|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
It's probably not a candidate for the world auxlang, but it should be.
Classification and DialectsEdit
The consonant inventory is designed to be as simple as possible without having words become too many syllables long. The uvular rhotic was picked because it seems to be the easiest for people to learn and is probably the easiest to distinguish from /l/ for people who do not have a contrastive rhotic and lateral approximant in their native languages. /h ~ x ~ χ/ are in free variation.
|Flap or tap|
The only consonants that can end syllables are nasals and the glottal stop.
|Letter||Sc sc||Hh||Zz||Ch ch||Jj||Rr||Bb||Dd||Gg||Ll|
|Sound||/ʃ/||/h ~ x~ χ/||/t͡s/||/t͡ʃ/||/j/||/ᴚ ~ ʀ/||/ʘ/||/ǀ/||/ǃ/||/ǂ/||/l/|
<nk> is pronounced /ŋk/. It is a pitch-accent language with tone only on stressed syllables. Rising tone, level tone, and falling tone are indicated by an acute accent, no accent, and a grave accent, respectively. Stress is always on the first syllable of a word with the exception of unstressed prefixes such as the past prefix ke-. Stressed prefixes also get their own tone, so the word frìman (male person/man) has two tones, while the word kesingen (they/you formal sung) only has one level tone on the second syllable. It is very important to get the tone right, as feklen meaning "bird/fowel meats" is a quite different word from fèklen meaning "we are copulating".
Nouns have 7 genders, which affects verb agreement paradigms in the 3rd person. The genders are:
Male people and animals - generally marked by prefix <frì>, forms plural with suffix <-re>
Female people and animals - generally marked by prefix <frà>, forms plural with suffix <-re>
Indeterminate, mixed and other gender people and animals - forms plural with suffix <-re>
Indeterminate gender animals and human and non-human children as welll as diminuitives of all nouns - forms plural with suffix <-ren>
Natural forces - forms plural with suffix <-en>
Inanimate objects - forms plural with suffix <-en>
Abstract concepts, concrete things referred to by abstract qualities they have, and generalizations/general categories - generally marked by suffixes <-ing> and <-kite>, forms plural with suffix <-en>
The first <e> in suffixes beginning with <e> is dropped if the word already ends in <e>.
There are two cases, direct and possessed.
Verbs agree with their subject, object and indirect object. Agent agreement markers contain the vowel <e>, patient agreement markers contain the vowel <a> and indirect object markers contain the vowel <i>. If the suffix starts with a vowel, and is followed by another suffix that starts with a vowel, a glottal stop is inserted to break up the hiatus. It would be rather ridiculous to completely conjugate a verb, but this should be enough to demonstrate how it works:
sprekjan - to speak
(ɂi) spreke - I speak (willingly)
(ɂi) spreka - I speak (unwillingly)
(ti) sprekse - you (singular informal) speak
(he) sprekede - he speaks
(sce) sprekege - she speaks
(se) sprekeqe - s/he speaks
(hi) sprekebe - it (dimunuitive etc.) speaks
(sa) sprekeqne - it (natural forces etc.) speaks
(si) sprekegne - it (inanimate object) speaks
(ta) sprekedne - it (concept, generalization etc.) speaks
sprekseɂi - you speak to me
kesprekseɂi - you spoke to me
fisprekseɂi - you will speak to me
There are also two reflexivizers/reciporicalizers, <seple-> if the subject is the indirect object and <sihe-> if the subject is the direct object. The plurals of any of the agreement markers are made by adding an <-n>, so
(fire) spreken - we speak
seplespreken - we speak to one another
Nouns can incorporate into verbs, including with modifiers:
tìne hintehafen - we have a small dog/s
Word order is free, although SVO is probably the most common.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 1
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Ɂale manre péredeɂqan frí ɂante klihe firetenfise ɂante rìhetenfise. Ɂàsestatedeɂmiɂqendnan fereninefe ɂante kefísene ɂante seplepekékescelemiɂqendna prìtrehite ɂan kísetesa.
[ˈʔā.le ˈmān.ʁe ˈpě.ʁeˌǀeʔ.ǂan fʁǐ ˈʔān.te ˈklī.xe ˈfī.ʁe.tenˌfi.se ˈʔan.te ˈʁî.xe.tenˌfi.se ˈʔâ.seˌstā.teˌǀeʔ.miʔ.ǂen.ǀnan ˌfe.ʁeˈni.ne.fe ˈʔan.te ˌse.ple.peˈkě.keˌʃe.leˌmiʔ.ǂen.ǀna ˈpʁî.tʁeˌxi.te ʔan ˈkǐ.se.te.sa]
Ɂale man-re pére-deɂ-qa-n frí ɂante klihe firete-n-fise ɂante rìhete-n-fise. Ɂàsestate-deɂ-miɂ-qe-n-dna-n fereninefe ɂante kefísene ɂante seple-pekéke-scele-miɂ-qe-n-dna prìtre-hite ɂan kísete-sa.
all person-PL birth-PASS-3.AN.PAT-PL free and equal worth-PL-wise and right-PL-wise. endow-PASS-INST.APPL-3.AN.AGT-PL-3.ABST.PAT-PL reason and conscience and REFL-act-SUGG-INST.APPL-3.AN.AGT-PL-3.ABST.PAT brother-hood one spirit-POSSG.