive
2nd 2nd singular 2nd plural
3rd 3rd singular 3rd plural

VoicesEdit

On the table below there are all Sentaguish voices and their desriptions:

Voice Desciption E.g.
Active When a transmitive verb's subject is in nominative case I read a book
Passive When a transmitive verb's subject (agent) is in ablative case A book is read (by me).
Reflexive When a transmitive verb's object is its subject I hit myself/ I was hit by myself
Stative For non transmitive verbs I sleep.

Because the inflection of the verb doesn't change according to its voice, the table below show how to recognise a verb's voice.

Subject Object
Active Nominative Accusative
Passive Ablative Accusative
Reflexive Reflexive -
Stative Nominative -

AspectsEdit

Aspects are expressed by time expressions that show a period of time, certain (for an hour) or uncertain (for hours)

Verb groupsEdit

Verb group 1: verbs ending in consonant + vowel (digraph) (CV verb scheme)Edit

We dispose of the vowel (or vowel digraph) and form the tenses according to the table below.

Mood Infinitive* Present Past Future Indefinite Perfect Imperfect
Indicative stem-vwl stem-è stem-oì stem-(è)x i(l)+present el-past ill(e)+present
Functional stem-ì stem-ìs stem-oìs stem-ès - - -
Imperative stem-à stem-ae - stem-à - - e-stem-àe
Subjunctive Subjunctive is formed by the particle before the Functional mood.
  • Infinitive is the basic form of a verb that is used to refer to the verb. It is neither a tense or a mood

These verb tense forms correspond to the 1st singular person. On the table below you will see inflections for each tense of a Group 1 Verb:

Present Past Future Indefinite Perfect Imperfect
Indic. 1st è èx/x - - -
2nd oueà ix - - -
3rd èq oìq ùex - - -
1st in èt oìt ùet - - -
1st ex ènd oìnd ùend - - -
2nd eèille oueèille uèÿ - - -
3rd ùev ouèv uyèv - - -
Funct. 1st is oìs ès - - -
2nd iàs oueàs eàs - - -
3rd iq ouìq eàq - - -
1st in it ouìt eàt - - -
1st ex ind ouìnd eànd - - -
2nd ille ouìlle èille - - -
3rd iv oùv èv - - -
Imper. 1st ae - à - - àe
2nd aëà - àr - - aìs
3rd àq - àrq - - aìx
1st in àt - àrt - - aìt
1st ex ànd - àrd - - aìnd
2nd àÿ - àyr - - aìÿ
3rd àv - àrv - - aìv

Verb Group 2: verbs ending in consonant (VC verb scheme)Edit

We don't dispose of any letters as the last consonant of a verb shows its stem, which remains in all forms.

E.g. The stem of naloì is nal-. The stem of pùƦ is pu'Ʀ.

We use the Group 1 endings to form the verb conjugations.

Verb Group 2, however, forms a subjunctive form too.

Mood Infinitive Present Past Future Indefinite Perfect Iperfect
Subjunctive nà+ind. inf. ir ira irii ieq - -
Present Past Future Indefinite
ir ira irii ieq
ire irae irie ieca
iriy iray irien iecq
irit irat irig iet
irid irad irih ied
iril irail ireil iel
iriv iraiv iriev iev

Verb Group 3: Irregular verbsEdit

Irregular verbs have irregular changes to their stem apart from the endings above. Most verbs ending in are irregular. Irregular verbs form Subjunctive as VC but they don't form Indefinite Tense (as CV).

NounsEdit

Nouns have 6 cases and 2 numbers.

Noun CasesEdit

Cases
Nominative
Genitive
Dative

Ablative

Vocative
Accusative

Noun GroupsEdit

Group A: nouns ending in a vowel (digraph) (CV/VV)Edit

The basic rule is that they form their cases and numbers like that: The following suffices are added:

Case Singular Plural
Nominative a, e, i, o, u/ue/ui, ou, ae, oe/eu ai, au, oi ai ais
Genitive au aia en
Dative ai ue ena
Ablative oi eu ie
Vocative -* - -
Accusative - - aie

(* "-" means no change to nominative)

Stress rules:

  • For monograph ending nouns: Stress remains on the same syllable in all forms.
  • For digraph ending nouns: Stress is on tha last syllable on all singular and plural cases.
Group B: nouns ending in a vowel (digraph) before a consonant (VC)Edit

The vowel changes according to the table below:

Case Singular Plural
Nominative - vowel - monographs -> - ai - digraphs -> - u -
Genitive - e - - a -
Dative - ea - - ii -
Ablative - ui - - (a)vai -
Vocative - -
Accusative - ai - - (i)va -

Stress rules:

  • For monograph-before-consonant ending nouns: Stress remains on the same syllable in all forms.
  • For digraph-before-consonant ending nouns: Stress remains on last syllable on all singular and plural cases except plural ablative and plural accusative.
Group C: Nouns ending in double consonant (CC)Edit

We add the following suffices at the end of the word

Case Singular Plural
Nominative - -en
Genitive -i -eni
Dative -ia -enia / -enna
Ablative -e -enai
Vocative - -
Accusative - -

Stress rule: Stress is on last syllable on singular and on the pre-last syllable on plural

AdjectivesEdit

There are three types of adjectives: A-group inflected, B-group inflected and C-group inflected. A-group inflected are inflected according to the noun group A inflections, B-group inflected are inflected according to the noun group B inflections and C-group-inflected are inflected according to the noun group C inflections. Noun stress rules do not apply on adjectives. Adjectives have irregular stress.

PronounsEdit

Personal PronounsEdit

Personal Pronouns are the pronouns that show the three people of speech:

  1. 1st person: is the one that speaks
  2. 2nd person: is the person to whom we're speaking
  3. 3rd person: is the one that we refer to, without being neither the first nor the second person.
Case 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
NOM ro nar lacq
GEN er ner necr
DAT ier nner enecra
ABL ir nir nacre
VOC (e)ro nare (çu)*
ACC ro nar car
  • the form "çu" is rarely usedin imperative of third person.

Plural forms are formed by the suffix -en after the corresponding singular form (ro - roen/reun | er - eren | nar - naren| etc.)

Demonstrative PronounsEdit

There are two categories of Demonstrative pronouns: for objects (or persons) that can be felt (seen, touched, heard, smelt) (1st degree) and for objects that cannot be felt. In English, objects that are near (to which we refer to with "this") and objects that are not (to which we refer to with "that") (2nd degree).

The NOM forms of these pronouns are below. They are declined like nouns.

Degree Singular Plural
1st cren laq
2nd çarq las

Each of the above form is declined according to it's number. E.g. nom. laiq. - gen. laq - dat. liiq etc.

The particle ii before the demonstrative pronoun gives the following meaning: "the following" as in: "The cosequences of this are the following:" This is the 2nd form of the Demonstrative pronoun and it has only a second degree.

Defining PronounEdit

Defining Pronoun has the following meaning: by myself/ yourself/ himself/ herself/ itself/ ourselves/ yourselves/ themselves. It is formed by adding the prefix te- before any of the personal pronoun case. E.g. nom. tero - gen. tair - dat. teier - abl. teir - voc. tero/tairo - acc. tero | pl. nom. tereun etc.

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