| Name: Sria
Number of genders: 2
This language is under construction. However, feel free to improve grammar or how things are explained.
Sria /Sria/ is the official language of the Kingdom of Molivian, and is spoken as a first language by about 514.5 million people. It has a large second language base of about 700 million speakers as of OY 3452, although this number is just an approximation.
Because of its status as the official language of the Kingdom of Molivian, the language has become the language of international, and interstellar commerce and politics. It is the official language of the Council of 7 (similar to the UN).
|n /n/||ng /ŋ/|
|Plosive||p /p/ pw /pʷ/|
b /b/ bw /bʷ/
|t /t/ tw /tʷ/|
d /d/ dw /dʷ/ dh /dʰ/
|k /k/ kw /kʷ/|
|Fricative||f /f/ fw /fʷ/|
|th /θ/||s /s/|
z /z/ zw /zʷ/
|Affricate||ts /t͡s/||j /d͡ʒ/|
|Approximant||r /ɹ/||w /w/|
|Lateral app.||l /l/||y /ʎ/|
|Close||i /i/||oo /u/|
|Close-mid||é /e/||o /o/|
|Open-mid||e /ɛ/||u /ʌ/|
It is implied that /f/, /z/, and /b/ become /fʷ/, /zʷ/, and /bʷ/ after /g/
/p/, /k/, and /ʃ/ become /pʷ/, /kʷ/, and /ʃʷ/ after /ŋ/.
The only consonants that may follow g are /fʷ/, /zʷ/, and /bʷ/.
Vowels are short when followed by /h/, provided they are the last letter of the word.
if /h/ appears, that marks the start of a new syllable. However, syllables do not have to start with h.
/t/ becomes /tʰ/ when followed or preceded by /i/
/ɛ/ vs /e˞/ and /a/ vs /a˞/: The former becomes the latter after /b/ or /p/.
Above is the consonant structure for Sria. There are a few limitations. A syllable may never end in /h/. If /h/ is the second to last letter of a word, the next letter must be a vowel. A syllable may contain a diphthong, only if it is the main vowel of the word. Digraphs may appear in the slot right before and right after the main vowel. Digraphs must always be followed by a vowel.
If a word contains /i/, stressed is placed on the first occurrence of /i/. Otherwise, stress is placed on the last vowel of the word.
Verbs in Sria undergo the most complex process of inflection. There are three endings for the infinitive verb: ra, és, and er. In almost every case, each ending has a unique conjugation. The conjugation process could be very difficult for a non-native speaker due to how complex this process becomes in certain moods, and certain aspects.
All verb stems that end in vowels are -ra verbs.
There are nine grammatical moods in Sria, listed below. There are 2 realis moods, indicative and declarative, and 7 irrealis moods, subjunctive, conditional, imperative, hortative, potential, dubitative, and permissive.
Sria also has 4 aspects: simple, perfect, imperfect, and progressive. Finally, all verbs must conjugate for formal vs. informal.
The verb era (to be) is irregular in every mood, in every tense, and in every aspect except the perfect. The verbs daner (to do) and balés (to go) are irregular in most cases.
The example verbs that will be used are truser (to love), lira (to read), and migés (to run).
The past participle is formed by adding a suffix after the infinitive ending. The general participle is used for things that would not normally fall under the past or present participle.
|Participles in Sria|
Ther verb era has irregular participles.
The indicative mood is used to express actions, facts, and other statements the speaker is sure are factual.
Simple, Imperfect, and HabitualEdit
The simple and imperfect aspects have all information marked on the suffix of the verb. During conjugation, the -és, and -er endings drop off. However, the conjugations are usually added onto the -ra ending in the indicative mood.
|-ra verbs (lira)|
-ra verbs are very regular, with very few irregular verbs.
|-er verbs (truser)|
|Past Imperfect||truson||trusin||trusín||trusand||truser||trusoi||trusasé||trus (no eding)||trusu||trusie|
|-és verbs (migés)|
The perfect conjugation is formed using the conjugation of habra, which is regular in the indicative mood, + the past participle.
Example: I have read --> Habras lirasa.
Example: I have loved --> Habras truseris
Example: I have run --> Habras migésas
The progressive tense is achieved by placing the conjugated aspect marker, fayé, in front of the verb. The verbs are conjugated for the tro/tron person of their tense/aspect.
The following chart outlines the conjugations of fayé.
Example: I am reading --> Fayés lirab
Example: I am loving --> Fayés trusrá
Example: I am running --> Fayés migi
The declarative mood is used to express assertions without evidence. While it use to have a much larger role in classical Sria, today it is mostly used in formal accusations. The declarative mood is formed using a form of habra. plus the indicative conjugations. However, habra is irregular as a mood marker in the declarative mood.
One note about habra in the declarative mood. In the indicative mood it translates to "to have." In the declarative mood it translates to roughly "have most likely"
This table is under construction.
|habra in the declarative mod|
Example: He runs --> Habrar migi. (Lit. He has most likely run).
Example: You loved --> Habraté trusaste. (Lit. You have most likely loved).
Example: I read --> Habramwé liras. (Lit. I had most likely read).
Despite the fact that the declarative mood is considered a realis mood, it can be combined with the irrealis moods. To do so, combine the declarative conjugations of habra with the conjugated form of the verb.
The subjunctive mood is formed using a mood marker (pwéng) + the general participle of a verb.
The conditional mood in Sria has several uses. The first use is with verbs whose validity is based on a condition. (I would go if I wanted to). Unlike some other languages, both the proposition and the condition are required to be in the conditional mood. Another use is in if-then statements (If I clean my room, then may I go to the party). In the if - then construct, both clean and may-go are in the conditional mood.
The conditional mood is formed by using a mood marker + the general participle of a verb.
Hortative conjugations are derived from the tro and é-tro conjugations in the subjunctive mood. The hortative mood is used for begging and pleas, as well as self encouragement.
Dubitative conjugations are derived from the tro and é-tro conjugations in the conditional mood.
Sria has maintained some of the case system from its parent language, but it is not as complex today. There are only three cases today, Nominative, Accusative and Dative cases, although occasionally the Genitive case will appear, so the declensions for it will be included on this page. There are 4 declensions, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th declensions.
Sria nouns have picked up the gender system, contrasting with its parent language that had no genders.
Formality plays a very large rule in Sria nouns, and can change the meaning of the entire noun. The rules governing formality are sometimes difficult for a non - native speaker to pick up on. The basic rules are as follow.
Rule 1: The formality changes the entire meaning of the noun. An informal noun: mansion, a formal noun: a place of a ruler. Informal noun: party, formal noun: formal party. Often times, the informal noun is reserved for common citizens, and the formal version of the noun is used for objects that go along government leader, military leaders, or other important people. This rule also applies to pronouns. He (informal) is a common citizen, she (formal) is a government official, military leader, or another important person.
Rule 2: Verbs, articles, and other parts of speech must agree with formality. He (informal) is tall and He (formal) is tall require a separate declension and conjugation for the adjective and verb. In addition, possessive nouns must also agree in formality with the noun they posses. His house vs His palace. House is informal (most of the time), so his must be informal. Palace is formal, so his must be formal.
Rule 3: All legal documents are written with formal nouns, articles, verbs, etc.
These rules must be followed at all times. Failure to follow these rules results in a changed meaning of the sentence, and great insult.
The nominative case is not marked.
Nouns in Sria that don't fall into the nominative, accusative, or dative (sometimes genitive) uses are not declined. Adpositions and word order are used to express other functions, such as location, direct address, movement towards/from a place, etc.
The 1st declension is used for nouns that end in vowels. Feminine nouns end in o or u. Masculine nouns end in a or é. Neuter nouns that end in other vowels. However, gender does not change the declensions in 1st declension nouns.
|1st Declension (falo - bird)|
As some dialects of Sria use the genitive case, and some dialects use a separate possessive form of a noun, both are listed here.
The 2nd declension is used for nous that end in aspirated or labialized consonants.
The 3rd declension is used for nouns that end in f, th, r, and l. Feminine nouns end in r, feminine nouns end in f, and neuter nouns end in th and l.
The 4th declension is used for nouns that do not fall into any of the categories above.
There are 6 pronouns in Sria before declensions. Sria, unlike some languages, does not distinguish between he/she/it. Those are all tro/tri. Pronouns are very irregular, and do not follow the normal gender distinction or declension patterns of 1st or 4th declension nouns.
|Pronouns in Sria (m/f)|
The next chart lists declensions for pronouns. Formality is achieved by adding an é to the beginning attached by a hyphen. (i.e. lo --> é-lo)
|Pronoun declensions (m/f)|
As Sria doesn't always use the genitive case, there is also separate possessive pronouns.
Because Sria only has one word for he/she/it, the pro-drop rules work slightly differently. Sria is always pro drop in the 1st and 2nd persons. However, if a third person pronoun is written (in the nominative case), then it is assumed to be it. Otherwise it is assumed to be he/she depending on gender.