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Spraka

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Spraka
Spraka
Type Agglutinative-Polysynthetic
Alignment Fluid-S
Head direction Mixed
Tonal Yes
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 7
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Adverbs  %
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]


It's probably not a candidate for the world auxlang, but it should be.

Classification and DialectsEdit

http://cals.conlang.org/language/spraka/feature/

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

The consonant inventory is designed to be as simple as possible without having words become too many syllables long. The uvular rhotic was picked because it seems to be the easiest for people to learn and is probably the easiest to distinguish from /l/ for people who do not have a contrastive rhotic and lateral approximant in their native languages. /h ~ x ~ χ/ are in free variation.

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p t k ʔ
Fricative f s ʃ x (χ) (ᴚ) (h)
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ
Approximant j
Trill (ʀ)
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap
Click ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid e
Open-mid
Near-open
Open a

PhonotacticsEdit

(C)(C)CV(C)

The only consonants that can end syllables are nasals and the glottal stop.


Writing SystemEdit

Letter Aa Ii Ee Mm Nn Ng ng Pp Tt Kk Ɂɂ Ff Ss
Sound /a/ /i/ /e/ /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /p/ /t/ /k/ /ʔ/ /f/ /s/
Letter Sc sc Hh Zz Ch ch Jj Rr Bb Dd Gg Qq Ll
Sound /ʃ/ /h ~ x~ χ/ /t͡s/ /t͡ʃ/ /j/ /ᴚ ~ ʀ/ /ʘ/ /ǀ/ /ǃ/ /ǂ/ /l/
Letter
Sound

<nk> is pronounced /ŋk/. It is a pitch-accent language with tone only on stressed syllables. Rising tone, level tone, and falling tone are indicated by an acute accent, no accent, and a grave accent, respectively. Stress is always on the first syllable of a word with the exception of unstressed prefixes such as the past prefix ke-. Stressed prefixes also get their own tone, so the word frìman (male person/man) has two tones, while the word kesingen (they/you formal sung) only has one level tone on the second syllable. It is very important to get the tone right, as feklen meaning "bird/fowel meats" is a quite different word from fèklen meaning "we are copulating".

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns have 7 genders, which affects verb agreement paradigms in the 3rd person. The genders are:

Male people and animals - generally marked by prefix <frì>, forms plural with suffix <-re>

Female people and animals - generally marked by prefix <frà>, forms plural with suffix <-re>

Indeterminate, mixed and other gender people and animals - forms plural with suffix <-re>

Indeterminate gender animals and human and non-human children as welll as diminuitives of all nouns - forms plural with suffix <-ren>

Natural forces - forms plural with suffix <-en>

Inanimate objects - forms plural with suffix <-en>

Abstract concepts, concrete things referred to by abstract qualities they have, and generalizations/general categories - generally marked by suffixes <-ing> and <-kite>, forms plural with suffix <-en>

The first <e> in suffixes beginning with <e> is dropped if the word already ends in <e>.

There are two cases, direct and possessed.

VerbsEdit

Verbs agree with their subject, object and indirect object. Agent agreement markers contain the vowel <e>, patient agreement markers contain the vowel <a> and indirect object markers contain the vowel <i>. If the suffix starts with a vowel, and is followed by another suffix that starts with a vowel, a glottal stop is inserted to break up the hiatus. It would be rather ridiculous to completely conjugate a verb, but this should be enough to demonstrate how it works:

sprekjan - to speak

(ɂi) spreke - I speak (willingly)

(ɂi) spreka - I speak (unwillingly)

(ti) sprekse - you (singular informal) speak

(he) sprekede - he speaks

(sce) sprekege - she speaks

(se) sprekeqe - s/he speaks

(hi) sprekebe - it (dimunuitive etc.) speaks

(sa) sprekeqne - it (natural forces etc.) speaks

(si) sprekegne - it (inanimate object) speaks

(ta) sprekedne - it (concept, generalization etc.) speaks

sprekseɂi - you speak to me

kesprekseɂi - you spoke to me

fisprekseɂi - you will speak to me

There are also two reflexivizers/reciporicalizers, <seple-> if the subject is the indirect object and <sihe-> if the subject is the direct object. The plurals of any of the agreement markers are made by adding an <-n>, so

(fire) spreken - we speak

seplespreken - we speak to one another

Nouns can incorporate into verbs, including with modifiers:

tìne hintehafen - we have a small dog/s

SyntaxEdit

Word order is free, although SVO is probably the most common.

LexiconEdit


No. English
1Iɂi
2you (singular)ti
3hehe
4wefire
5you (plural)ɂire
6theysi
7thistise
8thattase
9herehire
10theretare
11who
12whatfáse
13wherefe
14whenféne
15how
16notnihe
17allɂale
18manymani
19somesúme
20fewfèfe
21otherɂetre
22oneɂán
23twoza
24threetrà
25four
26fivefi
27biggrete
28longlànge
29widefite
30thicktìke
31heavysfère
32smalltíne
33shortscureze
34narrownare
35thintine
36womanFràman
37man (adult male)Frìman
38man (human being)Man
39childChínte
40wifeFràman
41husbandFrìman
42motherMitre
43fatherFatre
44animalTìre
45fishFisce
46birdFekle
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122comekemjan
123lie{Template:Lie
124sitsizjan
125standstantjan
126turn
127fall
128givekefjan
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140saysekjan
141singsingjan
142playspiljan
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sunSune
148moonMane
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173greenkrine
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204andɂante
205if
206because
207name
Template Documentation (for the above template, sometimes hidden or invisible)

Visit Template:Spraka/doc to edit this text! (How does this work?)


Example textEdit

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 1

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Ɂale manre péredeɂqan frí ɂante klihe firetenfise ɂante rìhetenfise. Ɂàsestatedeɂmiɂqendnan fereninefe ɂante kefísene ɂante seplepekékescelemiɂqendna prìtrehite ɂan kísetesa.

[ˈʔā.le ˈmān.ʁe ˈpě.ʁeˌǀeʔ.ǂan fʁǐ ˈʔān.te ˈklī.xe ˈfī.ʁe.tenˌfi.se ˈʔan.te ˈʁî.xe.tenˌfi.se ˈʔâ.seˌstā.teˌǀeʔ.miʔ.ǂen.ǀnan ˌfe.ʁeˈni.ne.fe ˈʔan.te ˌse.ple.peˈkě.keˌʃe.leˌmiʔ.ǂen.ǀna ˈpʁî.tʁeˌxi.te ʔan ˈkǐ.se.te.sa]

Ɂale man-re pére-deɂ-qa-n frí ɂante klihe firete-n-fise ɂante rìhete-n-fise. Ɂàsestate-deɂ-miɂ-qe-n-dna-n fereninefe ɂante kefísene ɂante seple-pekéke-scele-miɂ-qe-n-dna prìtre-hite ɂan kísete-sa.

all person-PL birth-PASS-3.AN.PAT-PL free and equal worth-PL-wise and right-PL-wise. endow-PASS-INST.APPL-3.AN.AGT-PL-3.ABST.PAT-PL reason and conscience and REFL-act-SUGG-INST.APPL-3.AN.AGT-PL-3.ABST.PAT brother-hood one spirit-POSSG.

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