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| Name: Shauana(Karyrdanana)
Alignment: SVO or SOV
Number of genders: None
Shauana is the main language spoken in the Lyralic Empire. There are many forms of the language, but the one here is the more commonly used form, called "Karyrdanana".
b-voiced bilabial plosive-b
c-silent letter unless used before "h", "er", or "l"
d-voiced alveolar plosive-d
f-voiceless labiodental fricative-f
g-voiced velar plosive-g
h-voiceless glottal fricative-h
j-voiced postalveolar affricate-d͡ʒ
k-voiceless velar plosive-k
l-alveolar lateral approximate(the tongue touches the roots of the forward upper teeth to make this sound when at the end of a syllable)-l
m-voiced labiodental nasal-m
n-voiced alveolar nasal-n
p-voiceless bilabial plosive-p
r-alveolar tap or alveolar trill, depending on personal preference-ɾ, or r
s-voiceless alveolar fricative-s
t-voiceless alveolar plosive-t
v-voiced labiodental fricative-v
w-voiced labio-velar approximate-w
sh-voiceless postalveolar fricative-ʃ
ch-voiceless postalveolar affricate-t͡ʃ
th-voiceless dental fricative-θ
a-open front unrounded vowel-a
e-open-mid front unrounded vowel-ɛ
i-close back unrounded vowel-i
i(ih)-near-close near-front unrounded vowel-ɪ
o-close-mid back rounded vowel-o
u-close back rounded vowel-u
u(uh)-open-mid back unrounded vowel-ʌ
y-close front unrounded vowel-i
The difference between "i" and "y" is that "y" attracts the following consonant, while no other vowel does. They are all pronounced separately unless the "y" is present. Two examples are "Lyracl" and "carial". The first is pronounced (liɾ-a-sl) while the second is pronounced (a-ɾi-al).
cer-uses a different pronunciation for the "r" noise-sɛɜ
iyr-uses a different pronunciation for the "r" noise(not to be confused with i-yr)-iɜ
cl-(I'm not entirely sure how to classify this)it starts with the "s" sound and then goes into the "l" sound while pulling the tongue back quickly-sl
There are many consonant clusters that are used in Shauana, the most noticeable one being "st". "St" gains its own place as a syllable beginning instead of being pronounced as two separate consonants. An example is the name "Synrlasti". Instead of being (sin-r-las-ti), it is pronounced (sin-r-la-sti).
The consonants "g", "h", "y", and "ch" must be followed by a vowel at all times, so they may not be a part of a consonant cluster. Besides that, the clusters may include any consonant.
The consonant "w" doesn't need a vowel, but if it doesn't have one it needs a consonant. An example is the phrase "ywlan ukna".
Vowel clusters can be any combination, but the vowels "i(ih)" and "u(uh)" are not usually used, and "y" is not used for anything except a beginning following a consonant or an ending to a cluster. Each vowel is at least pronounced separately to a small extent.
The first thing that should be known about Shauana grammar is the presence of three types of verbs, called "A", "B", and "C".
"A"s are mainly descriptive verbs(though there are a few exceptions) and always follow the object or adjective that they are adding. Examples: Ym lyron iy'el - I am a person/Yu vaiy'ho hu'el - It(object) is green. If you want to say that a (adjective) (noun) is (adjective), the word "os" is used. Example: Karula uiasun'ti os jonil'ti hu'ma - The small bug was there. The order is "SOV".
"B"s are action verbs and act in a way that an average English speaker would expect. Examples: A delis'el - He is running/Keo mryan'ma - It(plant/animal) was sleeping. The word "mahem" is used with a few "B"s to express that the verb is being done to the object. Example: Las yam'ma mahem we - They talked to her. The order is "SVO"
"C"s have no unique properties except that they may be either an "A" or a "B".
There are three basic types of verb tenses; past, present, and future. All other tenses must be derived from them. See "Suffixes" for these three.
A verb may never be a noun, but nouns may become a type of verb with the suffix "'skai", which means "to go". Example: Ym kyas'skaiel - I am going there.
Adjectives and AdverbsEdit
Adjectives and adverbs always follow the word they are describing.
Some words that are prepositions in English, such as "above", are treated as adjectives instead and require the suffix "'ti".
Nouns and PronounsEdit
Shauana nouns themselves do not not change form as they can in English. For instance, they have no plural form. For plural to be added, you must add the suffix "'i" to the end. So "cat" is "kat" and "cats" is "kat'i".
This is not the case for pronouns. There are different pronouns for almost every case; such as "la" is "you" when addressing more than one, "lem" is "you", "las" is "they" or "them", "ym" is "me" or "I", and "lan" is "we" or "us". The pronoun "las" is not used when referring to objects, plants, or animals. The proper form of "it" is used with the plural suffix added.
Shauana doesn't use any equivalent of a or an. In translating from English to Shauana, these may be dropped. There is a rough equivalent to the, however. It is used for subjects that the speaker judges as highly important. This is the suffix "'lo".
Since Shauana doesn't use a, an, or the basic form of the, there may be cases where more than one of the articles is OK. For example, the sentence "Doga uki'ti hu'el." can mean either "A dog is here." or "The dog is here.".
In Shauana, almost everything is described with suffixes. This applies to verbs, nouns, adverbs, adjectives, pronouns, and prepositions.
These include "'el" as the present tense of a verb, "'ma" as the past tense, and "'kes" as the future tense. These may be mixed. An example of mixing, "Ym pyhesh'elma." means "I am and have been breathing.". Mixing has a strict priority system. "'el" takes precedence over "'ma" and "'kes", while "'kes" takes precedence over "'ma". Be careful when translating.
Some noun/pronoun suffixes are "'i" for plural and "'a" for possessive. These may be mixed as well, and "'i" takes precedence over "'a".
For adjectives, adverbs, and most prepositions, "'ti", "'ol", and "'ho" are used. 'ti is used for adverbs, some prepositions that are treated as adjectives such as "above", and adjectives applying to a non-sentient subject. "'ol" is only for adjectives applying to a sentient subject. "'ho" is commonly used for titles of things, such as "The Electric Company", or for making a noun into an adjective or an adverb.
There are suffixes that may be used universally. An example is "'k", which marks the word as the opposite or negative. For example, "Lem kandaen'ol ta'elk." means "You are not mad.". When mixing, "'k" always has the lowest priority.
There are a few different ways to ask questions in Shauana.
The way to ask if someone is doing something, if someone is, or someone can, the word "tas" is used. It always starts the sentences that it is a part of. Examples: Tas lem uki'ol ta'el? - Are you here?/Tas lem delis'kes wyrl'ti? - Can you run?/Tas lem myras'el ym yam'kes gire mahem lem? - Do you want me to tell it to you?
To ask where someone is, the word "pynero" is used. Example: Pynero ym iy'el? - Where am I?
To ask what something is, the word "pyrl" is used. Example: Pyrl keo hu'el? - What is it? Note that the word "pyrl" can be used when referring to a living object. When asking about a non-living object, the word "onemrulru" is used. "Onemrulru" is an entire sentence by itself, but you can add a noun after it to make it more specific as to what you are asking about.
The ask who someone is, the word "lao" is used. Example: Lao ua ken'el? - WHo is that?
To ask what the price of something is, the word "jiyrno" is used. It, like "onemrulru", is a sentence by itself.
To ask what time it is, the word "dansheto" is used. It is a sentence by itself.
To ask which thing something is, the word "pysym" is used. Example: Pysym yu hu'el? - Which one is it?
To ask what someone's name is, the word "inopesa" is used. It is a sentence by itself. You may also ask "Pyrl malen lem'a hu'el?".
To ask when an event is happening, the word "tyres" is used. Example: Tyres gire hu'el? - When is it?
The dictionary for Shauana is not in a complete form anywhere online, but these are some words with rough or exact English translations.
English(word type) = Shauana(pronunciation)
abandon(Bv) = yahen(ja-hɛn)
ability(n) = kasya mosii(kas-ja mo-si-i)
above(adj) = obena(o-bɛ-na)
acceptable(adj/adv) = vahysh(va-hiʃ)
ache(n) = ondi(on-di)
adjective(n) = arioo(a-ɾi-o-o)
adult(n) = joverst(dʒo-verst)
adverb(n) = damro(dam-ɾo)
afternoon(n) = dyrbo(dir-bo)
and(cnj) = so(so)
animal(n) = hysuel(his-u-el)
arm(n) = uan(u-an)
bag(n) = jukye(dʒuk-je)
bare(adj) = gure(gu-ɾe)
bath(n) = suyl(su-il)
bed(n) = mana(ma-na)
bird(n) = vifa(vi-fa)
bite(Bv) = kawur(ka-wʌɾ)
black(n) = myril(miɾ-ɪl)
blue(n) = kyre(kiɾ-e)
book(n) = syul(si-ʌl)
boy/male/man(n) = akya(ak-ja)
brag(Bv) = vyoil(vi-o-ɪl)
brown(n) = gaveo(ga-ve-o)
building(n) = krayla(kɾa-il-a)
burn(n) = oypa(o-ip-a)
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
English: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Shauana: Byrten'i oi'ol demrou'elkesma chotowa'ti so vyt'elkesma sawyn hafyr'ti so yotma'i hafyr'ti. Las pralur'elkesma mantyoa so balrostcer so yan'elkesma eyr'ti ruwilen'ho mahem hashvel.
Literal English: All humans are always born freely and always have equal dignity and equal rights. They always are given reason and conscience and always must be friendly to each other.