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Slavski jezik

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Overview

SettingEdit

Slavski jezik is a constructed and simplified language based on Slavic languages. It is characteristically a South Slavic language with a significant amount of East Slavic (mainly Russian) and West Slavic (Polish) influence.


Basic Grammar Edit

Orthography Edit

Slavski spelling is quite phonemic in practice and mixes morphological and phonetic principles. The punctuation follows the German model.

Slavski language has two parallel writing systems: Cyrillic and Latin. They can be used interchangeably in all situations but being more suitable for a Cyrillic language the Cyrillic spelling is preferred in official contexts.

The Latin alphabet for Slavski jezik (27 letters, 2 letter combinations): Aa Bb Cc Čč Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Ljlj Mm Nn Njnj Oo Pp Rr Ss Šš Tt Uu Ůů Vv Yy Zz Žž

The Cyrillic alphabet for Slavski jezik (30 letters): Аа Бб Вв Гг Дд Ее Жж Зз Ии Йй Јј Кк Лл Љљ Мм Нн Њњ Оо Пп Рр Сс Тт Уу Ўў Фф Хх Цц Чч Шш Ыы

Several other letters can occur in order to render direct citation of foreign words, primarily modified Latin letters, such as: q, w, x; ç; Đ,đ; Ģ, ģ; Ł, ł; Ş, ş; Ż, ż. Though written, these are pronounced like the most similar indigenous phoneme, e.g. Kwaśniewski is pronounced as though written Kvašnjevski, Washington as though written Vošington. Other Cyrillic letters, e.g. Щщ ъ Яя, may be used in foreign words and names.

The use of i/j: in Latin spelling Jj is used when [i] is the final part of a vowel combination and syllable-initially. Ii is used elsewhere. The use of и/ј/й: Jj is used syllable-initially, й is used when [i] is the final part of a vowel combination. Ии is used elsewhere.

If diacritics cannot be used, the letters with diacritics are spelt as follows: č > cz, š > sz, ů > ou, ž > zs. In Cyrillic ў > оу.

Phonology Edit

Vowels

The Standard Slavski vowel system has five monophthongal and one diphthongal vowel. The difference between long and short vowels is not phonemic.


Front Central Back
Close i и [i] y ы [ɨ]1 u у [u] ů ў [ou]2
Mid e е [ɛ] о о [o]
Open a а [ɑ]



  1. This is an additional sound that is not reflected in the official spelling. In unofficial spelling it is usually rendered as Ы, ы (Cyrillic) or Y, y (Latin). The quality of the sound varies mainly depending on the speaker’s age. The older generation still use a close central unrounded vowel (IPA: [ɨ]) correspoding to the respective sounds in Russian (ы after unpalatalised consonants) and Polish (y). The younger generation tend to use a labialised near-close near-front unrounded vowel (IPA: [wɪ]). Or the same sound with no prior labialisation (IPA: [ɪ]). Whether the sound should be reflected in the official spelling is debatable but as only few minimal pairs exist and they do not cause much confusion, marking this sound in spelling has been seen unnecessary so far.
  2. The Diphthongal Vowel The close back rounded vowel preceded by a very short close-mid back rounded vowel ў (Cyrillic) or ů (Latin) (IPA: [ou]) is used solely as plural genitive ending. It was historically a half-long nasal close-mid back rounded vowel (IPA: [õ•]) that was reduced to a short close-mid back rounded vowel [u] elsewhere but kept its special quality in the plural genitive ending resulting in the sound [ou]. Some nasalisation may be heard occasionally, oddly enough, amogst the younger speakers [õ(w)]. When it does not denote the genitive plural ending it is pronounced as [w] e.g. Ůiski/Ўиски [wiski] and imaůam/имаўам [imawam].


Consonants

Labial Alveolar Post-alv. Palatal Velar
Nasal m м [m] n н [n] nj њ [ɲ]
Plosive

p п [p]

b б [b]

t т [t]

d д [d]

k к [k]

g г [g]

Affricate c ц [ts] č ч [tʃ]
Fricative f ф [f]

s с [s]

z з [z]

š ш [ʃ]

ž ж [ʒ]

х [χ]
Approximant v в [ʋ] j ј/й [j]
Lateral l л [l] љ [ʎ]
Trill r р [r]



  1. Voiced plosives and fricatives are devoiced word-finally and when preceding a voiceless consonant. E.g. muž [muʃ] 'man', blizki [bliski] 'nearby', led [let] 'ice'.
  2. Non-palatal consonants may be palatalised when preceding a front vowel. E.g. led [ʎet] 'ice', biti [bic(i)] 'to be'. The infinitive suffix -ti is frequently pronounced as [c] or [ts].
  3. Syllable final L is frequently vocalised to a semivowel [w]. E.g. Jа не видел тебе. [ja ne videw tebe] 'I did not see you.'

Nouns Edit

Slavski nouns have grammatical gender (masculine, feminine or neuter), number (singular or plural) and case (nominative, genitive, dative and locative).

The plural is formed by adding to or replacing the the singular ending. Some forms are similar for all nouns of all genders, such as the genitive plural ending in -ў .


Masculine GenderEdit

Hard Declesion

Singular Plural
Nominative муж мужи
Genitive мужа мужў
Dative мужoм мужaми
Locative муже мужах


Soft Declesion

Masculine nouns ending in palatal sounds (њ, љ, ј) get the suffix -ем in dative singular.

Singular Plural
Nominative коњ коњи
Genitive коња коњў
Dative коњем коњами
Locative коње коњах


Disappearing A

A weak -a- may vanish in declination e.g. in these words: дан, театар...

Singular Plural
Nominative дан дни
Genitive дна днў
Dative днoм днaми
Locative дне днах


Neuter Gender
Edit

Hard Declesion

Neuter and masculine nouns only differ in nominative endlings. Otherwise the declination patterns are identical.

Singular Plural
Nominative слово слова
Genitive слова словў
Dative словом словaми
Locative слове словах


Soft Declesion (words ending in palatal sounds)

Singular Plural
Nominative поље поља
Genitive поља пољў
Dative пољем пољaми
Locative поље пољах

Edit

Feminine Gender Edit

Both Hard and Soft Declesion

Singular Plural
Nominative жена жени
Accusative жену жени
Genitive жени женў
Dative женам женами
Locative жене женах


Feminines with I- declination (e.g. кост 'bone', гост 'guest', двер 'door')

A small number of feminine nouns end in consonants and have a divergent declination pattern.

Singular Plural
Nominative кост кости
Genitive кости костјў
Dative костим костјами
Locative кости костјах


Endings

M

sg

N

sg

F

sg

M

pl

N

pl

F

pl

Nominative -о (-е) -a -C
Genitive
Accusative N/G N N N/G N
Dative -ом (-ем) -ам (-им) -ами
Locative -ах


Exceptions: време (neuter) 'time' pl.: времена (-н- added in all other forms save nominative and accusative singular)

Adjectives Edit

Adjective paradigms are rather similar to the ones of nouns.

Almost all adjectives end in -i in masculine singular, the form found in dictionaries.

As an example the adjective novi 'new'.

Singular Plural
Masculine Neuter Feminine Masc & Fem Neuter
Nominative нови ново нова нови нова
Genitive нова нови новў
Accusative Н/Г нову Н/Г
Dative новом новам новами
Locative нове новах


Pronouns Edit

Personal Pronouns Edit

The personal pronouns in Slavski have various forms according to gender, number, person and case.

Sg. 1st Sg. 2nd Sg. 3rd m/n Sg. 3rd f Pl. 1st Pl. 2nd Pl. 3rd
Nominative ја ти он/o она мы вы они
Accusative/ Genitive мене тебе нега нејо нас вас их
Short form ме те га јо -

Dative/Locative

мени теби нему нејой нами вами им
Short form ми ти му јой -

The pronoun оно can be used referring to neuter gender words. It is declined exactly like the 3rd person pronoun for masculine gender, он.

The reflexive pronoun is Acc/Gen.: себе (се), Dat/Loc.: себи (си) 'myself, yourself, oneself...'.


Possessive Pronouns
Edit

Possessive pronouns exist only in 1st and 2nd person. In 3rd person the genitive forms of personal pronouns are used.

M N F PL
Nominative мой моје моја моји
Genitive моја моји мојў
Accusative N/G моју N/G
Dative мојам мојом мојам мојами
Locative моје мојах


Мой my

Твой your

Свой one's, my own, your own...

Наш our

Ваш your (pl)

...are all conjugated as мой.

.

Demonstrative Pronouns Edit

Singular Plural
M N F M N F
Nominative то та (acc ту) ти та ти
Genitive та ти тў
Dative/Locative том там тими тами


.

Interrogative Pronouns Edit

Animate Inanimate
Nominative ко чо
Genitive кога чога
Accusative чо
Dative/Locative кем чем

Numerals Edit

Cardinal Short form Ordinal

1

jedan jen 1. pervi
2 dva - 2. drugi
3 tri - 3. triti
4 četiri čtir 4. četirti
5 pet - 5. peti
6 šes - 6. šesi
7 sem - 7. semi
8 osam - 8. osmi
9 devet det 9. deveti
10 deset des 10. deseti
11 jedannadeset jenast 11. jedannadeseti
12 dvanadeset dvanast 12. dvanadeseti
13 trinadeset trinast 13. trinadeseti
14 četirinadeset čtirnast 14. četirinadeset
15 petnadeset petnast 15. petnadeseti
16 šesnadeset šesnast 16. šesnadeseti
17 semnadeset semnast 17. semnadeseti
18 osamnadeset osamnast 18. osamnadeseti
19 devetnadeset detnast 19. devetnadeseti
20 dvadeset dvades 20. dvadeseti
21 dvadeset jedan dvades jen 21. dvadeset pervi
30 trideset trides 30. trideseti
40 četirideset čtirdes 40. četirideseti
50 petdeset pedes 50. petdeseti
60 šesdeset šezdes 60. šesdeseti
70 semdeset semdes 70. semdeseti
80 osamdeset osamdes 80. osamdeseti
90 devetdeset dedes 90. devetdeseti
100 sto - 100. stoti
101 sto jedan sto jen 101. sto pervi
1 000 tisica - 1 000. tisicni
1 000 000 miljon - 100 000. miljoni
1 000 000 000 miljard - 1 mrd miljardi

Most of the ordinal numbers have short forms used frequently in spoken language. Corresponding short forms for cardinal numbers are formed by adding the suffix -i.

Cardinal numbers are declined as adjectives.

Jedan is declined as an adjective (jedan, jedna, jedno, jedni). Jen is short for jedan. It's often used as an indefinite article. It's usually not declined.


Telling The Time Edit

Сколко време?

What time is it?

У сколко?

At what time?

on the hour Шада три (часи). Он прииде у три (часи).
over три и пет Он прииде у три и пет.
half пола три Он прииде у пола три.
to петнаст до тр Он прииде у петнаст до три.

Verbs Edit

Tense Edit

Verb tenses of Slavski language are present, past and future.

  • Present tense uses the verb stem and a personal ending. E.g. ''ima + m = imam 'I have
  • Past tense uses verb stem, suffix -l- and personal ending. The suffix is frequently pronounced [w] and even written as w/ў in conversational/dialectal contexts. A parallel form using only the suffix conjugated in gender and number exists. Personal pronouns must be used with this form. E.g. ima + l + am 'I had~I have had' OR ja ima + l = Ja imal 'I had~I have had'
  • Future uses the future form of the verb biti 'to be' and infitive. E.g. budem imati 'I shall have

Mood
Edit

Besides the indicative, Slavski uses conditional, subjunctive and imperative.

  • Conditional uses plain past tense forms with suffixed conditional forms of the verb biti 'to be'. E.g. ima + l + bim = Imalbim 'I would have
  • Subjunctive uses the indicative with the particle da. E.g. da + ima = da ima 'I have
  • Imperative uses suffix -i or -j attached to the (shortened) stem of the verb. E.g. ima + j = imaj! 'Have!

Aspect Edit

Slavski uses two verbal aspects: imperative and perfective.

  • Imperfective uses the plain verbs forms.
  • Perfective uses a suffix. The infinitive ending -ти is replaced by -вати and the verb is conjugated accordingly.


Ја читам книги. I read books.

Ја читавам твоју книгу. I am reading your book.

Ја читал книгу. I (have) read a book.

Ја читавал книгу. I was reading a book.

Ја будем читати книгу. I shall read a book.

Ја будем читавати книги. I shall be reading books.

Conjugation Edit

Verbi имати 'to have' used as an example.


Infinitive: има|ти (root being има-)

Active Past Participle: ималан (declined as a regular adjective)

Passive Past Participle: имати (declined as a regular adjective)

Present Participle: имајуши (declined as a regular adjective)


Some of the verb form presented below have alternative forms:

  • Past: ималам, ималаш, имала, ималаме, ималате, имали
  • Conditional: бим, биш, би, биме, бите, би + имати (infinitive)
  • 3rd Person Plural: Conjugated verb froms can either end in -ју or be identical to the 3rd person singular forms.


TENSE MOOD
Present Past Future Conditional subjunctive Imperative
Sg. 1st имам имал, -а (сем) будем имати ималбим да имам -
Sg. 2nd имаш имал, -а (си) будеш имати ималбиш да имаш имай
Sg. 3rd има имал, -а, -о (је) буде имати ималби да има -
Pl. 1st имаме имали (сме) будеме имати ималбиме да имаме -
Pl. 2nd имате имали (сте) будете имати ималбите да имате имайте
Pl. 3rd има(ју) имали (су) буду имати ималби да има(ју) -

.

Irregular Verbs Edit

There are only two verbs with irregular forms: бити 'to be' and идети 'to go'.


Бити (infinitive), билан (APP), бити (PPP), бијуши (PP), будуши (Future Participle)

TENSE MOOD
Present Past Future Conditional Subjunctive Imperative
Sg. 1st сем (билам) будем бим да бим -
Sg. 2nd си (билаш) будеш биш да биш буди
Sg. 3rd је бил, -а, -о буде би да би
Pl. 1st сме (биламе) будеме биме да биме будиме
Pl. 2nd сте (билате) будете бите да бите будите
Pl. 3rd су (је) били буду би(ју) да би(ју) -


Идети (infinitive), идети (PPP), идејуши (PP)

Only Past forms are irregular:

masculine singular: шал

feminine singular: шла

neuter singular: шло

plural: шли

Prepositions Edit

Preposition Case Meaning Examples
без gen without мени каву без млека.
дља gen for Ја радил то дља тебе.
до gen until, to Мы доидели до града.
из gen from, out of Он изшал из трамваја.
кроме gen except Вси су ше кроме тебе.
од gen of, from, since, by Он работа ше од лета.
помимо gen in spite of Он радил то помимо бурји.
против gen against Си против мене?
сагласне gen according to Сагласне нега, ми требаме..
учасе gen during Учасе выходи, мы летали у Касабланку.
уместе gen instead of Пијме пиво уместе вина.


Preposition Case Meaning Examples
межу acc/loc between Школа је межу музејах.
мимо acc/loc next to
на acc/loc on
нас acc/loc above
окла acc/loc around
под acc/loc under, during(loc)
полев acc/loc left of
поправ acc/loc right of
пред acc/loc before, in front of
при acc/loc near
у acc/loc in
за acc/loc after, behind, because of


Preposition Case Meaning Examples
по acc after, in the manner of, up to
пре acc because of
пер acc through, across


Preposition Case Meaning Examples
к dat to


Preposition Case Meaning Examples
о loc about


Preposition Case Meaning Examples
са inst with, by means of

DictionaryEdit

Example textEdit

Svi ljudi rodin se svobodni i jednaki u svoji dostojnosti i pravimi. Oni su nadeleni sa razumem i sovestim i treban postupati jedan pret ina u duši bratsva.
(1. Artikal Vseobceni deklaraciji pravů človeka)

Сви људи родин се свободни и једнаки у своји достойности и правими. Они су наделени са разумем и совестим и требан поступати један прет ина у души братсва.
(1. Артикал Всеобцени декларацији правў чловека)

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

_____________________


Zdravo! Hello!

Šče! Hi!

Kak ti (si)? How are you?

Dobre. Fine.

Dekam. Thank you. (lit. I thank)

Deki. Thanks.

Ne za čo. / Nizaš. / Niš. You are welcome.


Svoja strana ljubima, druga strana neznama. Home sweet home.

U každi strani, svoji privičani. When in Rome, do as the Romans do.

Žaš čo sijaš. You reap what you sow.

Neplači, strašno dete, zautre ti kupime novo lice. Don't cry ugly child, tomorrow we'll buy you a mask.

Luče ideš. You'd better go.

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