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Stemmesge

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[[]]
'
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Stemmesge ([ˈsd̥ɪmːɪɹ̠̊˔ʊ]) is a North Germanic language with close ties to Icelandic, Faroese, and Danish.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m ɱ n ŋ
Plosive

ɡ̊

Sibilant fricative s
Non-sibilant fricative f θ ɹ̠̊˔ ç ʁ h
Affricate p͡ç t͡ɹ̠̊˔ c͡ç
Approximant w ʋ j w
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close ɪ ʏ ʊ
Mid
Open-mid ɛ œ ɔ
Near-open ɐ
Open ɑ ɒ

AlphabetEdit

Letter IPA Allophones
Aa ɑ
Åå ɔ
Ææ ɛ
Bb
Dd
Ðð ː
Ee ɪ / ʊ
Ff f
Gg ɡ̊ / ∅
Hh h ç, ɹ̠̊˔
Ii i
Jj j
Kk ɡ̊, c͡ç
Ll l
Mm m ɱ
Nn n ŋ
Oo ɒ
Œœ œ
Pp b̥, p͡ç
Rr χ / ʁ / ɐ̯
Ss s
Tt d̥, t͡ɹ̠̊˔
Þþ θ
Uu u
Vv ʋ / w
Ww ʋ / w
Yy ʏ
Digraph IPA
Ng ŋ
Mv ɱ
Sg ɹ̠̊˔


PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Examples
Auxiliary Verbs     Verb Forms

PronounsEdit

PersonalEdit

Nominative

Person Singular Plural
1 æj y
2 þu ej
3 hæn, hån, iþ þy

Accusative

Person Singular Plural
1 mæg ysg
2 þæg ig
3 hæm, håm, þig þym

Genitive

Person Singular Plural
1 mæn yn
2 þæn in
3 hænnen, hånnen, iþþen þyn

NounsEdit

PluralityEdit

The two grammatical numbers in Stemmesge are singular and plural. Undeclined nouns are singular. In order to make them plural, nouns that end in a consonant get a -er ending, while nouns ending in a vowel end in -ðer. Nouns that end in e merely get an -r suffix.

Singular Plural
kœt

cat

kœter

cats

door

dœðer

doors

slånge

snake

slånger

snakes

Definite SuffixesEdit

Definite suffixes act like the definite article "the" in English. Nouns that end in consonants take the definite ending -e. Nouns ending in a vowel get the suffix -ðe.

Noun Definite
wænt

water

wænte

the water

ostu

cheese

ostuðe

the cheese

When a noun is plural, the defnite suffix -e goes after the plural one.

Plural Definite plural
wænter

waters

wæntere

the waters

ostuðer

cheeses

ostuðere

the cheeses

Indefinite ArticlesEdit

Unlike definitie articles being suffixed to the noun, indefinite articles are individual words before the noun. They are the equivalent to English "a" and "an". Before a word that starts with a consonant, the indefinite article is æ, and before a word that starts with a vowel æn is used.

Noun Indefinite
tre

tree

æ tre

a tree

or

word

 æn or

a word

VerbsEdit

The verbs in Stemmesge are usually very regular. They have five basic forms; infinitive, non-past, past, participle, and imperative.

StemsEdit

The stem of verbs give the verb its meaning and change when they are conjugated. Their basic construction is 1VC, where

  • 1 is any phonotactically possible combination.
  • V is any vowel.
  • C is consonant.

The ending consonant in a stem cannot be〈v〉. It can be 〈w〉, however, which is usually only allowed in an initial position in a word.

For example, in the words sofer, æder, and hader, "sof", "æd", and "had" are the stems. 

InfinitivesEdit

The basic construction of an infinitive is S-er, where

  • S is the stem
  • er is the -er suffix

The infinitive is used when a verb is unconjugated, usually after a conjugated verb where conjugating a second one is unnecessary.

Non-PastEdit

When used alone, this form of a verb encompasses the present tense. To conjugate a regular verb into this form, the final consonant of the stem is geminated and the -er suffix changes to -e.

Infinitive Non-past
iþer

to be

iþþe
gåwer

to go

gåvve
hoper

to jump

hobpe

Auxiliary verbs can be added before the non-past form of a verb to express the following:

  • wyll  → future tense

PastEdit

The past form of a verb is conjugated in the same way that a non-past verb is, but the -er ending is changed to -eþ.

Infinitive Past
synger

to sing

synngeþ
fljuger

to fly

fljuggeþ
lœber

to run

lœbbeþ

ParticipleEdit

The participle is a form of a verb that acts similarly to an adjective or adverb in a sentence. It is used to make perfect form and passive voice. It is conjugated by changing (ablauting) the last vowel of the stem and changing the -er to -e.

Infinitive Participle
sider

to sit

sejde
snager

to speak

snæge
åner

to breathe

une

Auxiliary verbs can be added before the non-past form of a verb to express the following:

  • iþþe → present passive
  • wyll iþþe → future passive
  • var → past passive
  • a → present perfect
  • wyll a → future perfect
  • → past perfect

ImperativeEdit

Equivalent to commands in English, imperative verbs change the -er ending to -re.

Infinitive Imperative
rener

to slide

renre
super

to sip

supre
skåper

to create

skåpre

AblautEdit

Ablauting occurs in verbs to form the participle, and it involves changing the final vowel (V in the 1VC construction) of a stem. This also occurs in some irregular nouns. Vowels ablaut as:

  • a → æ
  • å → u
  • æ → e
  • e → i
  • i → ej
  • o → œ
  • œ → y
  • u → åj
  • y → œj

SyntaxEdit

Most sentences are SVO. Questions are VSO.

VocabularyEdit

Example textEdit

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 1Edit

Ale mænner iþþe bårne frale å liðe e wirþingy å redtingider. Þe iþþe uðstyrejte með fornuf å samvisgå, å þe bœrre anler moð wæran e æ brœðersgabet œnda.

[ɑlʊ mɛnːɐ iθːʊ b̥ɔɐ̯nʊ fʁɑlʊ ɔ liːʊ ɪ ʋiɐ̯θiŋʏ ɔ χɪtʰːiŋid̥ɐ. θɪ iθːʊ uːsd̥ʏʁɪjtʰʊ mɪː fɒɐ̯nuf ɔ saɱiɹ̠̊˔ɔ, ɔ θɪ b̥œʁːʊ ɑnlɐ mɒː ʋɛʁɑn ɪ ɛ b̥ʁœːɐɹ̠̊˔ɑb̥ɪtʰ œnd̥ɑ.]

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 2Edit

Alir iþþe kræwe av ale ev redtingidere å friðedere sœm iþþe lyðeste e þese œfirlisingu, uþen forsgill av niðnu art, såsœm res, literhadtar, kjœm, språg, truðar, politisge eðe annen sgoþana, þjoðernisge eðe sosgjasge opringels, enga, fœðssell eðe annen stœðu. Emvidere sgall inge iþer gjyre sgelnen på grumvele ev politisge, lœsgœgusge eðe alþjoðernisge stœðuðe ev lane eðe områðe wor æ mann hemme, wortset þet iþþe wafengitje, tillit, inge-selve-styrente eðe unner niðu annen begrænsing ev soverænitet.

[ɑliɐ̯ iθːʊ kʰʁɛʋʊ ɑw ɑlʊ ɪw χɪtʰːiŋid̥ɪʁʊ ɔ fʁiːɪd̥ɪʁʊ sœm iθːʊ lʏːɪsd̥ʊ ɪ θɪsʊ œfiɐ̯lisiŋu, uθɪn fɒɐ̯ɹ̠̊˔il ɑw niːnu ɑɐ̯tʰ, sɔsœm χɪs, litʰɐhɑtʰːɑɐ̯, c͡çœm, sb̥ʁɔ, tʰʁuːɑɐ̯, pɒlitʰiɹ̠̊˔ʊ ɪːʊ ɑnːɪn ɹ̠̊˔ɒθɑnɑ, θjɒːɐniɹ̠̊˔ʊ ɪːʊ sɒɹ̠̊˔jɑɹ̠̊˔ʊ ɒpʰʁiŋɪls, ɪŋʊ, fœːsːel ɪːʊ ɑnːɪn sd̥œːu. ɪɱid̥ɪʁʊ ɹ̠̊˔ɑl iŋʊ iθːɐ ɡ̊jʏʁʊ ɹ̠̊˔ɪlnɪn pʰɔ ɡ̊ʁuɱɪlʊ ɪw pɒlitʰiɹ̠̊˔ʊ, lœɹ̠̊˔œguɹ̠̊˔ʊ ɪːʊ ɑlθjɒːɐniɹ̠̊˔ʊ sd̥œːuːɪ ɪw lɑnʊ ɪːʊ ɒmʁɔːʊ ʋɒɐ̯ ɛ mɑnː hɪmːʊ, ʋɒɐ̯tʰsɪtʰ θɪtʰ iθːʊ ʋɑfɪŋit͡ɹ̠̊˔ʊ, tʰilːitʰ, iŋʊ-sɪlʋʊ-sd̥ʏʁɪntʰʊ ɪːʊ unːɐ niːu ɑnːɪn b̥ɪɡ̊ʁɛnsiŋ ɪw sɒʋɪʁɛnitʰɪtʰ.]

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

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