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Sria

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Progress 8%

 

Name: Sria

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction:

Number of genders: 2

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


General informationEdit

This language is under construction. However, feel free to improve grammar or how things are explained. 

Sria /Sria/ is the official language of the Kingdom of Molivian, and is spoken as a first language by about 514.5 million people. It has a large second language base of about 700 million speakers as of OY 3452, although this number is just an approximation.

Because of its status as the official language of the Kingdom of Molivian, the language has become the language of international, and interstellar commerce and politics. It is the official language of the Council of 7 (similar to the UN).

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/
mh /mʰ/
mw /mʷ/
n /n/ ng /ŋ/
Plosive p /p/ pw /pʷ/
b /b/ bw /bʷ/
t /t/ tw /tʷ/
d /d/ dw /dʷ/ dh /dʰ/
k /k/ kw /kʷ/
g /g/
hh /ʔ/
Fricative f /f/ fw /fʷ/
v /v/
th /θ/ s /s/
z /z/ zw /zʷ/
sh /ʃ/
shw /ʃʷ/
h /h/
Affricate ts /t͡s/ j /d͡ʒ/
Approximant r /ɹ/ w /w/
Lateral app. l /l/ y /ʎ/

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i /i/ oo /u/
Near-close í /ɪ/
Close-mid é /e/  o /o/
Mid
Open-mid e /ɛ/ u /ʌ/
Near-open á /ɐ/
Open a /a/

DiphthongsEdit

ai /ai/
er /eə/
oi /ɔɪ/
ur /ʊɘ/

NotesEdit

It is implied that /f/, /z/, and /b/ become /fʷ/, /zʷ/, and /bʷ/ after /g/

/p/, /k/, and /ʃ/ become /pʷ/, /kʷ/, and /ʃʷ/ after /ŋ/.

The only consonants that may follow g are /fʷ/, /zʷ/, and /bʷ/.

Vowels are short when followed by /h/, provided they are the last letter of the word.

if /h/ appears, that marks the start of a new syllable. However, syllables do not have to start with h.

/t/ becomes /tʰ/ when followed or preceded by /i/

/ɛ/ vs /e˞/ and /a/ vs /a˞/: The former becomes the latter after /b/ or /p/.

AlphabetEdit

PhonotacticsEdit

SyllableEdit

(C/V)(C)V(C)(C/V)

Above is the consonant structure for Sria. There are a few limitations. A syllable may never end in /h/. If /h/ is the second to last letter of a word, the next letter must be a vowel. A syllable may contain a diphthong, only if it is the main vowel of the word. Digraphs may appear in the slot right before and right after the main vowel. Digraphs must always be followed by a vowel. 

StressEdit

If a word contains /i/, stressed is placed on the first occurrence of /i/. Otherwise, stress is placed on the last vowel of the word.

VerbsEdit

Verbs in Sria undergo the most complex process of inflection. There are three endings for the infinitive verb: ra, és, and er. In almost every case, each ending has a unique conjugation. The conjugation process could be very difficult for a non-native speaker due to how complex this process becomes in certain moods, and certain aspects. 

All verb stems that end in vowels are -ra verbs. 

There are nine grammatical moods in Sria, listed below. There are 2 realis moods, indicative and declarative, and 7 irrealis moods, subjunctive, conditional, imperative, hortative, potential, dubitative, and permissive.

Sria also has 4 aspects: simple, perfect, imperfect, and progressive. Finally, all verbs must conjugate for formal vs. informal. 

The verb era (to be) is irregular in every mood, in every tense, and in every aspect except the perfect. The verbs daner (to do) and balés (to go) are irregular in most cases. 

The example verbs that will be used are truser (to love), lira (to read), and migés (to run). 

ParticiplesEdit

The past participle is formed by adding a suffix after the infinitive ending. The general participle is used for things that would not normally fall under the past or present participle.

Participles in Sria
Past Present General
lira lirasa lirama lirana
truser truseris truserim truserin
migés migésas migésam migésan

Ther verb era has irregular participles.

era participles
Past érés
Present érém
General érén

IndicativeEdit

The indicative mood is used to express actions, facts, and other statements the speaker is sure are factual. 

Simple, Imperfect, and HabitualEdit

The simple and imperfect aspects have all information marked on the suffix of the verb. During conjugation, the -és, and -er endings drop off. However, the conjugations are usually added onto the -ra ending in the indicative mood.

-ra verbs (lira)
lo so é-so tro é-tro lon son é-son tron é-tron
Present liras lirar lirag lirab liran liraj lirasa lirari lirama lirawa
Present Habitual   lira lirabi liraer lirayun liras lira lirate lirati lirats lirazw
Past lirase lira liralte lirangi lirash lirald lirao lirad lira lirash
Past Imperfect  liraba lirans lirasan lirabas lirane lirahho liranoo liranail lira lirape
Future lirapwa lirasré lira lirande liréng lirand liradu lirang liran lira

Future Habitual

liramhé lirandé lirasta lirens lirabre lirasp lirawl lira liraswa lirala

-ra verbs are very regular, with very few irregular verbs. 

-er verbs (truser)
Singular Plural
lo so é-so tro é-tro lon son é-son tron é-tron
Preset truso trusé trusrad trus trusos trusi trusar trusum trusim trusíd
Present Habitual trusamo trusis trusend trusas trusem trusén trusál trusoo trusando trusag
Past trusíng trusaste trusid trusím trusist trusíst trusarm trusemo trusel trused
Past Imperfect truson trusin trusín trusand truser trusoi trusasé trus (no eding) trusu trusie
Future  trusur trusaba truseré trusep trusiz trusavé trusumw trusash trusésh trusaro
Future Habitual trusahha trusahé trusono trusoma trusai trusaj trusats truséts trusien trusiste


-és verbs (migés)
Singular Plural
lo so é-so tro é-tro lon son é-son tron é-tron
Present miga migu migé migi migí migag migug migég migig migíg
Present Habitual migend migaron miging migoos migas migies migrán migais migs migur
Past migén migan migéns migávé migíthi migars migéth migagp migéra migoiv
Past Imperfect migon migémio migea migura miguran migans miguras miger migerví migads
Future migeni migád migapwé migaro migaste migéya migaya migíram migathi migad
Future Habitual migéní migáms migoth migiyo migieyo migain migoma miguryé migényo miga

PerfectEdit

The perfect conjugation is formed using the conjugation of habra, which is regular in the indicative mood, + the past participle.

Example: I have read --> Habralirasa.

Example: I have loved --> Habras truseris

Example: I have run --> Habras migésas

ProgressiveEdit

The progressive tense is achieved by placing the conjugated aspect marker, fayé, in front of the verb. The verbs are conjugated for the tro/tron person of their tense/aspect. 

The following chart outlines the conjugations of fayé.

fayé conjugations
Singular Plural
Informal Formal Informal Formal
Present fayés fayé fayém fayémi
Past fayén fayé fayéd fayéda
Past Imperfect fayésa fayésan fayéna fayénas
Future fayép fayépe fayéng fayénge

Example: I am reading --> Fayés lirab

Example: I am loving --> Fayés trus

Example: I am running --> Fayés migi

DeclarativeEdit

The declarative mood is used to express assertions without evidence. While it use to have a much larger role in classical Sria, today it is mostly used in formal accusations. The declarative mood is formed using a form of habra. plus the indicative conjugations. However, habra is irregular as a mood marker in the declarative mood. 

One note about habra in the declarative mood. In the indicative mood it translates to "to have." In the declarative mood it translates to roughly "have most likely"

This table is under construction. 

habra in the declarative mod
lo so é-so tro é-tro lon son é-son tron é-tron
Present habras habrad habran habrar habrat habra habra habrana habrara habrata
Present Habitual habrada habrala habradha habrasa habrama habréda habréla habrédha habrasan habraman
Past habramwé habra habrété habra habra habrémwé habrété habrété habrésé habréné
Past Imperfect  habrur habrer habrais habrid habrín habrura habrera habraisa habrida habrína
Future habrapo habra habraso habradwa habraso habrapon habranán habrason habradwan habrason
Future Habitual  habral habrang habrald habrast habraz hébral hébrang hébrald hébrast hébraz

Example: He runs --> Habrar migi. (Lit. He has most likely run).

Example: You loved --> Habraté trusaste. (Lit. You have most likely loved).

Example: I read --> Habramwé liras. (Lit. I had most likely read).

Despite the fact that the declarative mood is considered a realis mood, it can be combined with the irrealis moods. To do so, combine the declarative conjugations of habra with the conjugated form of the verb. 

SubjunctiveEdit

The subjunctive mood is formed using a mood marker (pwéng) + the general participle of a verb. 

ConditionalEdit

The conditional mood in Sria has several uses. The first use is with verbs whose validity is based on a condition. (I would go if I wanted to). Unlike some other languages, both the proposition and the condition are required to be in the conditional mood. Another use is in if-then statements (If I clean my room, then maygo to the party). In the if - then construct, both clean and may-go are in the conditional mood. 

The conditional mood is formed by using a mood marker + the general participle of a verb.

ImperativeEdit

HortativeEdit

Hortative conjugations are derived from the tro and é-tro conjugations in the subjunctive mood. The hortative mood is used for begging and pleas, as well as self encouragement.

PotentialEdit

DubitativeEdit

Dubitative conjugations are derived from the tro and é-tro conjugations in the conditional mood. 

PermissiveEdit

NounsEdit

Sria has maintained some of the case system from its parent language, but it is not as complex today. There are only three cases today, Nominative, Accusative and Dative cases, although occasionally the Genitive case will appear, so the declensions for it will be included on this page. There are 4 declensions, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th declensions. 

Sria nouns have picked up the gender system, contrasting with its parent language that had no genders.

FormalityEdit

Formality plays a very large rule in Sria nouns, and can change the meaning of the entire noun. The rules governing formality are sometimes difficult for a non - native speaker to pick up on. The basic rules are as follow.

Rule 1: The formality changes the entire meaning of the noun. An informal noun: mansion, a formal noun: a place of a ruler. Informal noun: party, formal noun: formal party. Often times, the informal noun is reserved for common citizens, and the formal version of the noun is used for objects that go along government leader, military leaders, or other important people. This rule also applies to pronouns. He (informal) is a common citizen, she (formal) is a government official, military leader, or another important person.

Rule 2: Verbs, articles, and other parts of speech must agree with formality. He (informal) is tall and He (formal) is tall require a separate declension and conjugation for the adjective and verb. In addition, possessive nouns must also agree in formality with the noun they posses. His house vs His palace. House is informal (most of the time), so his must be informal. Palace is formal, so his must be formal.

Rule 3: All legal documents are written with formal nouns, articles, verbs, etc. 

These rules must be followed at all times. Failure to follow these rules results in a changed meaning of the sentence, and great insult. 

The nominative case is not marked.

Nouns in Sria that don't fall into the nominative, accusative, or dative (sometimes genitive) uses are not declined. Adpositions and word order are used to express other functions, such as location, direct address, movement towards/from a place, etc. 

1st DeclensionEdit

The 1st declension is used for nouns that end in vowels. Feminine nouns end in o or u. Masculine nouns end in a or é. Neuter nouns that end in other vowels. However, gender does not change the declensions in 1st declension nouns. 

1st Declension (falo - bird)
Singular Plural
Informal Formal Informal Formal
Nom Falo Falod Falosa Faloda
Acc Falog Falon Falosag Falosén
Dat Falona Falo Falonas Falodés
Gen Falong Falopwa Falongi Falopwak
Possessive Falo-s Falona-t Falod-sa Falonan-té

As some dialects of Sria use the genitive case, and some dialects use a separate possessive form of a noun, both are listed here. 

2nd DeclensionEdit

The 2nd declension is used for nous that end in aspirated or labialized consonants. 

3rd DeclensionEdit

The 3rd declension is used for nouns that end in f, th, r, and l. Feminine nouns end in r, feminine nouns end in f, and neuter nouns end in th and l. 

4th DeclensionEdit

The 4th declension is used for nouns that do not fall into any of the categories above.  

PronounsEdit

There are 6 pronouns in Sria before declensions.  Sria, unlike some languages, does not distinguish between he/she/it. Those are all tro/tri. Pronouns are very irregular, and do not follow the normal gender distinction or declension patterns of 1st or 4th declension nouns. 

Pronouns in Sria (m/f)
1st 2nd 3rd
Singular lo/li so/si tro/tri
Plural lon/lin son/sin tron/trín

The next chart lists declensions for pronouns. Formality is achieved by adding an é to the beginning attached by a hyphen. (i.e. lo --> é-lo)

Pronoun declensions (m/f)
Nominative lo/li so/si tro/tri lon/lin son/sin tron/trín
Accusative los/lis sos/sis tros/tris lono/lino soní/sina trono/tríno
Dative lo/li sode/si tro/trí lonse/linse sonsa/sinse tronse/trínse
Genitive lond/lind sond/sind trond/trínd londal/lindal sondal/sindal trondal/tríndal
Reflexive losai/linsai sona/síné trona/trina lonsha/linsha sonsha/sinsha tronsha/trínma

As Sria doesn't always use the genitive case, there is also separate possessive pronouns. 

Possessive Pronouns
lo/li so/si tro/tri lon/lin son/sin tron/trín
Possessive Pronouns lés/ané sés/síl trés/tríl lons/lins vas/sins sért/trin
Possessive Determiners loon/lis sod/sid trod/trid enda/linda sonai/sínai tronai/trínai

Because Sria only has one word for he/she/it, the pro-drop rules work slightly differently. Sria is always pro drop in the 1st and 2nd persons. However, if a third person pronoun is written (in the nominative case), then it is assumed to be it. Otherwise it is assumed to be he/she depending on gender. 

AdjunctsEdit

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifna
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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