NOTE: The worthwhile parts of this I will merge into Xahizengua. Then I will flag this for deletion.
Simplengva (Cimplengva or Facilengva in Simplengva) is a relatively simple language. It has 15 letters, no diacritics, conjugation only for person, declension only for number, and few synonyms.
NOTE: If you see me use a 'b', 'h', capital 'I' (or lowercase 'i' at the beginning of a word), 'j', 'k', 's', 'u', 'w', 'x', 'y', or 'z', change them according to the phonology section. Note: 'Simplengva' is the English word for the language, it's supposed to have an 's'.
| Name: Simplengva
Number of genders: 1
Simplengva is the language spoken in an alternate universe. Specifically, it is spoken in the area that we call the Americas, in a world where the Romans colonized South America, the Dark Ages destroyed contact between the New World and Old World, the Hispanians (shortly after many innovations regarding gunpowder) reconquered the former Roman colonies (which did not possess gunpowder), the Hispanians and other European nations colonized the rest of the Americas, the colonies fought for and won their independence many years later, and finally, the American lands formerly owned by Hispania slowly assimilated into one another, assisted by the fact that the areas colonized first by Romans were home to many more people than the areas colonized first by Hispania (meaning the 'Roman Hispanians' could settle the less-populated areas), and the fact that the Kingdom of New Hispania managed to unite much of what we call the Spanish Main.
The Simplengva detailed in this article is the Simplengva spoken in the area we call Uruguay and most of Brazil.
Phonology is simple, but the presence of multiple pronunciations for the same letters may be a challenge. However, such alternate pronunciations are all governed by rules.
Simplengva symbol Name IPA Aa A /a/ Cc Citceco /s/ /ʃ/ /k/ Dd De /d/ Ee E /e/ Ff Fe /f/ Gg Gegi /g/ /h/ /ɰ/ i i /i/ /j/ Ll Le /l/ Mm Me /m/ Nn Ne /n/ Oo O /o/ Pp Pe /p/ Rr Re /ɾ/ Tt Te /t/ Vv Vitvrvevo /b/ /u/ /w/ /v/
All letters except c, g, i, and v are pronounced as they always are, all the time.
When c is preceded by t, it is pronounced /ʃ/. When it is not preceded by t, it is pronounced /k/ if in front of o, a, or v, or pronounced /s/ if it precedes e or i.
When g precedes i, it is pronounced /h/ or /ɰ/--/h/ if it begins a word, and /ɰ/ in all other cases. The letter g is pronounced /g/ if it precedes anything else. An interesting thing to note is that a native speaker of Simplengva would confuse the sound /h/ with /ɰ/.
The letter i is usually pronounced /i/, but when unstressed it is sometimes condensed to /j/.
Pronounce v as /b/ when:
- it begins a word and is followed by a vowel
Pronounce v as /u/ when:
- it is the only letter in a word
- it is between two consonants
- it succeeds a consonant and is at the end of a word
- it is at the beginning of a word and precedes a consonant
- it follows another v
Pronounce v as /w/ when:
- it is preceded by a consonant and a vowel succeeds it
Pronounce v as /v/ when:
- it is preceded by a vowel and is at the end of a word
- it is between two vowels
- it succeeds a vowel and precedes a consonant
The second-to-last syllable is almost always stressed. When v or i border other vowels, they are not stressed; however, when v and i border each other, which letter is the stressed one is determined by what v borders.
Some peculiarities, which are widely known to be incorrect yet still widely used in informal speech because they do not usually inhibit understanding, exist in pronunciation. Do, however, note that all of these depend on dialect. The dialect of Simplengva that this article describes, except for in this section, is generally considered the most 'perfect', for these peculiarities almost never show up. And regardless of dialect, these peculiarities are often avoided in careful and/or formal speech.
The digraph gn would properly be pronounced /ɰn/. However, it is commonly pronounced /ɰɲj/, /xɲj/, or /ɲj/, depending on area. Of all the 'pronunciational peculiarities', this is the most common in the 'perfect' Simplengva that this article uses everywhere except this section (/ɰɲj/ is the most prevalent in this dialect).
The letter e at the end of words is sometimes not pronounced, or is pronounced /ʊ/. In fact, in some areas, all vowels at the endings of some words become /ʊ/.
The digraph tc is supposed to be pronounced /tʃ/, but sometimes it is merely pronounced /ʃ/. Sometimes this is even extended to c in general when it precedes e or i.
The digraph gi is sometimes pronounced /x/.
The letter g, when starting a word, is often not pronounced.
The word de is properly pronounced /de/, but sometimes it is pronounced /dɜ/.
Words cannot start with 'i'. Other than that, most anything (that can be humanly pronounced) goes.
Nouns are declined for number. To show plurality, '-ace' is added if the word ends in a consonant, or '-ce' is added if the word ends in a vowel.
There are two articles in Simplengva.
Singular Plural Definite li li Indefinite v v
There are six pronouns in Simplengva.
Singular Plural 1st me noce 2nd tv tvce 3rd le lece
A pronoun before a verb signifies the subject/agent. Pronouns after a verb signify, if only one is present, the direct object, and if two are present, the direct object and then indirect object.
Verbs are conjugated for person by adding a suffix to the verb.
Pronoun -a ending -e ending -i ending 1st singular me -o -io -io 2nd singular tv -aci -eci -ici 3rd singular le -at -et -it 1st plural noce -amv -env -inv 2nd plural tvce -avvce -evoce -ivoce 3rd plural lece -ant -ent -ivnt
Adjectives are always placed after what they describe, and adverbs before.
To form an adverb from an adjective, precede the adjective with 'en-' if it begins with a vowel or 'ene-' if it begins with a consonant.
There is no conjugated tense. To say when something happened, you can:
- precede the sentence with
- ante, the word for before or past
- or, the word for now
- pot, the word for after or future
- precede the verb with
- enante to show that the action happened in the past--'pastly', essentially.
- ece (but conjugated) to show that the performer of the verb is doing it in the present.
- va a (but conjugated) to show that the performer of the action is going to do it.
When no information as to time is given, it indicates the present tense or a command (though command can also be shown with a future-'tense' statement)
To show that someone or something is doing something to or for themselves, the pronoun before the verb must be included, and that pronoun must be preceded by a or proa. When the subject does something to a part of themself (for example washing their hands, brushing their teeth, scratching their back, etc.), proa is generally used; on the contrary, when the subject does something to themself as a whole (for example, showering themself, dressing themself, falling asleep, etc.), or something happens to them (for example, death, birth, transformation, getting sick, etc.), a is generally used.
The sentence "Tcogiane proa le lavat li manoce (de le)" translates literally to "Johannes for himself washes the hands (of himself)". A more clear translation to English speakers would be "Johannes washes his hands".
The sentence "A noce morinv" translates literally to "To us we die", and clearly to "We die".
It is notable to know that some verbs have the same meaning reflexively and non-reflexively.
To show possession, the word de, as well as the noun or correct pronoun that is the 'possessor', are placed after the object being owned.
English Eng. with Simplengva grammar Simplengva The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The fox quick brown jumps over the dog lazy. Li vvlpa rapida maron cialtat cioper li cano gignavo.
The North Wind and the Sun
THE NORTH WIND and the Sun disputed as to which was the most powerful, and agreed that he should be declared the victor who could first strip a wayfaring man of his clothes. The North Wind first tried his power and blew with all his might, but the keener his blasts, the closer the Traveler wrapped his cloak around him, until at last, resigning all hope of victory, the Wind called upon the Sun to see what he could do. The Sun suddenly shone out with all his warmth. The Traveler no sooner felt his genial rays than he took off one garment after another, and at last, fairly overcome with heat, undressed and bathed in a stream that lay in his path.
Persuasion is better than Force.
The Wind of the North and the Sun
THE WIND OF THE NORTH and the Sun pastly fight for know who had the more power, and pastly agree that the winner is who pastly can most early undress a wayfarer of the clothes of he. The Wind of the North most early pastly attempt the power of he and pastly blow with all the might of he, but more accurate be the blasts of he, more close the wayfarer pastly wrap the cloak of he around he, but finally, he pastly surrender hope of victory, and the Wind pastly request the Sun for see what he pastly can do. The Sun suddenly pastly shine with all the warmth of he. The wayfarer pastly undress the clothes of he with one and other when he pastly feel the rays genial of the Sun, and finally, heat pastly overcome he, pastly undress for himself and pastly bath in a stream in the path of he.
Persuasion is better that Force.
Li Vent de li Ceptentre e li Tcol
LI VENT DE LI CEPTENTRE e li Tcol enante pugnant proa gintelege cvi tenent li plvci | potentca, e enante acordant cve li winner ece cvi enante potet plvrio tiempra vesti v viator de li vestece de le. Li Vent de li Ceptentre plvrio tiempra enante tentat li potentca de le e enante float con omni li potentca de le, ced plvci acurate li floace de le ecent, plvci li viator enante envolet li cloak of he circa he, ced enasdfasdf, he pastly surrender hope of victory, and the Wind pastly request the Sun for see what he pastly can do. The Sun suddenly pastly shine with all the warmth of he. The wayfarer pastly undress the clothes of he with one and other when he pastly feel the rays genial of the Sun, and finally, heat pastly overcome he, pastly undress for himself and pastly bath in a stream in the path of he.
Persuasion is better that Force.
|37||man (adult male)||—|
|38||man (human being)||—|