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Sojaz

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Sojaz (so- + jaz(ik) = "co-" + "lang(uage)" in Slavic languages) is one of Hellerick's early attempts to create a pan-Slavic language.

Alphabet and pronunciationEdit

Azbuka (alfabet) i zvuchenjoEdit

Sojaz uses the letters of the Latin alphabet. They are: Sojaz potrebe bukve latinsku alfabebetu. One je:
a, b, c, ch, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, sh, t, u, v, y, z, zh
Vowels a, e, i, o, u should be pronounced like German or Spanish ones. Vowel y denotes "back 'i'" sound. To pronounce it put your tongue in a position like if you pronounce vowel u and your lips like for i sound. It sounds like "rough i" sound. Glaske a, e, i, o, u dolzhe buti zvuchene jak v naj-mnoge slavjanske jazyke. Glaska y znache "zaden i" zvuk. Do zvucheti to, mestejte Vash jazyk jak Vy zvuche by glaska u, i Vash gube jak za i. Zvuchet jak "grub" zvuk i.
Digraphs ch, sh and zh denote "hissing" consonants (ch — like 'ch' in 'cheese', sh — like 'sh' in 'sharp', zh — like 's' in 'pleasure'). They are slightly more "hard" than English sounds, i.e. don't draw your tongue to near to your palate. Touch it with tip of your tongue only. Dvabukvje ch, sh i zh znache "shipejuche" soglaske. One zvuche jak polske "tverde shipejushe" zvuke 'cz', 'sz' i 'ż'. Do zvucheti ih, dotykejte Vash gorlonebo s konec na Vash jazyk tolko.
Letters i and j can palatalize (soften) the previous consonant. It can be useful to distinguish i and y sounds. If you can't pronounce this, don't worry, it isn't necessary. Bukve i and j mozhe obgorlonebeti (mjahketi) pred-idejuch soglaska. Mozhet buti polezen do rozlicheti zvuke i i y. Ne mozhete zvucheti to, ne trevogejte, ne jest osnoven.
Letter h has pronunciation like German on Scottish 'ch' in 'Bach' or 'Loch'. In word beginning before a vowel it may be pronounced voiced (like modern Greek 'γ'). Bukva h zvuche jak polesk ili chesk 'ch' v slove 'strach' ili 'chleb'. V nachenjo slovu pred glaska mozhet zvucheti gloseno, jak chesk 'h' ili ukrajnesk 'г'.
Letter c denotes an affricate ts. This means that the sounds t and s should be pronounced almost at once. Bukva c zvuche jak v najmnogost slavjanesk jazykeju, jest do skazeti Vy dolzhe-by gvoreti zvuke t i s pochti sochasno.

NounsEdit

Imene podstojetne (substantive)Edit

Nouns have three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. But if you don't know gender of word you need, don't worry, you always can use neutral (don't confuse with "neuter") forms. Imene maju tri polrode: muzhesk, zhenesk i sreden. No jesli Vy ne znaje polrod na slovo Vy nuzhe koj, ne trevogej, Vy vsegda mozhe potrebeti neutralne forme.
Majority of words ending in -a are feminine, and ending in -o are neuter. All the rest can be whether masculine or feminine. Of course words denoting males are masculine and denoting females are feminine. Naj-mnogost sloveju koncejucheju v -a su na zhenesk polrod, i koncejucheju v -o su na sreden polrod. Samrozumejucho, slove znachejuche muzhece su muzhesk polrodu, i znachejuche zhenice su zhenesk rodu.
You should prefer gender forms more with nouns the gender of which is clear by their meaning. (e.g. 'father', 'queen', 'boy', 'lioness' etc.) Vy dolzhe-by bolje predvysheti polrodove forme s podstojne imene polrod na koje je jasen za hov znachenjo, (za primer, otec, krolica, malec, devica) i t.d.
The plural is formed by adding of ending -e. If the word ends in a vowel then you should replace that ending with -e. Mnogost je formena s dobavenjo koncovku -e. Jesli slovo konce v glaska, tak Vy dolzhe-by zameneti to koncovka s -e.
Sojaz has genitive case. It's similar to the English possessive case. Genitive case is formed by adding of ending -u(v) to the word stem. Its use can be avoided using the preposition na or possessive adjectives. Sojaz ma rodeten padezh (genitiv). To je za po-vel sovmestemost s naturalne slavjanske jazyke. Vy mozhe izbegeti potrebenjo tovu potrebejucho predlog na ili vladetne prilagetne imene.
Genitive is also used to denote the direction of movement in opposite to place of movement by verbs. E.g.: Idem v Moskva — 'I'm walking in Moscow', Idem v Moskvu — 'I go to Moscow'. Rodeten padezh tozh je potreben do rozlicheti naprjamenjo dvigenju vzamen mesto dvigenju. Za primer: Idem v MoskvaIdem v Moskvu.
Plural genitive nouns get ending -eju(v) to their stem. It's result of combination of the endings plural -e and genitive one -u(v). Podstojetne imene na rodeten padezh mnogostu polushe koncovka -eju(v). To je za kombinacja na koncovke -e (mnogostu) i u(v) (rodeten padezhu).
Examples: Primere:
Word dom zhenica okno morjo
Meaning 'house' 'woman' 'window' 'sea'
Gender masc. fem. neut. neut.
Sg. Nom. dom zhena okno morjo
Gen. domu(v) zhenu(v) oknu(v) morju(v)
Pl. Nom. dome zhene okne morje
Gen. domeju(v) zheneju(v) okneju(v) morjeju(v)
Letter v in genitive ending is used when there is danger confusing of that noun with a verb in third person plural form (also having ending -eju). And when you like it. :-) Bukva v v koncovka rodeten padezhu je potrebem gda to mozhe buti smeshen s slovese v forma tret osobu mnogostu (tozh majuch koncovka -eju). I gda htete to. :-)

PronounsEdit

Zaimene (pronomine)Edit

Personal pronouns have three main forms: a) subject case (nominative) — is used for subject of action; b) object case — is used for object of action and for use with prepositions; c) genitive case — the same as one of the nouns. Osobove zaimene ma tri glaven forme: a) subjekten (ili imeneten) padezh — je potrebem za subjekt dejenju; b) objekten padezh — je potrebem za objekt dejenju i s predloge; c) rodeten padezh — samy jaky na podstojetne imene.
Also there are possessive pronouns. They are similar to adjectives and have also five forms: neutral, masculine, feminine, neuter and plural. Tozh vladetne zaimene je. Te je podoben do prilagetne imene i te tozh ma pjat forme: neutralen, muzhesk, zhenesk, sreden i mnogostu.
Number Person Meaning Subj. Obj. Genitive Possessive
neutral masc. fem. neut. plural
Sg. 1 'I' ja mi moju(v) moj moj moja mojo moje
2 'you' ('thou') ty ti tvoju(v) tvoj tvoj tvoja tvojo tvoje
3 'he' on go govu(v) gov govy gova govo gove
'it' ono go govu(v) gov govy gova govo gove
'she' ona jo jovu(v) jov jovy jova jovo jove
'it' to to tovu(v) tov tovy tova tovo tove
Pl. 1 'we' my nas nashu(v) nash nash nasha nasho nashe
2 'you' ('ye') vy vas vashu(v) vash vash vasha vasho vashe
3 'they' one ih hovu(v) hov hovy hova hovo hove
'they' te te tejovu(v) tejov tejovy tejova tejovo tejove
Reflexive 'self' - si svoju(v) svoj svoj svoja svojo svoje
Note that the genitive forms are derived from possessive ones. It's similar to German, where for example the word meiner ('of me') is derived from the word mein ('my'). Vnimejte zhe rodetne forme proiz-hode iz vladetne. Pohodet do germanesk jazyk, gde za primer slovo meiner (moju) proiz-hode iz mein (moj).
Ponouns to and te are similar to English 'it' I recommend to use them with unanimated objects, animals without clear sex etc. Pronouns on, ona and ono must agree to the grammatical gender of the word they replace. Zaimene to i te pohode do anglisk 'it'. Ja rekomende potrebiti te s bezdushen objekte, zvere bez javen pol i t.d. Zaimene on, ona i ono dolzhe sogloseti do polrod slovu te zamene koj.

VerbsEdit

SloveseEdit

Present simple tenseEdit

Prost prisuten chasEdit

This is the pattern and examples of conjugation in present simple tense: Tato je obrazec i primere na konjugacja sloveseju v prost prisuten chas:
  Pronoun Ending 'To see' 'To be' 'To have'
Infinitive   -ti videti buti (j)mati
With subject - vide je (j)ma
Sg. 1 p. ja -m videm (j)sem (j)mam
2 p. ty -sh videsh (j)sy (j)mash
3 p. on/a/o, to -t videt jest (j)mat
Pl. 1 p. my -me videme (j)sme (j)mame
2 p. vy -te videte (j)ste (j)mate
3 p. one, te -ju(t) videju(t) (j)su(t) (j)maju(t)


Any verb has a stem ending in a vowel. If the verb has multisyllable stem then it always ends in vowel e (except verbs with a prefix). To get the stem of the verb you must remove its infinitive ending -ti. Vsejak sloveso ma osnova koja konce v glaska. Jesli sloveso ma mnogo-slogov osnova, tak koncet v glaska e vsegda (izkluchejucho slovese s prefiks). Do polucheti osnova na sloveso, otberejte ot to infinitiven koncovka -ti.
You may use person endings only when there is no noun or pronoun denoting subject of the action. E.g. you may say ja spa or spam (both mean I'm sleeping) but you may not say ja spam. Vy mozhe potrebeti osobove koncovke tolko gda je nejak podstojeten imen ili zaimen znachejuch podlog dejenju. Za primer Vy mozhe skazeti ja spa ili spam (s tak-zhe znechenjo) no ne mozhe ja spam.

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