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Sgen language

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Phonology of Sgen languageEdit

Consonants
bilabialdentalvelar
voiceless p/ɸ/f t/ts/s k/x
voiced m/b/β ɾ/l/n/d ɣ/ɡ/ŋ/ɰ
vowels
frontback
closed ɪ/ɪː/iː o/oː/ɤ/ʊ
open ɛ/ɛː/eː ɑ/ɑː/ɒ/ʌ/ɔ

Syllable structure:(C)V

AlphabetsEdit

The sgen language used to be a language without writting system ,in about 120 years ago, A writting system based on Latin alphabets was founded, that's the writting system of the sgen language nowadays.

  • A - /ɑ//ɒ//ʌ//ɔ/
  • E - /ɛ/
  • GH - /ɣ//ɡ//ŋ//ɰ/
  • I - /ɪ/
  • K - /k/
  • M - /m//b//β/
  • O - /o//ɤ//ʊ/
  • P - /p/
  • R - /ɾ//l//n//d/
  • T - /t//ts//s/

Note: "aa", "ee", "ii", and "oo" are not long vowels of "a", "e", "i", and "o", "aa", "ee", "ii", and "oo" should be pronounced separately e.g. "ee" is frequently pronounced as /ɛ ɛ/, not /ɛː/ or /eː/

Vowel mutationEdit

If vowels of the stem of a word are front vowels, the vowels of affixes change into front vowels; If vowels of the stem of a word are back vowels, the vowels of affixes change into back vowels. The mutation of vowels are shown below:

  • o(close-mid back vowels or near-close back vowels)<->i(near-close front vowels)
  • a(Open-mid back vowels or open back vowels)<->e(Open-mid front vowels)

example:

  • rakataka(person/human) --> rakataka-ro(to the person)
  • ikeremi(child) --> ikeremi-ri(to the child)
  • rakataka(person/human) + teriki(land) --> rakataka-taroko(Homeland of Sgen people)

GrammarEdit

The sgen language is a verb-last language, its word order is basically SOV(the OSV order is also common).

  • Noun inflections:
    • Cases:
      • Nominative:-ma/me
      • Genitive:-ta/te
      • Dative:-ro/ri
      • Accusative:-mo/mi
      • Benefactive:-gha/ghe
      • Instrumental:-gho/ghi
      • Locative:-to/ti
      • Ablative:-ra/re
    • Other inflections(put before cases):
      • noun dual:-po/pi-
      • noun plural:-pa/pe-
  • Verb inflections:
    • present/infinitive:-paro/peri
    • past:-poka/pike
    • progressive:-roka/rike
    • perfect:-ghata/ghete
    • question maker(put after tenses):-kagha/keghe
    • negation(put after tenses, before question maker):-pamo/pemi
    • optative(=hope and wish ,put after tenses, before question maker):-ghomo/ghimi
  • adjective:-ta/te
  • dependent clause ender:-maro/meri

wordsEdit

This is only a part of the words, the complete word list is under construction.

Other wordsEdit

All the words here follows the sentence, and the sentence they precede shoud be ended with the dependent clause ender:

  • And:a
  • Or:e
  • If:i
  • Then:mepi
  • Because:ka
  • So;therefore:ta
  • before(used with dative nouns also):pie
  • after(used with dative nouns also):pa
  • when(not pronoun); as soon as:apo

NumbersEdit

  1. one:mo
  2. two:pi
  3. three:pepi
  4. four:emi
  5. five:poka
  6. (six:mopokapao(1+5); pokamopao(5+1))
  7. (seven:pipikepei(2+5, vowel mutation); pokapopao(5+2, vowel mutation))
  8. (eight:piemi(2*4, vowel mutation); pokapapopao(5+3, vowel mutation); pepipikepei(3+5, vowel mutation))
  9. (nine:taamopoa(10-1, vowel mutation); emipikepei(4+5, vowel mutation); pokaamopao(5+4, vowel mutation))
  10. ten:taa
  • hundred:kaamaa
  • plus:pao
  • minus:pie
  • -th:-ata/-ete

PronounsEdit

 
singledualtripleplural
1st exclusive ako akopo akoka akopa
1st inclusive ako akopota akopotapo akopotapa
2nd pite pitepi piteke pitepe
3rd general amo amopo - amopa
3rd near(this/these) eri eripi - eripe
3rd far(that/those) ara arapo - arapa
  1. Relative clause starter(mie means the noun that the relative-clause-sentence modifies): mie
  2. Imprative pronoun:ikie
  3. Here:iki
  4. There:aghako
  5. When:mamo
  6. Where:magho
  7. Who:mato
  8. What:mepe
  9. Which:mata
  10. Why:meghe
  11. How:meite
  12. How many:meti

NounsEdit

  1. Sun:akapo
  2. Moon:metimi
  3. Star:aghatara
  4. Light:ghamaro
  5. Sky:terike
  6. cloud:pakaro
  7. Fog:ghotagha
  8. Smoke:emitiki
  9. Wind:ghotoa
  10. rain:remie
  11. snow:temikeghe
  12. day:erimi
  13. night:mataro
  14. daytime:tomagha
  15. Mountain:pakata
  16. hill:epikiteme
  17. cliff:keiri
  18. valley:komora
  19. canyon:mieri
  20. river:erime
  21. sea:ghatarao
  22. stone;rock:kikitiri
  23. water:aghaka
  24. fire:oghoko
  25. soil;mud:mataroa
  26. land:teriki
  27. island:atomora
  28. person;human:rakataka
  29. head:toamo
  30. forehead:epei
  31. hair:arao
  32. face:mekemi
  33. eye:akamoro
  34. eyebrow:memie
  35. eyelid:petei
  36. ear:oghoro
  37. nose:amataro
  38. mouth:kemepi
  39. lip:iripie
  40. tongue:pemipiteke
  41. tooth:rekiki
  42. cheek:kataro
  43. chin:emetime
  44. neck:poropo
  45. body:temitemi
  46. shoulder:kemiiti
  47. Arm:emirime
  48. Elbow:korokoro
  49. wrist:omoma
  50. hand:ghatoa
  51. finger:tikimie
  52. fingernail:maghaka
  53. breast:peghemi
  54. waist:aora
  55. back:paroaka
  56. leg:kerime
  57. knee:tikemei
  58. foot:komotoa
  59. toe:komotoatokomoa
  60. Ankle:ghaota
  61. heel:kekemei
  62. skin;treebark;peel:perieteke
  63. muscule;meat:rokatoma
  64. bone:kagha
  65. man:amaraka
  66. woman:omoroko
  67. child:ikeremi
  68. Plant:eghepie
  69. Forest:moratagha
  70. Tree:toromako
  71. Grass:paratara
  72. Fern:ieiere
  73. Stem;trunk;pillar:kakamao
  74. root:kamaroto
  75. branch:kikitimi
  76. leaf:epemei
  77. flower:ghamaroto
  78. Fruit:komaratama
  79. Homeland of the sgens:rakatakataroko
  80. East:takoromoa
  81. West:opoata
  82. North:ipeekere
  83. South:etii
  84. Center:opamaotaa
  85. Town; City:ekipeeme
  86. House:oamaara
  87. Farm:ikeri

VerbsEdit

  1. To be:kiemeperi
  2. To be(place)/come/go:ghoroparo
  3. To move:maghaoparo
  4. To act:akaaparo
  5. To walk:rooparo
  6. To climb:pemekiperi
  7. To crawl:amapaparo
  8. To jump; to hop:piiemeperi
  9. To lie:tamaraparo
  10. To fight:kapataparo
  11. To attack:itekeeperi
  12. To defend; to protect:amaporoparo
  13. To hit; to punch:teteiperi
  14. To throw:toghomaparo
  15. To get/to receive:tokoraparo
  16. To give:ghepieperi
  17. To keep:emeriperi
  18. To become:amaghaparo
  19. To change; to transform:atapamaghaparo(make become)
  20. To do:komaoparo
  21. To make:marakoaparo
  22. To eat; to drink:eremeperi
  23. To put:eghetiperi
  24. To seem; to feel:mokaraparo
  25. To take:ragaghaparo
  26. To have:taomaparo
  27. To say:torapaparo
  28. To speak:repemiperi
  29. To think:timepimeperi
  30. To learn:ghepeiperi
  31. To teach:amaoparo
  32. To see:tiemeperi
  33. To look:ghotoamaparo
  34. To hear:gharaparo
  35. To smell:eghemaperi
  36. To send:kepeireperi
  37. To need:mekeriperi
  38. To die:temikeperi
  39. To kill:tetepemikeperi(make die)
  40. To live:okomaparo
  41. To sleep:toramoparo
  42. To open:apamoraparo
  43. To close:ghepemireperi
  44. To plus; to add; to increase:paoparo
  45. To minus; to delete; to decrease:pieperi
  46. To fear; to be afraid of:apamaoparo
  • Verb causative:-tapa/tepe-(add between the 1st syllable and the 2nd syllable)

Adjectives/AdverbsEdit

  1. Good:amatota
  2. bad:eiremete
  3. great:amorakorota
  4. large:tamotarota
  5. small:oamota
  6. long:omoaota
  7. short:tikiite
  8. high:akoghomata
  9. low:ghokomarota
  10. new:temierite
  11. old:oraparata
  12. young:amopaghata
  13. elder:eriperete
  14. heavy:komatakota
  15. unheavy:taropakota
  16. thick:aghomamata
  17. unthick:ighemiemete
  18. wide:ghamaorokota
  19. narrow:meitirete
  20. deep:tiemeriete
  21. Shallow:emeterikete
  22. straight:rikemete
  23. bent:ghoamataramata
  24. smooth:omogharata
  25. rough:iekikite
  26. sticky:tietiemete
  27. soft:aghaomata
  28. hard:ekitipete
  29. sharp:ririkite
  30. round:oghomota
  31. warm:ghamarata
  32. ill:terekirimete
  33. normal:iekerete
  34. special:teperite
  35. strange:otakaopata
  36. regular:riekirite
  37. common:kokomata
  38. same:tomatomata
  39. opposite:opaata
  40. equal:akoata
  41. complex:kamaghata
  42. simple:erimiete
  43. true:iemete
  44. false:oagharoata
  45. complete:kororota
  46. white:aghamaghata
  47. grey:emitiriite
  48. black:gherite
  49. red:raomata
  50. yellow:oamata
  51. blue:aoata
  52. green:romota
  53. some:kete
  54. many:rota
  55. few:paota
  56. all:raota
  57. none; zero:meipete
  58. other:taarata

Example phrasesEdit

  • Example 1:
    • A: "pite-me magho-ra ghoro-paro-kagha?"
      • Translation: A: "Where do you come from?"
    • B: "ako-ma rakatakataroko-ra ghoro-paro."
      • Translation: B: "I come from Rakatakataroko."
      • "rakatakataroko" means the homeland of the sgens.
  • Example 2:
    • "ikie-me arapa-mo ghotoama-paro-pamo!"
      • Translation: "Don't look at that!"
  • Example 3:
    • "mie-ti ikeremi-pi-mi tetepemike-pike-meri oamaara-ro ako-ma ghoro-roka."
      • Translation:"I'm going to the house where two children were killed."

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