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Shalledian

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Shalledian
Sgǎljêdesg Dveusét
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
0
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



This conlang is for the August Challenge. (note: it's classification as a Natrodian language does not break any rules ;u; (I shove all my languages there :x))

The language is reliant on suffixes for grammatical functions and consists of mono- and rarely disyllabic rootwords which end in certain consonants depending on the part of speech. All suffixes are monosyllabic and noun declensions consist of a vowel proceeded by a consonant.

KeyEdit

Shalledian Text.

English Translation.

(gloss)

[ɑɪ pʰiː eɪ t͡ʃɹan.skɹɪp.ʃən]

PhonologyEdit

Table of VowelsEdit

Vowels Front Near-Front Central Near-Back Back
Closed i   y u
Near-Close ɪ
Close-Mid e   ø o
Mid ə
Open-Mid ɛ ɔ
Near-Open æ
Open ɑ

Table of ConsonantsEdit

Consonants Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Velar Palatal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ ɲ
Stop p   b t k (ʔ)
Fricative β f   v ð s   z ʃ   ʒ ʂ   ʐ x   ɣ
Approximant j
Tap ɾ
Trill r
Lateral Approximant l

Alphabet and Digraphs with PhonesEdit

Letter(s)

IPA

A

ɑ

Ǎ

æ

Â

ɑ̃

æ̃

B

b

BG

β

C

ts

D

ð

DV

dv

E

ə

É

ɛ

Ě

e

Ê

ə̃

ɛ̃

F

f

G

ɣ

ɣ̃

H

x

I

ɪ

Í

i

Î

ĩ

J

j

K

k

L

l

M

m

N

n

NG

ŋ

NJ

ɲ

O

ɔ

Ó

o

Ǒ

ø

Ô

ɔ̃

õ

ø̃

P

p

R

ɾ

RR

r

S

s

SG

ʃ

SR

ʂ

T

t

U

u

Û

ũ

V

v

Y

y

Ŷ

Z

z

ZG

ʒ

ZR

ʐ

RulesEdit

  • Double letters are a geminated version of the sound.
    • This can only appear once in a rootword.
    • Words aren't stressed though lengthened vowels tend to simulate stress.
  • Words beginning with a vowel are preceded with a glottal stop to prevent them from being recognised as a suffix to the preceding word.
  • G and J become nasalised when sharing a syllable with a nasal vowel that precedes or proceeds it.
  • The most closed vowels in a consonant cluster become non-syllabic but can become syllabic for rhythmic purposes.
  • R isn't pronounced if it precedes SR or ZR.
    • The vowel before the R is geminated in this case if it wasn't already.

PhonotacticsEdit

Syllables are restricted to the following:

((C₂)C₁(L))V₁(V₂)(C₁(C₃))

C₁ is effectively any consonant.

C₂ can be a consonant that when combined with the proceeding C₁ creates a digraph. All consonant digraphs can be placed in this position with the exception of NG. C₂ can also be the same consonant as C₁ to provide a geminated consonant. It can also be F, S or SG if C₁ is an unvoiced plosive or L.

C₃ can be a consonant that when combined with the preceding C₁ creates a digraph. All consonant digraphs can be placed in this position with the exception of BG. C₃ can also be the same consonant as C₁ in infinite forms of words to provide a geminated consonant for when the word inflects. C₃ can also be a plosive or sibilant fricative consonant if C₁ is a liquid consonant. C₃ may become the proceeding syllable's C₁ if the proceeding syllable lacks C₁, C₂ and L.

L is a lateral when the proceeding C₁ is a coronal sibilant fricative or F. Otherwise, it is a tapped rhotic if the latter is a plosive consonant.

V₁ is effectively any vowel.

V₂ can be a (non-syllabic) vowel that is more close than V₁. It can also be any vowel if V₁ is a close vowel, in which the latter becomes non-syllabic instead. It can also be the same vowel as V₁ to provide long vowel length.

Noun DeclensionEdit

Infinite (pro)nouns can only be mono- or disyllabic and mustn't end in K or N. Nouns can receive several declensions and decline in the following order:

  • Number
  • Definiteness
  • "Main Cases"
  • Other Cases (requires dative/locative/lative declension to precede; may use aiding postpositions)
  • Vocative (usually used on its own)

Some cases are expressed entirely on their own. Most cases change meaning depending on the postposition and preceding case delcension.

Number Declension
[sing] Singular -∅
[dual] Dual -ez
[pl] Plural -ôr
Definiteness
[neg] Negative -ik
[indef] Indefinite -ển
[part] Partitive (requires dual/plural to precede) -om
[def] Definite (used for zero too) -ét
Main Cases
[NOM] Nominative -én
[ACC] Accusative -ěr
[DAT] Dative -ểg
[GEN] Genetive -esg
[LOC] Locative ("at") -er
[LAT] Lative ("to") -on
Other Cases (with necessary case and postpositions)
[ABL] Ablative ("off of"; "from") -ểgǒm
[ADE] Adessive ("on") -erêt
[ALL] Allative ("onto") -onêt
[APUD] Apudessive ("next to") -erêt saí
[ELA] Elative ("out of") -ểgǒm saí
[ILL] Illative ("into") -onết
[INE] Inessive ("in") -erết
[PER] Perlative ("through"; "across") -onal
[POSTEL] Postelative ("behind") -erết saí
[PROX] Proximative ("near") -erêt dǎ
[SUBE] Subessive ("under") -ểgǒm dǎ
[VOC] Vocative -en

Word OrderEdit

The main word order is VSO and is affected by the cases; which must be place in a certain order. Some cases share a position and thus does not matter which order they are placed it, however.

  1. Adverb(s)
  2. Verb
  3. Subject
  4. Object
  5. Dative Object
  6. Inessive/Illative Objects
  7. Adessive/Allative
  8. Ablative Object
  9. Elative Object
  10. Apudessive Object
  11. Perlative/Postelative/Proximative/Subessive Objects

Verb ConjugationEdit

Verbs are all regular and conjugate to mood, tense and aspect. Grammatical voice is often expressed by particles proceeding the verb such as je for the passive voice and ze for the reflexive voice. Ze can be omitted in colloquial speech. All infinite verbs end in k as do imperative verbs. They also cannot begin with en.

To BeEdit

Infinitive and Imperative (imp) stakk
Indicative (ind)
Simple Progressive Perfect
Past stakkí stakkin stakkit
Non-Past stakke stakken stakket
Subjunctive (sub)
Past stakkír stakkis stakkrit
Non-Past stakkre stakksre stakkrot
Conditional (cond)
Past stakksge stakkesg stakkasg
Non-Past stakkron stakkris stakkrat
Others
Optative Suffix (opt) -(é)s
Potential Infix (pot) -ǒr-
Negating Prefix (neg) en-

Auxiliary Verbs and ParticiplesEdit

The language lacks these two components as the functions of the latter are mostly covered by the verb. 

Can / MayEdit

The auxiliary verbs can and may are replaced with the potential infix. It is derived from the context whether one is saying can/may or probablyCould and might are formed in the past tense.

ShallEdit

Shall is replaced with the optative and potential affixes used together. Should is formed in the past tense.

Passive VoiceEdit

The passive voice is formed with the particle je which is used to proceed the verb. This can be replaced with the subject being used in accusative case without a nominative subject.

Ikkí je volezétén. or Ikkí volezétěr.

The two tools were used.

(use-ind.simple.past particle.passive tool-dual-def-NOM / use-ind.simple.past tool-dual-def-ACC )

[ɪ.kːi jə vɔ.lə.zɛ.tɛn / ɪ.kːi vɔ.lə.zɛ.teɾ]

Reflexive VoiceEdit

This voice uses the particle ze and is often colloquially omitted. The particle can translate to oneself and can also be replace with the subject receiving both nominative and accusative/dative declensions.

Ểviken ze lymétén srisôroměr. or Ểviken lyméténểg srisôroměr.

The woman is buying herself some flowers.

(buy-ind.progressive.nonpast particle.reflexive woman.sing-def-NOM flower-pl-part-ACC / buy-ind.progressive.nonpast woman.sing-def-NOM-DAT flower-pl-part-ACC)

[ẽ.vɪ.kən zə ly.mɛ.tɛn ʂɪ.sɔ̃.ɾɔ.meɾ / ẽ.vɪ.kən ly.mɛ.tɛ.nẽɣ̃ ʂɪ.sɔ̃.ɾɔ.meɾ]

Each OtherEdit

The reflexive voice is also used to translate phrases using the term 'each other' even though it isn't specifically talking about the subject in particular, but another entity, all the while still the subject. Thus it is reliant on the context whether "each other" or "themselves" is implied.

Personal PronounsEdit

Personal Pronouns decline exactly like nouns and honorifics are applied with the definite declension. The zeroth person contains indefinite pronouns and corresponds to the English "one", "a person" or the generic you. It call also decline to number to mean "a pair of/some people". The first person refers to the person speaking; "I". The second person refers to the person the speaker is adresses assuming that they aren't older, royalty or a deity. Third person is reserved for people older than speaker and royalty (royals are adressed with the dual pronoun; "you and your majesty"). The fourth person is reserved for deities alone. The final, fifth person is used for people other than the speaker or the person being adressed and there is no distinction between gender. Therefore "he", "she" and "it" use the same word.

0th Person 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person 4th Person 5th Person
Singular dov lyks róh leuv uv jểg
Dual dovez lyksez róhez leuvez uvez jểgez
Plural dovôr lyksôr róhôr leuvôr uvôr jểgôr

Adjectives and AdverbsEdit

Adjectives and adverbs are treated almost identically.

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives don't inflect and simply precede the noun they describe with a hyphen between them. It is because nouns are heavily inflected that adjectives don't require (as many) inflections (though they can negate like nouns). All adjectives must end in N. Comparative adjectives receive the prefix zys- and superlative -zyt. (they also cannot begin with ZY)

AdverbsEdit

The conditions for an adverb are exactly the same as adjectives with the exception that it precedes the verb.

PosessionEdit

Both pronouns and nouns show possession with the suffix -esg. The possessee must proceed the (pro)noun with the inflection with the possible adjective preceding the possessee.

Ékvetétesg óden stakkelét

Every human being

(humanity-def-GEN every being.sing-def)

[ɛk.və.tɛ.təʃ ʔo.ðən stɑ.kːə.lɛt]

DerivationEdit

Since rootwords and infinite words are usually mono- or disyllabic, derivational suffixes don't exist. However, with the fact that some parts of speech end in certain letters, you can simply change how the word ends in order to change the part of speech. Since nouns lack a uniform ending, words that are derived into nouns through the change of ending are heavily irregular and possess no pattern whatsoever (e.g. any consonant that isn't already an ending can bear the equivalent of -(s/t)ion). This means derived words are usually seen as separate words rather than words with a manipulated ending.

Adjectives (, adverbs), (pro)nouns and verbs all possess declensions which aren't seen as part of the main word and thus does not contribute towards to rule of the number of syllables.

SupinesEdit

Since verbs always begin a clause with the exception of adverbs, supines can be read directly after the preceding clause, except when an adverb is used, where a comma precedes.

Tuolk róhén eurzezétěr stryk jểgěr.

Sell two of your kidneys to have it. (idiom; "It's to die for")

(sell.imp you-NOM kidney-dual-def-ACC have it-ACC)

[tu̯ɔlk ɾo.xɛn əu̯ɾ.zə.zɛ.teɾ stɾyk j̃ẽ.ɣeɾ]

InterrogationEdit

The language is reliant on interrogative words (which decline normally according to their part of speech) and rising intonation to distinguish between an statement and a question.

  • hǎd (where; noun)
  • tǎd (what; noun)
  • sǎk (when; adverb)
  • sǎd (who; noun)
  • lǎd (why; adverb)
  • sgaa (how; adverb)

Relative ClausesEdit

These words are also used in relative clauses:

Stryke hǎdétén lyksěr.

Where I belong.

(have-ind.simple.nonpast where-def-NOM I.sing-ACC)

[stɾy.kə xæ.ðɛ.tɛn lyk.seɾ]

Note that relative clauses always proceed the clause of the noun they are describing regardless of its position.

Lexicon and Translated TextsEdit

Lexicon Conjugator

Article 1 of the UDHSEdit

Vǎiske ékvetétesg óden stakkelétén rotét- ǎi polétonết reudét- ǎi hóhôréterêt saí.

Every single being of humanity is born into freedom and equality with pride and rights.

(be.born-ind.simple.nonpast humanity-def-GEN every being.sing-def-NOM freedom-def and equality-def-LAT-ILL pride-def right-pl-def-LOC-APUD)

[væɪ̯skə ɛkvətɛtəʃ ʔoðən stɑkːəlɛtɛn ɾɔtɛt ʔæɪ̯ pɔlɛtɔnɛ̃t ɾəu̯dɛtəɾə̃t sɑi̯ ʔæɪ̯ xoxɔ̃ɾɛt sɑi̯]


Tŷke jểgôrěr vortét- ǎi kaatểnerêt saí, ǎi vǒkǒrírés jểgôrěrểg blotétonal.

They are endowed with reasoning and an awareness, and should act towards each other through brotherhood.

(endow-ind.simple.nonpast it-pl-ACC reasoning-def and awareness-indef-LOC-APUD, and behave-pot-sub.simple.past-opt it-pl-NOM-DAT brotherhood-def-LAT-PER)

[tỹ.kə j̃ẽ.ɣ̃ɔ̃.ɾeɾ vɔɾ.tɛt ʔæɪ̯ kɑː.tẽ.nə.ɾə̃t sɑi̯ ʔæɪ̯ vø.kø.ɾi.ɾɛs j̃ẽ.ɣ̃ɔ̃.ɾe.ɾẽɣ̃ blɔ.tɛ.tɔ.nɑl]

Article 2 of the UDHSEdit

Íkke ékvetétesg óden stakkelétěr stryk óden hóhôrét- ǎi rotôrétěr ǎnnotéterết blusôrétểgǒm saí. Stéke jểgôrén zarét-, hytét-, gổnét-, dveusét-, hózét-, ton ǒ dven tirét-, dén ǒ sykken vutét-, strytét-, vǎisét-, ǒ sykken lététěr.

Every single being of humanity is permitted to have all the rights and freedoms in the Declaration excluding differences. They include race, skin colour, gender, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, possession, birth or other status.

(permit-ind.simple.nonpast humanity-def-GEN every being.sing-def-ACC have.inf every right-pl-def and freedom-pl-def-ACC declaration-def-LOC-INE difference-pl-def-DAT-ELA. include-ind.simple.nonpast it-pl-NOM race-def, skin.colour-def, gender-def, language-def, religion-def, political or other opinion-def, national or social origin-def, possession-def, birth-def, or other status-def-ACC.)

[i.kːə ɛk.və.tɛ.təʃ ʔo.ðən stɑ.kːə.lɛ.teɾ stɾyk ʔo.ðən xo.xɔ̃.ɾɛt ʔæɪ̯ ɾɔ.tɔ̃.ɾɛ.teɾ ʔæ.nːɔ.tɛ.tə.ɾɛ̃t blu.sɔ̃.ɾɛ.tẽ.ɣøm sɑi̯ stɛ.kə j̃ẽ.ɣ̃ɔ̃.ɾɛn zɑ.ɾɛt xy.tɛt ɣ̃ø̃.nɛt dvəu̯.sɛt xo.zɛt tɔn ʔø dvən tɪ.ɾɛt ðɛn ʔø sy.kːən vu.tɛt stɾy.tɛt væɪ̯.sɛt ʔø sy.kːən lɛ.tɛ.teɾ]


Jểgéterêt sgakǒrres blusikěr dét(stryt)étesg ton, zron ǒ ézdén lététểgǒm, stryke hǎdétén omểněr; jểgétesg zgitét-, routét-, zgin ristét-, ǒ pron gǎntôrểnerêt kek.

Furthermore, no distinction shall be created from the country's (or territory's) political, jurisdictional or international status which possesses a person; regardless of its independence, trust, independent government or any sovereign limits.

(it-def-LOC-ELA create-pot-sub.simple.nonpast-opt difference-neg-ACC country(territory*)-def-GEN politcal, jurisdictional or international status-def-DAT-ABL, have-ind.simple.nonpast where-def-NOM person-indef-ACC; it-def-GEN independence-def, trust-def, independent goverment-def, or sovereign limit-pl-indef-LOC-ADE regardless)

[j̃ẽ.ɣɛ.tə.ɾə̃t ʃɑ.kø.rəs blu.sɪ.keɾ ðɛ.t(stɾy.t)ɛ.təʃ tɔn ʐɔn ʔø ʔɛz.ðɛn lɛ.tɛ.tẽ.ɣøm stɾy.kə xæ.ðɛ.tɛn ʔɔ.mẽ.neɾ j̃ẽ.ɣɛ.təʃ ʒɪ.tɛt ɾɔu̯.tɛt ʒɪn ɾɪs.tɛt ʔø pɾɔn ɣæn.tɔ̃.ɾẽ.nə.ɾə̃t kək]

  • territory is détstryt whereas country is just dét

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