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Sorvian

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Sorvian
Sorvin
Type Agglutinative
Alignment Tripartite
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders None
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]


Classification and DialectsEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ (χ) h
Affricate p͡f t͡s t͡ʃ  d͡ʒ
Approximant j
Trill r
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral fric. ɬ
Lateral app. l
Phoneme Grapheme
/ʃ/ š
/ʒ/ ž
/χ/ kh
/t͡s/ c
/t͡ʃ/ cz
/d͡ʒ/ dz
/r/ rr
/ɾ/ r
/ɬ/ lh

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i y u
Mid ɛ œ ɔ
Open æ ɑ
Phoneme Grapheme
/ɛ/ e
/œ/ ö
/ɔ/ o
/æ/ ä
/ɑ/

a

  • Any vowel can be lengthened.
  • All possible diphthongs are allowed keeping in mind vowel harmony.

PhonotacticsEdit

Onset:

  • Anything
  • j can be used to palatize any consonant except the laterals
  • Laterals never appear at the beginning of a cluster
  • /χ/, affricates, and /h/ never cluster
  • Other than this, consonants can geminate freely (rr = /r/)

Nucleus:

  • Any vowel or diphthong
  • j can be used, but it's pronounced /i/

Coda:

  • Same rules as the onset, but clustering is reversed
  • Other than this, consonants can geminate freely (rr = /r/)

With these rules in mind, Sorvian spelling is phonetic.

Vowel HarmonyEdit

Front Back Neutral
ä a

i

e

ö o
y u

A word with only neutral vowels is considered front.

Consonant GradationEdit

When endings are added to nouns or adjectives, causing a open syllable to become closed, some consonants change. The changed sound is weak, whereas the unchanged is strong. (c) = consonant, (v) = vowel.

Strong Weak Example
t s lhäti - lhäsi
d z myde - myze
ss/zz s közzi - kösi
šš/žž š mooišša - mooiša
ff/vv f savvi - safi
tt/dd t kaddo - kato
pp/bb p czappa - czapa
kk/gg k skyggäö - skykäö
p pf zytäpy - zytäpfy
b v liba - liva
l(c) ll

cylte - cylle

k -- palka - pala
(v)(c) j (c)(c) dzöökjä - dzöökkä

StressEdit

Stress always falls on the initial syllable in Sorvian.

Writing SystemEdit

Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns in Sorvian decline according to number, definiteness, and case, in that order. Note that the vowel of a suffix will change to fit vowel harmony.

NumberEdit

There are five grammatical numbers in Sorvian. They are made by attaching a suffix to the weak stem of a noun.

Number Use Suffix Example Meaning
Singular one item -- söde man
Plural more than one item -j (/i/) sözej men
Paucal a group of an item -jä sözejä a group of men
Collective all instances of an item -jö sözejö all men
Paucal-collective all instances of a group of an item -jäy sözejäy all groups of men

DefinitenessEdit

The only article in Sorvian is the negative article, meaning none of the item. It is represented by attaching the suffix -dää to the weak stem of a noun, AFTER the number.

  • sözedää - no man
  • sözejdää - no men
  • sözejädää - no groups of men
  • sözejödää - no total of men (rarely used)
  • sözejäydää - no total of groups of men (rarely used)

CaseEdit

There are eleven noun cases in Sorvian. They are represented by attaching a suffix to the weak stem of a noun, AFTER the number and article. Note that the negative article -dää does not undergo consonant gradation. (r) = repeat last letter.

Case Use Suffix Example Meaning
Ergative agent of a transitive verb -- laaim car (erg.)
Absolutive subject of an intransitive verb -(r) laaimm car (abs.)
Accusative object of a transitive clause, whole -n laaimn car (acc.)
Partitive object of a transitive clause, part -än/-ä -laaiman car (part.)
Genitive of/'s -en/-n -laaimen car's
Dative indirect object -m/-e laaimm for/to car
Allative moving towards -sä laaimsa to car
Ablative moving away from -nä laaimna from car
Locative at/on/in/by -my laaimmu in car
Instrumental via/by/using -nsi laaimnsi via car
Translative (turn) into -klä laaimkla (turn into) car

So all together, the word "laaimjaudaansi" would mean: via no total of groups of cars.

  • Ergative: word stays the same
  • Absolutive: repeat the last letter
  • Accusative: +n
  • Partitive: +än; +ä if word ends in double consonant
  • Genitive: -(c) = +en; -(v) = +n
  • Dative: +m; +e if word ends in a double consonant
  • Allative: +sä
  • Ablative: +nä
  • Locative: +my
  • Instrumental: +nsi
  • Translative: +klä
  • For all of the above, if the initial letter in the suffix is added to a word with a double of that letter at the end, then the initial letter of the suffix is dropped; kess + sä = kessä,  lakk + kla = lakkla,  zann + n = zann,  vemaa + an = vemaan
First Person Second Person Third Person
Sing. Plur. Pauc. Coll. P-C. Sing. Plur. Pauc. Coll. P-C. Sing Plur. Pauc. Coll. P-C.
Ergative söj söjä söjö säy vöj vöjä vöjö väy nöj öjä öjö näy
Absolutive söö sööj sööjä sööjö säyy vöö vööj vööjä vööjö väyy näyy
Genitive sön söjn säjn söjön syn vön vöjn väjn vöjön vyn nön nöjn äjn öjön nyn
Accusative
Partitive sän söjän säjän sönäjö syjän vän vöjän väjän vönäjö vyjän nän nöjän äjän önäjö nyjän
Dative söm söjm säjm söjöm sym vöm  vöjm väjm vöjöm vym nöm nöjm äjm öjöm nym
Allative sösä söjsä säjsä sösäj sysä vösä vöjsä väjsä vösäj vysä nösä nöjsä äjsä ösäj nysä
Ablative sönä söjnä sjänä sjönä synä vönä vöjnä vjänä vjönä vynä nönä nöjnä jänä jönä nynä
Locative sömy söjmy sjämy sjömy symy vömy vöjmy vjämy vjömy vymy nömy nöjmy jämy jömy nynä
Intrumental sönsi söjnsi sjänsi sjönsi synsi vönsi vöjnsi vjänsi vjönsi vynsi nönsi nöjnsi jänsi jönsi nynsi
Translative söklä söjklä sjäklä sjöklä syklä vöklä vöjklä vjäklä vjöklä vyklä nöklä nöjklä jäklä jöklä nyklä

VerbsEdit

Conjugation in Sorvian can be clearly split between transitive, intransitive, and passive conjugation. All infinitives end in a double consonant + "i" (-nni, -mmi, -kki, etc.). The verb stem is formed by removing the final two characters. Note that verbs do not undergo consonant gradation.

IntransitiveEdit

  • Intransitive verbs have set endings according to subject, subject number, tense, and mood.
  • All first person endings begin in -en.
  • All second person endings begin -et.
  • All third person endings beging in -e.
  • The following are appended to the personal suffix to agree with number: singular - nothing (-en), plural - j (-enj), paucal - jä (-enjä), collective - jö (-enjö), paucal-collective - jey (-enjey).
  • For the past tense, the initial "e" in each of the personal endings becomes an "ä" (-än).
  • For the future tense, the initial "e" in each of the personal endings becomes an "y" (-yn). This is only used to really emphasize the tense. The future tense is almost always omitted otherwise.
  • Moods ignore tense:

                The subjunctive has the initial "e" replaced with "eke" (-eken).

                The imperative has the initial "e" replaced with "esö" (-esön).

                The interrogative has the initial "e" replaced with "epe" (-epen).

                Lastly, the potential mood has the "e" replaced with "else" (-elsen).

TransitiveEdit

  • Transitive verbs have set endings according to agent, agent number, object, object number, tense, and mood.
  • Object is conjugated by adding a prefix to the verb:
Singular Plural Paucal Collective P-C.
First Person še- -šj- šäl- šöl- šyl-
Second Person pfe- pfi- pfä- pfö- pfy-
Third Person me- mj- mä- mö- mey-
  • Other than this, conjugation is the same as intransitive verbs.

PassiveEdit

  • Infinitives can be passivised by changing the final -i with -äs (to eat - to be eaten).
  • To make a conjugated verb passive, -äd- is appended to the stem before other endings (-ädenjö, -ädesöjey, etc.).
  • The subject (the mouse was eaten by the cat) is marked with the absolutive case (duh), the doer (the mouse was eaten by the cat) is marked with the ergative case.

AspectEdit

Aspect is indicated with auxiliary words following the main verb or infinitive:

  • czette - perfective
  • lhoidz - imperfective
  • alh - negative (alh can attach to infinitives)

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives always follow the nouns they describe. They agree with number and case with the ergative, absolutive, accusative partitive, AND dative cases. All adjectives can become adverbs by simply attaching vi- to the beginning of an adjective.

SyntaxEdit

The heavy inflection of Sorvian gives it some liberties in terms of word order. Transitive and passive sentences usually follow SVO or SOV, and most intransitive sentences usually follow SV. Adjectives follow their nouns, and adverbs follow they adjectives, though they can be anywhere when modifying verbs.

Lexicon

Sorvian Lexicon

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