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Simplengva

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NOTE: The worthwhile parts of this I will merge into Xahizengua. Then I will flag this for deletion.

Simplengva (Cimplengva or Facilengva in Simplengva) is a relatively simple language. It has 15 letters, no diacritics, conjugation only for person, declension only for number, and few synonyms.

NOTE: If you see me use a 'b', 'h', capital 'I' (or lowercase 'i' at the beginning of a word), 'j', 'k', 's', 'u', 'w', 'x', 'y', or 'z', change them according to the phonology section. Note: 'Simplengva' is the English word for the language, it's supposed to have an 's'.

Name: Simplengva

Type: Fusional

Alignment:

Head Direction:

Number of genders: 1

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No Yes No No No
Nouns No No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No



SettingEdit

Simplengva is the language spoken in an alternate universe. Specifically, it is spoken in the area that we call the Americas, in a world where the Romans colonized South America, the Dark Ages destroyed contact between the New World and Old World, the Hispanians (shortly after many innovations regarding gunpowder) reconquered the former Roman colonies (which did not possess gunpowder), the Hispanians and other European nations colonized the rest of the Americas, the colonies fought for and won their independence many years later, and finally, the American lands formerly owned by Hispania slowly assimilated into one another, assisted by the fact that the areas colonized first by Romans were home to many more people than the areas colonized first by Hispania (meaning the 'Roman Hispanians' could settle the less-populated areas), and the fact that the Kingdom of New Hispania managed to unite much of what we call the Spanish Main.

The Simplengva detailed in this article is the Simplengva spoken in the area we call Uruguay and most of Brazil.


PhonologyEdit

Phonology is simple, but the presence of multiple pronunciations for the same letters may be a challenge. However, such alternate pronunciations are all governed by rules.

AlphabetEdit

Simplengva symbol Name IPA
Aa A /a/
Cc Citceco /s/ /ʃ/ /k/
Dd De /d/
Ee E /e/
Ff Fe /f/
Gg Gegi /g/ /h/ /ɰ/
i i /i/ /j/
Ll Le /l/
Mm Me /m/
Nn Ne /n/
Oo O /o/
Pp Pe /p/
Rr Re /ɾ/
Tt Te /t/
Vv Vitvrvevo /b/ /u/ /w/ /v/

Alternate PronunciationsEdit

All letters except c, g, i, and v are pronounced as they always are, all the time.

When c is preceded by t, it is pronounced /ʃ/. When it is not preceded by t, it is pronounced /k/ if in front of o, a, or v, or pronounced /s/ if it precedes e or i.

When g precedes i, it is pronounced /h/ or /ɰ/--/h/ if it begins a word, and /ɰ/ in all other cases. The letter g is pronounced /g/ if it precedes anything else. An interesting thing to note is that a native speaker of Simplengva would confuse the sound /h/ with /ɰ/.

The letter i is usually pronounced /i/, but when unstressed it is sometimes condensed to /j/.

Pronouncing vEdit

Pronounce v as /b/ when:

  • it begins a word and is followed by a vowel

Pronounce v as /u/ when:

  • it is the only letter in a word
  • it is between two consonants
  • it succeeds a consonant and is at the end of a word
  • it is at the beginning of a word and precedes a consonant
  • it follows another v

Pronounce v as /w/ when:

  • it is preceded by a consonant and a vowel succeeds it

Pronounce v as /v/ when:

  • it is preceded by a vowel and is at the end of a word
  • it is between two vowels
  • it succeeds a vowel and precedes a consonant

StressingEdit

The second-to-last syllable is almost always stressed. When v or i border other vowels, they are not stressed; however, when v and i border each other, which letter is the stressed one is determined by what v borders.

Dialectal PeculiaritiesEdit

Some peculiarities, which are widely known to be incorrect yet still widely used in informal speech because they do not usually inhibit understanding, exist in pronunciation. Do, however, note that all of these depend on dialect. The dialect of Simplengva that this article describes, except for in this section, is generally considered the most 'perfect', for these peculiarities almost never show up. And regardless of dialect, these peculiarities are often avoided in careful and/or formal speech.

The digraph gn would properly be pronounced /ɰn/. However, it is commonly pronounced /ɰɲj/, /xɲj/, or /ɲj/, depending on area. Of all the 'pronunciational peculiarities', this is the most common in the 'perfect' Simplengva that this article uses everywhere except this section (/ɰɲj/ is the most prevalent in this dialect).

The letter e at the end of words is sometimes not pronounced, or is pronounced /ʊ/. In fact, in some areas, all vowels at the endings of some words become /ʊ/.

The digraph tc is supposed to be pronounced /tʃ/, but sometimes it is merely pronounced /ʃ/. Sometimes this is even extended to c in general when it precedes e or i.

The digraph gi is sometimes pronounced /x/.

The letter g, when starting a word, is often not pronounced.

The word de is properly pronounced /de/, but sometimes it is pronounced /dɜ/.

PhonotacticsEdit

Words cannot start with 'i'. Other than that, most anything (that can be humanly pronounced) goes.

Basic GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns are declined for number. To show plurality, '-ace' is added if the word ends in a consonant, or '-ce' is added if the word ends in a vowel.

ArticlesEdit

There are two articles in Simplengva.

Singular Plural
Definite li li
Indefinite v v

PronounsEdit

There are six pronouns in Simplengva.

Singular Plural
1st me noce
2nd tv tvce
3rd le lece

A pronoun before a verb signifies the subject/agent. Pronouns after a verb signify, if only one is present, the direct object, and if two are present, the direct object and then indirect object.

Verb ConjugationEdit

Verbs are conjugated for person by adding a suffix to the verb.

Pronoun -a ending -e ending -i ending
1st singular me -o -io -io
2nd singular tv -aci -eci -ici
3rd singular le -at -et -it
1st plural noce -amv -env -inv
2nd plural tvce -avvce -evoce -ivoce
3rd plural lece -ant -ent -ivnt

Adjectives and AdverbsEdit

Adjectives are always placed after what they describe, and adverbs before.


To form an adverb from an adjective, precede the adjective with 'en-' if it begins with a vowel or 'ene-' if it begins with a consonant.

Showing timeEdit

There is no conjugated tense. To say when something happened, you can:

  • precede the sentence with
    • ante, the word for before or past
    • or, the word for now
    • pot, the word for after or future
  • precede the verb with
    • enante to show that the action happened in the past--'pastly', essentially.
    • ece (but conjugated) to show that the performer of the verb is doing it in the present.
    • va a (but conjugated) to show that the performer of the action is going to do it.

When no information as to time is given, it indicates the present tense or a command (though command can also be shown with a future-'tense' statement)

ReflexiveEdit

To show that someone or something is doing something to or for themselves, the pronoun before the verb must be included, and that pronoun must be preceded by a or proa. When the subject does something to a part of themself (for example washing their hands, brushing their teeth, scratching their back, etc.), proa is generally used; on the contrary, when the subject does something to themself as a whole (for example, showering themself, dressing themself, falling asleep, etc.), or something happens to them (for example, death, birth, transformation, getting sick, etc.), a is generally used.

For example:

The sentence "Tcogiane proa le lavat li manoce (de le)" translates literally to "Johannes for himself washes the hands (of himself)". A more clear translation to English speakers would be "Johannes washes his hands".

The sentence "A noce morinv" translates literally to "To us we die", and clearly to "We die".

It is notable to know that some verbs have the same meaning reflexively and non-reflexively.

PossessionEdit

To show possession, the word de, as well as the noun or correct pronoun that is the 'possessor', are placed after the object being owned.

DictionaryEdit

Simplengva nouns and numbers

Simplengva verbs

Simplengva adjectives and adverbs

Simplengva parts of speech

Example textEdit

English Eng. with Simplengva grammar Simplengva
The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The fox quick brown jumps over the dog lazy. Li vvlpa rapida maron cialtat cioper li cano gignavo.

The North Wind and the Sun

THE NORTH WIND and the Sun disputed as to which was the most powerful, and agreed that he should be declared the victor who could first strip a wayfaring man of his clothes. The North Wind first tried his power and blew with all his might, but the keener his blasts, the closer the Traveler wrapped his cloak around him, until at last, resigning all hope of victory, the Wind called upon the Sun to see what he could do. The Sun suddenly shone out with all his warmth. The Traveler no sooner felt his genial rays than he took off one garment after another, and at last, fairly overcome with heat, undressed and bathed in a stream that lay in his path.

Persuasion is better than Force.

The Wind of the North and the Sun

THE WIND OF THE NORTH and the Sun pastly fight for know who had the more power, and pastly agree that the winner is who pastly can most early undress a wayfarer of the clothes of he. The Wind of the North most early pastly attempt the power of he and pastly blow with all the might of he, but more accurate be the blasts of he, more close the wayfarer pastly wrap the cloak of he around he, but finally, he pastly surrender hope of victory, and the Wind pastly request the Sun for see what he pastly can do. The Sun suddenly pastly shine with all the warmth of he. The wayfarer pastly undress the clothes of he with one and other when he pastly feel the rays genial of the Sun, and finally, heat pastly overcome he, pastly undress for himself and pastly bath in a stream in the path of he.

Persuasion is better that Force.

Li Vent de li Ceptentre e li Tcol

LI VENT DE LI CEPTENTRE e li Tcol enante pugnant proa gintelege cvi tenent li plvci | potentca, e enante acordant cve li winner ece cvi enante potet plvrio tiempra vesti v viator de li vestece de le. Li Vent de li Ceptentre plvrio tiempra enante tentat li potentca de le e enante float con omni li potentca de le, ced plvci acurate li floace de le ecent, plvci li viator enante envolet li cloak of he circa he, ced enasdfasdf, he pastly surrender hope of victory, and the Wind pastly request the Sun for see what he pastly can do. The Sun suddenly pastly shine with all the warmth of he. The wayfarer pastly undress the clothes of he with one and other when he pastly feel the rays genial of the Sun, and finally, heat pastly overcome he, pastly undress for himself and pastly bath in a stream in the path of he.


Persuasion is better that Force.



No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name

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