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Spheri

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Spheri
Ižkwa
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-accusative
Head direction
[Placeholder]
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Spheri is a reformed version of "Spheronese," spoken by Spherons on the planet Žaǰori 1a (formed from waǰož "boulder" and zori "wind," and then žara "fire.") Its spoken form is known as Ižkwa, and its written form is known as Ižkwe.

There are four main dialects of Ižkwa, specified as fire, water, air, and earth (žara, roǰi, zori, and jaža) as well as countless other variants and dialects of the language. The main dialects are colloquially named Ižara, Ižoǰi, Ižori, and Ižaža, and natively known as Isara (voiceless/voiced chance not applied, but in a few words still does, such as loan words), Ižoǰi (main dialect), Ižori (usage of q and v), and Iz'az'a (different writing system and spelling to represent voicing).

HistoryEdit

Spheronese was rejected as the language of Spherons due to the fact that it had no system or rules for it to function, as well as a lack of pattern in the words. In 1652, a language known as "Isciva" was created as one of the solutions or reforms for the Spheronese language. It was officially adopted by the beings in 1655, and was left unchanged for many years, until, in 1720, reforms were made to the pronunciation and alphabet to pave the road to modern Ižkiwa.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Modern IžkiwaEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal n
Plosive k
Fricative v s z ʃ ʒ
Affricate
Approximant ɹ
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app.
Lateral flap
Letter IPA Transcription Approximation in English
Aa /a/ bra
Ee /e/ roughly like face
Ii /ɪ/ bit
Jj /ʃ/ shock
Kk /k/ car
Nn /n/ not
Oo /o/ roughly like law (British English)
Rr /ɹ/ raw
Ww /v/ viper
Zz /s/ sip
J̌ǰ /ʒ/ vision
Žž /z/ zip

IscivaEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal n
Plosive t
Fricative v s ʃ ʒ
Affricate
Approximant
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap
Letter or Digraph IPA Transcription Approximation in English
Aa
Ee
Ii
Sh /ʃ/ shock
Ss /s/ sofa
Cc /tʃ/ check
Nn /n/ not
Oo
Ll /l/ law
Vv /v/ viper
Zh /ʒ/ vision

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close ɪ
Close-mid e o
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open a

PhonotacticsEdit

Typically, consonants will not occur next to another, and vowels will not occur next to another vowel, unless that vowel is the same, in which case it is pronounced as a long vowel.

That being the case, the markers that form new nouns out of verbs or other nouns will take over the vowel endings of the original words, such as the following:

žara (fire) -> žaraiž ([diminutive] fire) - > žariž ([diminutive] fire)

However, the case and number markers will not do this (even if some will cause two consonants to be close together), as it is not part of the word in the first place.

žaǰe (plant) -> žaǰeiǰ ([plural] plant) -> žaǰeiǰžew (from the [plural] plant)

If two similar consonants, or in the case of case and number markers, vowels, occur together, a pause may occur between them. In other variants of pronunciation, the sound is geminated. Note: the following example includes an Extended IPA symbol.

žaǰeiǰǰe (plant's) [zæʒɛɪʒ ʒɛ] or [zæʒɛɪʒːɛ]

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

Nouns are specified without articles, therefore the word žara can mean "fire," "the fire," and "a fire." However, in early Ižkiwa, these articles existed as "ri-" and "kar-". Therefore, sara ("fire" in early Ižkiwa, before the voiced/voiceless change) would be declensed as risara "a fire," and karsara "the fire."

MarkersEdit

Nouns are created or declensed using markers, to specify properties such as number, gender, size (diminutive/augmentative), and person. Only the size markers can be repeated ad infinitum, as long as they are the same marker, intensifying or weakening a noun further and further.

Type of Marker Marker 1 Marker 2 Marker 3
Number

"-n"

None

"-iǰ"

Plural

Gender

"-e"

Masculine

"-a"

Feminine

Diminutive/Augmentative

"-iž"

Diminutive

"-ož"

Augmentative

Person

"-eǰ"

First

"-eǰe"

Second

"-eǰa"

Third

Unlike case markers, these markers will "assimilate" over a vowel ending, such as with the following case:

žara (fire) + -ož -> žarož (conflagration)

However in some dialects, this rule is not applied to words at all.

In the case of the grammatical person marker, it only applies to specific words [specify].

CasesEdit

In this language, there are five cases, specified with a case marker each: nominative (-aǰ), accusative (-ež), dative (-eža), ablative (-žew), and genitive (-ǰe). They can be described as the subject, the direct object, the indirect object, from the object, and of the object, respectively. These are used only to specify the case of nouns, not adjectives, verbs, or other word classes.

This table is using the word žara "fire" to demonstrate the case markers in the language.

Noun + Case marker Meaning
Nominative žaraaǰ fire
Accusative žaraež fire
Dative žaraeža to the fire
Ablative žaražew from the fire
Genitive žaraǰe of the fire

The case markers do not usually assimilate with the vowels in the word, as they are not "word-creating" markers. However, in some dialects, it can assimilate with the vowels, as they are understood in the context. Therefore, žaraǰžarež, and žareža, in this instance, are possible in those dialects.

VocabularyEdit

Since my language will have a long list of words, I shall post them on this side page on my website. (Note: the page is a work in progress.) 

Basic phrasebook


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


LearningEdit

Basic Learning

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