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Shalvì

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Name: Shalvì

Type: Fusional

Alignment: nominative-accusative

Head Direction: Initial

Number of genders: None

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

The Shalvì skearté, or just Shalvì, a dialect of the Skearté language, is spoken by around five million people scattered around the vast forests of the central plain (Félibat) of the Dhälkfé, the Empire. It enjoys official status in its region and because of the cultural influence of the Shalvì people it is the one dialect of the Skearté language that is learned by foreigners. It is used as the literary language in the other provinces of the empire and especially in the capital, in spite of it having its own dialect.

Classification and DialectsEdit

The language is the literarily most prominent dialect of the Skearté language, which is one of the two main branches (the other being the Khizardir language family) into which the ancient Jhikan split. While Jhikanian was complex and heavily inflected, most dialects of the Skearté are losing or already have lost great part of their nominal cases and some verbal morphology. In this context, also as a consequence of its unofficial status of literary language, Shalvì remains the most conservative of dialects, maintaining six cases and a fairly complex system of participles, while it completely lost any case distinction in adjectives. The other dailects of the Skearté are mutually intelligible and mainly differ in their phonology and the degree of complexity of their grammar, and so cannot be considered as separate languages.

Classification:

(Unknown)

Glazlotevian 
Jhikanian 
Khizardir
Skearté
Shalvì Skearté
Fyldiskì Skearté
Palàskur Skearté
Skearté Thavisk


PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h
Affricate
Approximant j
Trill r
Lateral app. l

Consonants do not geminate, but some of them may be "lenghthened" as explained below.

Clusters of up to three consonants are allowed, but of only two word-initially and one word-finally.

Sound /z/ is written s when it does not separate two vowels. Sound /s/ between two vowels is written ss.


VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i y u
Near-high
High-mid e ø o
Mid ə
Low-mid ε ɔ
Near-low æ
Low a

Vowels æ, ø and y can only follow, and not precede, vowels a, o, u, in the same word. If a suffix containing a, o, u is added to a word containing æ, ø or y, these are reduced to ə, and are written, respectively, ì, é, à. For instance, paskyk /pa'sky:k/ + -ur = paskàskur /paskə'sku:r/.

Allowed diphthongs are: /ai/, /au/, /ei, e:i/, /eu, e:u/, /oi/, /ui, u:i/, /æi/, /øi/, /yi/.

Vowels e/ε, and o/ɔ are used interchangeably, but there may be regional variations in their distribution. Whenever é is used, and it is not used as a reduction of y, it always indicates vowel /e/.

Though usually stressed vowels are long(er), e, i, and u can be long elsewhere within a word. Thus, /e:/, /i:/, and /u:/ are written as ay, ey, éy.


PhonotacticsEdit

The main stress in every word falls on the last syllable if the word ends with consonant, ö, or with accented a, e, i (à, é, ì), or on the penultimate syllable if the word ends with unstressed a, i or u. Letter e can also be accented when there is no need to do so (see comitative case, for instance) for historical reasons. Hiatus in a stressed word is signalled with an accent, but only to distinguish it from a diphthong: for example in eyfléan /i:fle'a:n/ the a is not accented because ea is not a diphthong, while in eyfléìn /i:fle'i:n/ the i has an accent. 

Shalvì syllable structure is (C)(C)V(C):

Words and syllables can start with up to two consonants, the possibilities being b/d/dh/f/g/k/p/t/th/v + r, b/f/g/k/p/s + l, s + b/f/k/p/t/v, th + t, th/dh/jh + v. They can end with a vowel or one consonant (with the exception of pronouns and some archaisms), the consonants being d, f, k, l, n, r, s, t. (Consonants v, g, z can end a syllable (but not a word) if they are in front of voiced consonants, as allophones of f, k, s: ex. evdhan, egdir; in this case /z/ is written as s anyway.) When a suffix (beginning with vowel) is attached to them these become, respectively, dr, ft, sk, lt, nd, rd, sk, tk (leghthening), but there are some exceptions to this rule.

Inside a word, clusters of up to three consonants are allowed, as is clear from the syllable structure, and they can be formed by one of the ending consonants followed by one of the allowed beginning clusters. If in writing a word seems not to respect this rule, it is because one of the consonants is actually not pronounced, while it was in the past: for instance dhälkfé is pronounced /ðæl'fe:/ and not /ðælk'fe:/. 

Sounds /h/ and /j/ only appear at the beginning of a word, and never internally.

Writing SystemEdit

Letter a b d dh e f g h i j jh k
Sound /a/ /b/ /d/ /ð/ /e, ε/ /f/ /g/ /h/ /i/ /j/ /ʒ/ /k/
Letter l m n o p r s sh t th u y
Sound /l/ /m/ /n/ /o, ɔ/ /p/ /r/ /s, z/ /ʃ/ /t/ /θ/ /u/ /y/
Letter ä ö ay ey éy v z é à ì
Sound /æ/ /ø/ /e:/ /i:/ /u:/ /v/ /z/ /e, ə/ /a, ə/ /i, ə/

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns are declined according to number (singular, plural), and case (there are six of them: nominative, genitive, dative, locative, accusative and comitative).


(1) Nouns ending with consonant

(Rassik, fire)

Suffixes are added after lenghthening the consonant: d, f, k, l, n, r, s, t, become, respectively, dr, ft, sk, lt, nd, rd, sk, tk. Nouns in -s and -k may maintain the old suffix -sk (Rassisk) in the genitive and accusative singular.

Singular Plural
Nominative (1) Rassik Rassiskan
Genitive (of) (2) Rassik Rassiskaìn
Dative (to, from) (3) Rassiskur Rassiskus
Locative (in, on, at) (4) Rassiskar Rassiskas
Accusative (5) Rassik Rassiskan
Comitative (with) (6) Rassiskés Rassiskén


(2) Nouns ending with

(Eyflé, water)

Singular Plural
Nominative Eyflé Eyfléan
Genitive Eyfléì Eyfléìn
Dative Eyfleyur Eyfleyus
Locative Eyfleyar Eyfleyas
Accusative Eyflés Eyfléan
Comitative Eyfleyés Eyfleyén


(3) Nouns ending with

(Raftì, sea)

Singular Plural
Nominative Raftì Raftian
Genitive Raft Raftiaìn
Dative Raftiur Raftius
Locative Raftiar Raftias
Accusative Raftis Raftian
Comitative Raftiés Raftién


(4) Nouns with stress on the penultimate syllable

(Dhiva, heart)

Singular Plural
Nominative Dhiva Dhivan
Genitive Dhivai Dhivaìn
Dative Dhivadu Dhivadu
Locative Dhivada Dhivada
Accusative Dhivas Dhivan
Comitative Dhivadés Dhivadén


PrepositionsEdit

The principal prepositions are the following. They are used followed by the noun declined in the case indicated. (nominative = 1, genitive = 2 and so on). Some, like ai (of), when they have the same function as a case (here, genitive), can be omitted or used for more emphasis or clarity.

ai (of) + 2

dés (with) + 6

ivés (without) + 6

tad (in/at/to) + 3/4 (dative if going to or locative if in/at some place)

léyk (out of, from) + 3

fayr (by, in passives) + 3

oak/lak/doné (inside) + 4 (3 if going inside)

okat (below); akas (above) + 3/4 (it depends, as in tad above, and the same is for the prepositions below)

nomià (in front of); fulià (behind) + 3/4

ikon (next to); plas (far from) + 3/4

erì (for) + 5

erì/dukén (during) + 4

gazéyd (against) + 3/5



Articles


The determinate article.

It is declined like nouns and it precedes them. Any of the alternative forms can be used at any time, but there are regional variations.

Singular Plural
Nominative Jok/jo/kor Jak/ja
Genitive Jéyk/josk Jayk/jask
Dative Jokur/kur/jur Jakun/kun/jun
Locative Jokar/kar/jar Jakan/kan/jan
Accusative Jos/kor Jas
Comitative Jokés/kés/jés Jokén/kén/jén

The other dialects of the language put the article in front of every noun. They then only decline the article, which therefore conveys by its own the meaning that in Shalvì is given by the cases, and leave the noun in the nominative case. This is one of the main differences between Shalvì and the other dialects of the Skearté. 

Ex.: Shalvì: Falblak nomadu, Fyldiskì: Falblak kur noma (I go home)


The indeterminate article.

Nominative Ati
Genitive Atin
Dative Atkun
Locative Atkan
Accusative Atin
Comitative Atkés


The personal pronouns


Personal pronouns distinguish case, three persons and two numbers. Third-person personal pronuons distinguish three genders: male, female, inanimate.

Nom. Gen. Dat. Loc. Acc. Com.
I Ka Kai Kadu Kada Kas Kadés
You Va Vai Vadu Vada Vas Vadés
He Eys Eysk Eyskus Eyskas Eysk Eyskés
She Ays Aysk Ayskus Ayskas Aysk Ayskés
It Eyr Eyrsk Eyrdus Eyrdas Eyrsk Eyrdés
We Kan Kansk Kandun Kandan Kansk Kandés
You (plur.) Van Vansk Vandun Vandan Vansk Vandés
They (m.) Eyn Eynsk Eyskun Eyskan Eynsk Eyskén
They (f.) Ayn Aynsk Ayskun Ayskan Aynsk Ayskén
They (n.) Eyt Eytsk Eytkun Eytkan Eytsk Eytkén

As can be seen, the genitive and the accusative are almost identical. Anyway, the accusative pronoun is always used before the verb (Ka aysk tafthak, I love her) or preceded by the article in the accusative (jos/jas) (Ka tafthak jos aysk) while the pronoun in the genitive is always used right after the nouns it refers to, having the same function as a possessive adjective (Jok noma kansk, Our house).

Where it does not generate confusion, personal pronouns can be omitted before the verb, since the information regarding person and number is conveyed by the verb.

Eyn is used for groups of males and groups of males and females, ayn for groups of only females. Eyt is only used when all the elements of a group are inanimate. The Shalvì treat plants as animate beings, using eyn, but this is not true in the other regions of the Empire.


Being formalEdit

To express detachment/formality people are addressed with the use of pronouns Shä and Ra. They can be used both when speaking to someone (as second person formal personal pronouns) and about someone (as third person pronouns), both in the singular and in the plural. They are not declined (there's the need for prepositions) and are followed by the third person (singular or plural, depending on the case) of the verb: Jak réyikandan ai Shä odan eriviaskidän, Your (formal) words are very wise; Ra oda fukur, You (formal) are right. Shä is used when speaking to (or about) a very important and influencial person, while Ra is more common but still gives the idea of respect and/or detachment. 


VerbsEdit


The infinitive

There are three forms: -aì, -eì, -öì, corresponding to three different conjugations (and declensions). 

(Falbl, Jhav, Faröì) (go, eat, live)

The infinitive can also be used as a noun and declined. The use of the article is in this case compulsory.

Verb oivaì (to be, which is irregular but also the only auxiliary verb) will be presented in brackets before all tables, or aside, as here: (oivaì, jéyk oivaì, kur oivus, kas oivas, kor oivaì, dés oivés)

Nominative Falbl (to go) Jhav Faröì
Genitive Jéyk falblayì (of going) Jéyk jhaveyì  Jéyk faréyì
Dative Kur falblayus (to going) Kur jhaveyus Kur faréyus
Locative Kar falblayas (in going) Kar jhaveyas Kar faréyas
Accusative Kor falbl (to go) Kor jhav Kor faröì
Comitative Kés falblayés (with going) Kés jhaveyés Kés faréyés

Eys poked skur jhavlad léyk kur jhaveyus, lit. He gets much pleasure from eating


The personal infinitive.Edit

Apart from the case, a peculiarity of the Shalvì is that the infinitive can also indicate person and number. A speaker can decide each time whether to provide the information about person and number in an infinitive phrase by using the personal infinitive or leave it indefinite as above. The personal infinitive may be useful to specify the person, or to omit using personal pronouns, and is declined like the normal infinitive.

Nom. 1st singular Falblakaì Jhavekeì Farököì
Nom. 2nd singular Falblanaì Jhaveneì Farönöì
Nom. 3rd singular Falbladaì Jhavedeì Farödöì
Nom. 1st plural Falblaskaì Jhaveskeì Farösköì
Nom. 2nd plural Falblandaì Jhavendeì Faröndöì
Nom. 3rd plural Falbladraì Jhavedreì Farödröì
Gen. 1st singular Jéyk falblaikaì Jéyk jhaveikeì Jéyk faröiköì
Gen. 2nd singular Jéyk falblainaì Jéyk jhaveineì Jéyk faröinöì
Gen. 3rd singular Jéyk falblaidaì Jéyk jhaveideì Jéyk faröidöì
Gen. 1st plural Jéyk falblaiskaì Jéyk jhaveiskeì Jéyk faröisköì
Gen. 2nd plural Jéyk falblaindaì Jéyk jhaveindeì Jéyk faröindöì
Gen. 3rd plural Jéyk falblaindraì Jéyk jhaveidreì Jéyk faröidröì
Dat. 1st singular Kur falblaykus Kur jhaveykus Kur faréykus
Dat. 2nd singular Kur falblaynus Kur jhaveynus Kur faréynus
Dat. 3rd singular Kur falblaydus Kur jhaveydus Kur faréydus
Dat. 1st plural Kur falblayskus Kur jhaveyskus Kur faréyskus
Dat. 2nd plural Kur falblayndus Kur jhaveyndus Kur faréyndus
Dat. 3rd plural Kur falblaydrus Kur jhaveydrus Kur faréydrus
Loc. 1st singular Kar falblaykas Kar jhaveykas Kar faréykas
Loc. 2nd singular Kar falblaynas Kar jhaveynas Kar faréynas
Loc. 3rd singular Kar falblaydas Kar jhaveydas Kar faréydas
Loc. 1st plural Kar falblayskas Kar jhaveyskas Kar faréyskas
Loc. 2nd plural Kar falblayndas Kar jhaveyndas Kar faréyndas
Loc. 3rd plural Kar falblaydras Kar jhaveydras Kar faréydras
Acc. 1st singular Kor falblakaì Kor jhavekeì Kor farököì
Acc. 2nd singular Kor falblanaì Kor jhaveneì Kor farönöì
Acc. 3rd singular Kor falbladaì Kor jhavedeì Kor farödöì
Acc. 1st plural Kor falblaskaì Kor jhaveskeì Kor farösköì
Acc. 2nd plural Kor falblandaì Kor jhavendeì Kor faröndöì
Acc. 3rd plural Kor falbladraì Kor jhavedreì Kor farödröì
Com. 1st singular Kés falblaykés Kés jhaveykés Kés faréykés
Com. 2nd singular Kés falblaynés Kés jhaveynés Kés faréynés
Com. 3rd singular Kés falblaydés Kés jhaveydés Kés faréydés
Com. 1st plural Kés falblayskés Kés jhaveyskés Kés faréyskés
Com. 2nd plural Kés falblayndés Kés jhaveyndés Kés faréyndés
Com. 3rd plural Kés falblaydrés Kés jhaveydrés Kés faréydrés

Some examples of its possible uses in Shalvì:

When the infinitive is simple and it is the "object" or complement of another verb, the person expressed is implicitly the same of this verb: Klök (I want) kor jhav (to eat, accusative), I want to eat. In this case to specify the person is not necessary and doesn't add any information, but the personal infinitive is nevertheless used often: Klök (I want) kor jhavekeì (to eat, accusative, 1st singular), I want to eat. 

When instead the subject of the infinitive is different, the personal infinitive is very useful and compact: Klök kor jhaveneì (to eat, accusative, 2nd singular), I want you to eat. This could also be expressed as: Vas (you, accusative) klök kor jhav (to eat, accusative), but it would be ambiguous as this phrase can also mean I want to eat you. I want to eat you would less ambiguously be expressed as: Vas klök kor jhavekeì (to eat, accusative, 1st singular), again using the personal infinitive.

Not only the accusative is used: Falblak (I go) kur jhaveykus (to eat, dative, 1st singular), I go to eat.

Klök kor falblandaì (to go, acc., 2nd plural) kur zalfreyndus (to sleep, dative, 2nd plural), I want you to go to sleep.

Paidek (I think) jéyk aysk (her) tafthaikaì (to love, genitive, 1st singular), I think I love her (verb paideì wants the genitive). Paidek jéyk aysk tafthainaì (to love, genitive, 2nd singular), I think you love her.

Ays odà (she is) arketidän (good, superlative) kés elfäteydés (to sing, comitative, 3rd singular), She is very good at singing (literally with her singing).


Participles


Shalvì has a quite developed system of participles that are used very often. Some of them express very compactly some complex concepts in just a couple of words. Often, for this reason, participial phrases may be quite indefinite and open to interpretation, which is one of the reasons why the Shalvì, who like to remain mysterious and unfathomable, use them so much in their daily speech.

The majority of the following participles may also be used as adjectives, further altering their possible meaning and thus adding to their indefiniteness and interpretability (see later). As adjectives, they also have comparative and superlative grades.

All participles, like adjectives, distinguish number (singular or plural)..


Present participle/gerundive. (Verb-ing)

Together with verb Oivaì, conjugated to express tense, person and number, it can be used for actions in progress (the continuous tenses in English).

Singular Falblagor Jhavegor Farégor (Ovagor/ogor)
Plural Falblagar Jhavegar Farégar (Ovagar/ogar)

Oiskì (we were) jhavegar (eat, present participle, plural), We were eating.


Past participle. (Verb-ed)

It is used to create all perfect tenses.

Singular Falblarö Jhaverö Farörö (Ovarö/orö)
Plural Fablaräé Jhaveräé Faröräé (Ovaräé/oräé)


Past gerundive.Edit

It is formed with the present gerundive of oivaì (orok, orak) plus the past participle of the verb. (Having Verb-ed)

Singular O(va)gor falblarö Ogor jhaverö Ogor farörö (Ogor ovarö/orö)
Plural O(va)gar fablaräé Ogar jhaveräé Ogar faröräé (Ogar ovaräé/oräé)

Ogar jhaveräé, eyn falblaräéd (go, simple past, 3rd plural) kur zalfreyus (sleep, infinitive, dative case), Having eaten, they went to sleep.

Passive participle.Edit

If the verb is transitive, the passive participle is used to indicate that the subject is (was, etc.) being Verb-ed. In both transitive and intransitive verbs, it may express the fact that the subject is (was, etc.) made/obliged to Verb or has (had) to Verb. Verb oivaì expresses tense, person and number.

The agent is expressed by preposition fayr (by), followed by the agent in the dative case.

Singular Falblaton Jhaveton Faréton (Eton)
Plural Fablatan Jhavetan Farétan (Etan)

Eys éyd (be, past simple, 3rd singular) jhaveton, He was eaten OR He was made to eat; Eys éyd jhaveton kor lur (all) jos eyr, He was made to eat it all.

Éyskan (be, simple past, 1st plural) falblatan aidéun (to there) fayr kur zabaiur (king, dative) eynsk, We were made to go there by their king.

Éyk eysk potéyréton, (lit. I was him save-passive-participle), I had to save him; while, Éyk potéyréton fayr eyskus, I was saved by him; but still, Éyk potéyréton jos idhaf (the boy, accusative) fayr eyskus, I was obliged by him to save the boy.


Reflexive participle. (Self-Verb-ing)Edit

It corresponds to a passive participle, where the agent and the subject are the same. Therefore, a person can do a thing to themselves, or make themselves do a thing, but more interpretations are possible depending on the context and the transitivity or not of the verb. As for the other participles, verb Oivaì is used to provide information on person and tense.

Singular Falblatyn Jhavetyn Farötyn (Etyn)
Plural Fablastéyn Jhavestéyn Faréstéyn (Estéyn)

Ovaìk (be, future, 1st sing.) zalfretyn, "I will sleep myself", I will have a good sleep.

Éyk zalfretyn syn (because) ravetik (have, imperfect, 1st sing.) skän (a lot) kor javakaì (to do, accusative, 1st sing.) jar dalirada (in the morning), I made myself to sleep because I had a lot to do in the morning.

Iduké (now) eys odà (is) farötyn, halspatas (certainly), Now he is certainly "living himself", Now he is certainly having fun.

Van ovaräén (be, imperative, 2nd plural) fluthtestéyn (wash), Wash yourselves!

Okà (I am) tafthatyn (love, reflexive part., sing.), I love myself; BUT Okà kor aysk (her) tafthatyn, I'm in love with her.

Okà falblatyn (or simply Falblak, I go) aidéun (to there) kan léydré kan dalirada (in all the mornings), I go there every morning.

Future participle. (Going to Verb)Edit

Verb Oivaì, followed by the future participle, corresponds to the English "to be going to".

Singular Falblavos Jhavevos Farévos (Ovos)
Plural Falblavas Jhavevas Farévas (Ovas)

Okà (I am) jhavevos, I'm going to eat.

Okì (I was) eyrsk (it, accusative) javavos (to do, future participle), jus (but)..., I was going to do it, but...


Potential participle. (Likely to Verb)Edit

It expresses that the speaker thinks that it is possible/probable/likely that the subject does the action expressed by the verb. Again, verb oivaì gives the information regarding person and tense.

Singular Falblafyr Jhavefyr Faröfyr (Efyr)
Plural Fablaftéyr Jhaveftéyr Faréftéyr (Eftéyr)

Eys iva odà faröfyr kur holbän, lit. He is not likely to live to tomorrow, Probably he won't live until tomorrow


Perfect forms of the previous participles and interactions between them.Edit

The participles that were presented above can, and are often used together to express periphrases. Some of the following may never be necessary in real life, yet they are possible.

(Here I use verb jhaveì as the example)

Been eaten: Orö jhaveton

Being eaten: Ogor jhaveton

Been eating oneself: Orö jhavetyn

Going to be eating: Ovos jhavegor

Going to have eaten: Ovos jhaverö

Going to be eaten: Ovos jhaveton

Going to have been eaten: Ovos orö jhaveton

Going to eat oneself: Ovos jhavetyn

Going to be likely to eat: Ovos jhavefyr

Going to be likely to be eaten: Ovos efyr jhaveton

Going to be likely to eat oneself: Ovos efyr jhavetyn

Likely to have eaten: Efyr jhaverö

Likely to be eaten: Efyr jhaveton

Likely to be being eaten: Efyr ogor jhaveton

Likely to have been eaten: Efyr orö jhaveton

Likely to eat oneself: Efyr jhavetyn

Likely to have eaten oneself: Efyr orö jhavetyn

Likely to be going to eat: Efyr jhavevos

Likely to be going to be eaten: Efyr ovos jhaveton

Likely to be going to eat oneself: Efyr ovos jhavetyn  


The indicative moodEdit

The present simple.Edit

It expresses an usual action in the present or any action going on in the present.

1st singular Falblak Jhavek Farök (Ok(à))
2nd singular Falblan Jhaven Farön (On(à))
3rd singular Falblad Jhaved Faröd (Od(à))
1st plural Falblaské Jhaveskì Faröské (Okan)
2nd plural Falblandé Jhavendì Faröndé (Onan)
3rd plural Falbladré Jhavedrì Farödré (Odan)


The imperfect.Edit

It expresses an usual action in the past.

1st singular Falblatik Jhavetik Farötik (Okì)
2nd singular Falblatin Jhavetin Farötin (Onì)
3rd singular Falblatid Jhavetid Farötid (Odì)
1st plural Falblatiské Jhavetiskì Farötiské (Oiskì)
2nd plural Falblatindé Jhavetindì Farötindé (Oindì)
3rd plural Falblatidré Jhavetidrì Farötidré (Oidrì)


The simple past.Edit

It expresses actions occurred in the past and completed.

1st singular Falblarök Jhaverök Farörök (Éyk)
2nd singular Falblarön Jhaverön Farörön (Éyn)
3rd singular Falblaröd Jhaveröd Faröröd (Éyd)
1st plural Falblaräek Jhaveräek Faröräek (Éyské)
2nd plural Falblaräen Jhaveräen Faröräen (Éyndé)
3rd plural Falblaräed Jhaveräed Faröräed (Éydré)

In many occasions here the second to last syllable can be (and is) reduced or dropped:

If the r in ar/er/ör can follow the preceding consonants according to syllable structure, then the vowel may be dropped: ex. jhaverök becomes jhavrök, but obviously falblrök cannot be produced.

If this is not possible, the whole ar/er/ör may be dropped: falblarök becomes falblök and farörök becomes farök. This however is dangerous because the singular persons may be seen as a present indicative of a verb in -öì.


The simple future.Edit
1st singular Falblaìk Jhaveìk Faröìk (Ovaìk)
2nd singular Falblaìn Jhaveìn Faröìn (Ovaìn)
3rd singular Falblaìd Jhaveìd Faröìd (Ovaìd)
1st plural Falblayiské Jhaveyiskì Faréyiské (Ovaiské)
2nd plural Falblayindé Jhaveyindì Faréyindé (Ovaindé)
3rd plural Falblayidré Jhaveyidrì Faréyidré (Ovaidré)


Indicative perfect tensesEdit

The perfect form of all of these tenses can be formed by conjugating verb Oivaì in the desired tense, person and number, followed by the past participle, according in number. The perfect form of the simple past is not used: the pluperfect is expressed by Oivaì + imperfect.

Ok farörö skéydré (a lot, plural) sugadras (year, plural, locative), I've lived many years.

Oiskì fan (too much) jhaveräé, We had eaten too much.

Holbän (tomorrow) ovaindé voltharäé (die, past participle, plural), You'll have died tomorrow, tomorrow you'll be dead.


The imperative moodEdit

(Ov(ar)äé, Ov(ar)äén)

(ka)/va/(eys/ays) Falbläé Jhav Faröé
(kan)/van/(eyn/ayn) Falbläén Jhavyén Faröén

Falbläé jhéun (to away), ratipas (immediately), Go away, immediately.

When the subject is not the second person singular or plural, it has to be indicated.

Kan jhavyén, Let's eat

Ovaräé tafthatyn, Love yourself


The conditional/subjunctive moodEdit

The conditional mood has three simple tenses: present, past and future. It is used in conditional phrases, in both sides of if-clauses, and to express possibility.


The presentEdit
1st singular Falblayk Jhaveyk Faréyk (Ouk)
2nd singular Falblayn Jhaveyn Faréyn (Oun)
3rd singular Falblayd Jhaveyd Faréyd (Oud)
1st plural Falblayské Jhaveyskì Faréyské (Ouské)
2nd plural Falblayndé Jhaveyndì Faréyndé (Oundé)
3rd plural Falblaydré Jhaveyrdì Faréydré (Oudré)

Iné (if) va falblayn jhéun, faréyk arketiki, If you went away, I would live better. Notice that the present is used for both verbs, because both actions would actually happen in the present.


The pastEdit
1st singular Falblaryk Jhaveryk Faröryk (Oryk)
2nd singular Falblaryn Jhaveryn Faröryn (Oryn)
3rd singular Falblaryd Jhaveryd Faröryd (Oryd)
1st plural Falblaryäk Jhaveryäk Faröryäk (Oryäk)
2nd plural Falblaryän Jhaveryän Faröryän (Oryän)
3rd plural Falblaryäd Jhaveryäd Faröryäd (Oryäd)

Iné jok zabak (the king) iva jhaveryd jos dask (that, accusative), eys faréyn astké (still), If the king had not eaten that, he would still be alive.



AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives only agree in number with the noun, and do not distinguish cases, but they have comparative and superlative grades. There is a limited number of stems for adjectives: -ed, -ak, -ur, -ì. Plus, all participles except from the future participle can also be considered as adjectives and have comparative and superlative grades, but often their meaning changes when they are used in this way. Adjectives usually precede the noun.

The weak form of the adjective can be considered as the corresponding adverb, and is also used whenever the adjective is not referring to any noun, directly or indirectly: Eys falblaröd (go, past, 3rd singular), mavires (angry, weak form), He went, angry/angrily. Jok idhaf (boy) od arked (good), the boy is (a) good (boy), WHILE Jok idhaf od arkes (good, weak form), The boy is OK/is doing fine. This is because the normal form implies that the adjective is referred to a noun, namely the boy (idhaf), while the weak form only indicates a state. The comparatives and superlatives for the adjectives in the weak and normal forms are the same.


(1) Adjectives in -ed 

Arked, good

Normal Weak form Comparative Absolute superlative Relative superlative
Singular Arked Arkes Arketikì Arketidän Jok arketikì
Plural Arkerdé Arkeres Arkerdikì Arkerdidän Jak arkerdikì

Comparatives: 

Better than: Arketikì ayf + dative

Worse (less good) than: Faun arketikì ayf + dative

As good as: Arked ayf + locative


(2) Adjectives in -ak

Lupiak, beautiful

Normal Weak form Comparative Absolute superlative Relative superlative
Singular Lupiak Lupias Lupiatikà Lupiakidän Jok lupiatikà
Plural Lupiaskà Lupiakas Lupiatiskà Lupiaskidän Jak lupiatiskà


(3) Adjectives in -ur

Kalur, bad

Normal Weak form Comparative Absolute superlative Relative superlative
Singular Kalur Kalus Kalurikà Kaluridän Jok kalurikà
Plural Kaléydré Kaléydes Kaléydrikà Kaléydridän Jak kaléydrikà


(4) Adjectives in -ì

Thedhì, soft

Normal Weak form Comparative Absolute superlative Relative superlative
Singular Thedhì Thedhis Thedhiskì Thedhidän Jok thedhiskì
Plural Thedhirì Thedhiris Thedhiriskì Thedhiridän Jak thedhiriskì


(5) Adjectives from present participles

Elfìtegor (from elfäteì, to sing), singing

Normal Weak form Comparative Absolute superlative Relative superlative
Singular Elfìtegor Elfätegys Elfätegrykì Elfìtegoridän Jok elfätegrykì
Plural Elfìtegar Elfìtegéys Elfìtegréyskà Elfìtegaridän Jak elfìtegréyskà

These adjectives are similar to ones like 'fascinating' in English. In Shalvì, anyway, an adjective of this kind can be created from potentially any verb. Clearly in this case, and as is common for all participles/adjectives, an expression such as 'jok elfätegrykì' cannot mean literally 'the most singing' (even if that may in some occasion refer, for instance, to the loudest singer in a group, maybe), but it may be used to express something like 'the person who is best at singing', so 'the best singer'. (It must be noted that, if the superlative may mean 'the best singer', then in the normal form 'that is good at singing' must be a possible additional translation of 'elfìtegor'). For these reasons, these adjectives, particularly in the comparative and superlative grades, are often of difficult interpretation, because their meaning may change substantially depending on the context. Nevertheless, the Shalvì use them very frequently exactly for their indefiniteness, and also their compactness: 'On elfìtegoridän' is certainly a faster and more elegant way of saying 'you are a very good singer' than 'On ati skur arked (or arketidän) elfäterin', yet in another context it may also mean 'you are singing very much=too loud'.

Okì zalfregoridän (zalfreì, to sleep), vi (and) iva (not) eynsk (them) dolmörök (hear, past, 1st sing.), I was very fast asleep and I didn't hear them.

Jok pristragor (pristraì, to run) sugad, The current year.

Ays odà volthagrykì (volthaì, to die) ayf kadu, aysk potéyröé (save, imperative sing.) arvì (before), lit. She is more dying (more in danger of death) than me, save her first.


(6) Adjectives from past participles

Falblarö, that has gone

Normal Weak form Comparative Absolute superlative Relative superlative
Singular Falblarö Falblarös Falblarötikì Falblaröidän Jok falblarötikì
Plural Falblaräé Falblaräés Falblarädrikì Falblaräidän Jak falblarädrikì

Again, the meaning of these adjectives is always interpretable and never perfectly definable.

Odan falblaräidän may for instance mean They are far away (literally very much gone)

Okà farörötikì ayf kadu (lit. I am more lived than you), I am more experienced than you.


(7) Adjectives from passive participles and reflexive participles

These adjectives are the same in the weak form, the comparative and the relative superlative.


Jhaveton, eaten

Normal Weak form Comparative Absolute superlative Relative superlative
Singular Jhaveton Jhavestys Jhavestynkì Jhavetonidän Jok jhavestynkì
Plural Jhavetan Jhavestéys Jhavestéynkì Jhavetanidän Jak jhavestéynkì

Ays gauvröd (gauvöì, to return) nomadu skathvastys (skathvaì, to destroy), jus eys odì skathvastynkì fayr ayskus, She returned home destroyed, but he was 'more destroyed' than her


Jhavetyn, self-eaten

Normal Weak form Comparative Absolute superlative Relative superlative
Singular Jhavetyn Jhavestys Jhavestynkì Jhavetynidän Jok jhavestynkì
Plural Jhavestéyn Jhavestéys Jhavestéynkì Jhavestéynidän Jak jhavestéynkì



Syntax ä ö

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

Hädver and Irvin, who would later become the heroes and saviours of the Dhälkfé, meet for the first time: the following is the episode as narrated by Alifian Jhavisk<ärin in his Jak atundan jéyk dhuan kansk, The sounds of our land.


Jak thtaskà vi mavirì oladran ai Irvin olaziretidrì jos Hädver kés spaidhatondìrkrak thragindés dak eyt oidrì palköräé dhalsì. Hädver tretid kor avethreì jos alkalak jéyk obak, fanfrustak vi marturaton, jus trevalur, eylfarégor akas kur eyskus, mavires vi atkés dukluridän broskés.

The red and flaming eyes of Irving looked at Hädver with the uncontainable fury that they had just shown. Hädver could feel the breath of the other, hasty and fatigued, but powerful, run over him with anger and with the deepest hatred.

[jakθta'ska:vi mavi'ri: ola'dra:nai ir'vi:n olazireti'dri:jos hæd'vε:rkes 'spaiðatondər'kra:k θragin'de:s dak'i:t oi'dri: palkøræ'e: ðal'si:. hæd'vε:r tre'ti:dkor aveθre'i:jos alka'la:kju:k o'ba:k fanfru'sta:kvi martura'tɔ:n justreva'lu:r 'i:lfarə'gɔ:r a'ka:skur i:'sku:s mavi're:svi at'kes dukluri'dæ:n bro'ske:s]

Ati félibat ai potkaskaton vi skapsegor dhuan odì okat kan halétkas eynsk. Atin aftus jok shikanì féltriad, fövillì kén thtaskà präkliskén ai eys dak adukì éyd jok glodhärin eytsk, odì jok atì daita plaskagor eyskun.

“Va, viskräé aidak.” Irvin arköröd, dés egleyés luktomagor léyk jun potkaskagar dukluskus jéyk dhuan. Iduké dak patirì stiflatkan oidrì elthoraräé, jhakì iduké dak Irving odì elthoratyn jos spaidhatondìrkrak thraskrin dask eys odì avethrerö, sayd kur eysk potéyréydus léyk atkun hulked volthadu, kor thvartaì jos gìntaded idhaf jos eysk, dak iduké odì nomià eyskas vi dask eys odì orö haldhraton kor eysk potéyröì iva klégor; rapé, iduké dak jok shiverégor vrök eylfarégor jakan svitriada eysk odì spaidharö jos kléftus eysk erì kor mazarat, Irvin eklasthötid jos lithés.

Hädver odì farégor astké, daitas dask odì favlàskégor kur falastéydus. Odì orö volgréton fayr atkius dask tad eyskun odì falarö jur lur kur alìmieyur eysk, daitas dask odì falastörö fan lyshät. Eys donlatid jos farös eysk tad eyskus dak dundetid éydoas ati idhaf opi eys odì, daita dak tupatus odì jok lithé. Hudän, odì dhalsì topiörö jos eysk drumovagor, drumovagor atkés grypändés ai rassik, dak astké, mavires, thtaktatid kan oladras eysk.

Nomiarö, blaumléton vi fravlalàskak opi zadkì eys dak odà avethreton fayr fan fravladu tred kor ovaì. Gran halétkan, garerdé vi uthtalétan, dundetidrì kur eyskus modalkedré. Jok krapan dak astké odì altharetyn léyk Irvindur odì milbratyn rojhildatondìrkrak ìrkrak, vi jok kälfé dak eys shamandatid opi jad jok ikilur zadör, jatid jos eysk topéslàskur.

“I va avethren kor dask jos plygés?” Volkratvröd. “I eyrsk avethren? I povan adhvaik jos farös vai jok potéyrököì dubaröd kadu?” Jak réyikandan eysk luriaskà shakördés alatindé kan plàfkeyar dak odì jhvägletyn tad kan reylleyar. “Jhan jok vrök kai ovaìd sfrilesfavötyn, däldeìk sullaìn erì kor ovakaì leskilvatyn. Sullaìn! Vas broskek syn jos dask! I eydan okà vas potéyrörö?”

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