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山東語

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Classification and DialectsEdit

Ssandongnese, or Ssandong'ŭh, is a language that evolved in the nation of Ssandang(guo) an indipendent nation on the Shandong peninsula in china.

PhonologyEdit

Soundchanges from MandarinEdit

f > x !_[u,o,a]           fei > xei
l > n /_[y,u,o]           lo > no
ts > tɕ                   tsa > tɕa
tsʰ > tɕʰ                 tsʰɤ > tɕʰɤ
ɻ > ʂ                     ɻɨ > ʂi
ʈʂʰ > ʈʂ                  ʈʂʰɨ > ʈʂi
[ɯ,ɨ] > i                 ɕɨ > ɕi
f > p͈                     faŋ > p͈aŋ

high and rising tone are merged,
the dipping tone is changed to a low tone,
the falling tone ends in a glottal stop.

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p pʰ p͈ t tʰ k kʰ ʔ
Sibilant s ʂ [ɕ]
Affricate ʈʂ tɕ tɕʰ
Lateral l

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
High i y u
Mid e ə ɚ ɤ o
Low a

PhonotacticsEdit

The onset of the syllable can be any consonant but ŋ and ʔ. The nucleus has any vowel and possibly a medial which is one of the three high vowels, there are irregular limits to these. The coda can either be an high vowel but /y/ or an consonant which is either n, ŋ or ʔ. The final glottal stop (/ʔ/) only occurs in syllables with falling tones.

Every syllable carries a tone, which is either high, low or falling. 

/s/ is pronounced as [ɕ] before high vowels or medials.

Writing SystemEdit

Ssangdongnese Nŭhwen (女[늫]文[왠]) with romanisation.Edit

Initial consonants.Edit

Nŭhwen
Sound k n t l m p s/ɕ ʂ - ʈʂ tɕʰ x
Romanisation g n t l m b f s ss j jj ch k t p h

ㅇ is used when there is no initial consonant. Initial consonants.

Vowels and medialsEdit

Nŭhwen (ex) ㅑ (ex) ㅘ ㅡ-
Sound i y u e ə ɤ o a i / j u / w y / ɥ
Romanisation i ŭ u e ĕ ŏ o a y- / *i- w- / *u- y- / ü-

for the y/i medial : add one stroke

for the w/u medial : add round vowel

rhimes with vowels in the coda span over multiple grahps

/u/ after /a/ (dipthongizing) is written as ㅗ (o)

Finals, tones and ɚEdit

Nŭhwen
Sound n ŋ low + n low + ŋ low falling + ʔ ɚ ɚ + low ɚʔ + falling
Romanisation -n -ng -nh -ngh -h -k er erh erk

Rhime tableEdit

all possible rhimes excluding tones. the zero initial consonant is used with every syllable.

vowel group a e ø
coda ø /i/ /u/ /n/ /ŋ/ ø /i/ /u/ /n/ /ŋ/
medial ipa ø [a] [ai̯] [au̯] [an] [aŋ] [ɤ] [ei̯] [ou̯] [ən] [əŋ]
Nŭhwen 아이 아우
ipa i- [i̯a] [i̯au̯] [i̯ɛn] [i̯aŋ] [i̯e] [i̯ou̯] [in] [iŋ] [i]
Nŭhwen 야우
ipa u- [u̯a] [u̯ai̯] [u̯an] [u̯aŋ] [u̯o] [u̯ei̯] [u̯ən] [u̯əŋ]/[ʊŋ] [u]
Nŭhwen 와이 왱 / 옹
ipa y- [y̯ɛn] [y̯e] [yn] [i̯ʊŋ] [y]
Nŭhwen

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

VerbsEdit

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

Roads, vehicles and other ways of transportEdit

Vehicles.Edit

Meaning Sshandongnese Mandarin origin1
common official romanized hanzi romanized
bus 바수 바수 basu 巴俗 bāsú
train 電車 電車 dianjjŏ 電車 diànchē
high speed train 高速電車 高速電車 gaosukdianjjŏ 高速電車 gāosùdiànchē
low speed train 만速電車 만速電車 mansukdianjjŏ 慢速電車 Mànsùdiànchē
tram 電수 電수 diansu 電俗 diànsú
monorail train 單궿톟車 單軌톟 dan'gwehtyehjjŏ 單軌鐵車 dānguǐtiěchē
maglev train 치셴뿌車 磁셴浮車 chisyĕnfujjŏ 磁懸浮車 cíxuánfúchē
ferry 둨船 渡船 dukjjwan 渡船 dùchuán
airplane 헤지 飛지 heji 飛機 fēijī

1the original chinese doesn't always have the same meaning, or sometimes any meaning alike.

Example textEdit

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