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Spraka

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Spraka
Spraka
Type Agglutinative-Polysynthetic
Alignment Fluid-S
Head direction Mixed
Tonal Yes
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 7
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]


It's probably not a candidate for the world auxlang, but it should be.

Classification and DialectsEdit

http://cals.conlang.org/language/spraka/feature/

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

The consonant inventory is designed to be as simple as possible without having words become too many syllables long. The uvular rhotic was picked because it seems to be the easiest for people to learn and is probably the easiest to distinguish from /l/ for people who do not have a contrastive rhotic and lateral approximant in their native languages. /h ~ x ~ χ/ are in free variation.

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p t k ʔ
Fricative f s ʃ x (χ) (ᴚ) (h)
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ
Approximant j
Trill (ʀ)
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap
Click ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid e
Open-mid
Near-open
Open a

PhonotacticsEdit

(C)(C)CV(C)

The only consonants that can end syllables are nasals and the glottal stop.


Writing SystemEdit

Letter Aa Ii Ee Mm Nn Ng ng Pp Tt Kk Ɂɂ Ff Ss
Sound /a/ /i/ /e/ /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /p/ /t/ /k/ /ʔ/ /f/ /s/
Letter Sc sc Hh Zz Ch ch Jj Rr Bb Dd Gg Qq Ll
Sound /ʃ/ /h ~ x~ χ/ /t͡s/ /t͡ʃ/ /j/ /ᴚ ~ ʀ/ /ʘ/ /ǀ/ /ǃ/ /ǂ/ /l/
Letter
Sound

<nk> is pronounced /ŋk/. It is a pitch-accent language with tone only on stressed syllables. Rising tone, level tone, and falling tone are indicated by an acute accent, no accent, and a grave accent, respectively. Stress is always on the first syllable of a word with the exception of unstressed prefixes such as the past prefix ke-. Stressed prefixes also get their own tone, so the word frìman (male person/man) has two tones, while the word kesingen (they/you formal sung) only has one level tone on the second syllable. It is very important to get the tone right, as feklen meaning "bird/fowel meats" is a quite different word from fèklen meaning "we are copulating".

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns have 7 genders, which affects verb agreement paradigms in the 3rd person. The genders are:

Male people and animals - generally marked by prefix <frì>, forms plural with suffix <-re>

Female people and animals - generally marked by prefix <frà>, forms plural with suffix <-re>

Indeterminate, mixed and other gender people and animals - forms plural with suffix <-re>

Indeterminate gender animals and human and non-human children as welll as diminuitives of all nouns - forms plural with suffix <-ren>

Natural forces - forms plural with suffix <-en>

Inanimate objects - forms plural with suffix <-en>

Abstract concepts, concrete things referred to by abstract qualities they have, and generalizations/general categories - generally marked by suffixes <-ing> and <-kite>, forms plural with suffix <-en>

The first <e> in suffixes beginning with <e> is dropped if the word already ends in <e>.

There are two cases, direct and possessed.

VerbsEdit

Verbs agree with their subject, object and indirect object. Agent agreement markers contain the vowel <e>, patient agreement markers contain the vowel <a> and indirect object markers contain the vowel <i>. If the suffix starts with a vowel, and is followed by another suffix that starts with a vowel, a glottal stop is inserted to break up the hiatus. It would be rather ridiculous to completely conjugate a verb, but this should be enough to demonstrate how it works:

sprekjan - to speak

(ɂi) spreke - I speak (willingly)

(ɂi) spreka - I speak (unwillingly)

(ti) sprekse - you (singular informal) speak

(he) sprekede - he speaks

(sce) sprekege - she speaks

(se) sprekeqe - s/he speaks

(hi) sprekebe - it (dimunuitive etc.) speaks

(sa) sprekeqne - it (natural forces etc.) speaks

(si) sprekegne - it (inanimate object) speaks

(ta) sprekedne - it (concept, generalization etc.) speaks

sprekseɂi - you speak to me

kesprekseɂi - you spoke to me

fisprekseɂi - you will speak to me

There are also two reflexivizers/reciporicalizers, <seple-> if the subject is the indirect object and <sihe-> if the subject is the direct object. The plurals of any of the agreement markers are made by adding an <-n>, so

(fire) spreken - we speak

seplespreken - we speak to one another

Nouns can incorporate into verbs, including with modifiers:

tìne hintehafen - we have a small dog/s

SyntaxEdit

Word order is free, although SVO is probably the most common.

LexiconEdit


No. English
1Iɂi
2you (singular)ti
3hehe
4wefire
5you (plural)ɂire
6theysi
7thistise
8thattase
9herehire
10theretare
11who
12whatfáse
13wherefe
14whenféne
15how
16notnihe
17allɂale
18manymani
19somesúme
20fewfèfe
21otherɂetre
22oneɂán
23twoza
24threetrà
25four
26fivefi
27biggrete
28longlànge
29widefite
30thicktìke
31heavysfère
32smalltíne
33shortscureze
34narrownare
35thintine
36womanFràman
37man (adult male)Frìman
38man (human being)Man
39childChínte
40wifeFràman
41husbandFrìman
42motherMitre
43fatherFatre
44animalTìre
45fishFisce
46birdFekle
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comekemjan
123lie[[w:c:conlangdictionary:{Template:Lie|{Template:Lie]]
124sitsizjan
125standstantjan
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128givekefjan
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140saysekjan
141singsingjan
142playspiljan
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunSune
148moonMane
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenkrine
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andɂante
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki
Template Documentation (for the above template, sometimes hidden or invisible)

Visit Template:Spraka/doc to edit this text! (How does this work?)


Example textEdit

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 1

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Ɂale manre péredeɂqan frí ɂante klihe firetenfise ɂante rìhetenfise. Ɂàsestatedeɂmiɂqendnan fereninefe ɂante kefísene ɂante seplepekékescelemiɂqendna prìtrehite ɂan kísetesa.

[ˈʔā.le ˈmān.ʁe ˈpě.ʁeˌǀeʔ.ǂan fʁǐ ˈʔān.te ˈklī.xe ˈfī.ʁe.tenˌfi.se ˈʔan.te ˈʁî.xe.tenˌfi.se ˈʔâ.seˌstā.teˌǀeʔ.miʔ.ǂen.ǀnan ˌfe.ʁeˈni.ne.fe ˈʔan.te ˌse.ple.peˈkě.keˌʃe.leˌmiʔ.ǂen.ǀna ˈpʁî.tʁeˌxi.te ʔan ˈkǐ.se.te.sa]

Ɂale man-re pére-deɂ-qa-n frí ɂante klihe firete-n-fise ɂante rìhete-n-fise. Ɂàsestate-deɂ-miɂ-qe-n-dna-n fereninefe ɂante kefísene ɂante seple-pekéke-scele-miɂ-qe-n-dna prìtre-hite ɂan kísete-sa.

all person-PL birth-PASS-3.AN.PAT-PL free and equal worth-PL-wise and right-PL-wise. endow-PASS-INST.APPL-3.AN.AGT-PL-3.ABST.PAT-PL reason and conscience and REFL-act-SUGG-INST.APPL-3.AN.AGT-PL-3.ABST.PAT brother-hood one spirit-POSSG.

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