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Sukika

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Name: Sukika

Type: Agglutinating

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: 0

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Nouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


SettingEdit

Sukika, also called Tuggish, Tuggigga or Ravumi, is a language isolate, found in the mountainous regions of Drion's North continent. It is an agglutinant language, with some traces of polysynthesis.

It is spoken by small scattered communities concentrated in the Kerbahar mountains, but some groups are found in other regions of the Northern mountain chain as well.

There is a single written language, reflecting the stability and uniformity of the language: apart from differences in pronunciation (due mostly to the treatment of allophony), all varieties of the language share basically the same vocabulary, morphology and syntax.

PhonologyEdit

PronunciationEdit

The Sukika have a particular manner of speaking, with a harsh voice which generally sounds like if the speaker has got a cold or has burnt the tongue. Stress has no active role in the language, as all syllables receive similar stress. Tone is not distinctive, although in some dialects it is used to express general states of mind (agreement, resignation &c.)

PhonemesEdit

VowelsEdit

Sukika has simple five vowels:

  • a [a], [ɑ]
  • e [e], [ɛ]
  • i [i], [ɪ]
  • o [o], [ɔ]
  • u [u], [ʊ]

pronounced more or less like in Italian or Spanish. Each vowel corresponds to a syllable, even when they appear together. Double vowels (aa for example) are, actually, a sequence of two vowels, each in a separated syllable.

The pronunciations indicated for each vowel are in free variation. They are not phonologically significant.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Retroflex Velar Pharyngeal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Trill r
Plosive p t d ʈ k ɡ ʔ
Fricative f s ʃ ɕ ʂ x ħ h ɦ
Approximant j ɻ w
Flap / Tap ɾ
Lateral l ɭ

From a phonological point of view, Sukika has only ten consonants:

  1. p [p] (allophones: bb [b:] / mb [mb] / f [f] - see below)
  2. t [t], [ʈ] (allophones: dd [d:] / nd [nd] / s [s] - see below)
  3. k [k] (allophones: gg [g:] / ng [ŋ] / sh [ʃ], [ʂ], [s\] - see below)
  4. l [l], [ɭ] (allophones: ll [l:], [ɭ:] / r [ɻ] - see below)
  5. m [m]
  6. n [n]
  7. h [h], [ɦ], [ħ]
  8. ´ [ʔ]
  9. y [j]
  10. w [w]

The alternative pronunciations indicated for a single letter (h for instance) are all in free variation.

AllophonyEdit

Phonetically, one of the main characteristics of the language is the strong allophony involving the elementary stops p, t and k. In most dialects these stops occur only in the beginning of a syllable, but only when it is preceded by another consonant. At the end of a syllable these stops are realized as sibilants or fricatives (respectively f, s and sh), and between vowels they are realized as voiced doubled consonants (respectively bb, dd and gg). Together with a nasal (m or n) they are realized as mb, nd and ng. So, for instance, the number "three", which is originally yupkatuk, is, in most dialects, actually spoken as yufkaddush.

The sounds r and l are also allophonic variants.

So, considering "a" as a sample vowel, we get the following realizations for each of the archiphonemes: (click to listen)

Initial and final realizations may change according to the addition of prefixes or suffixes.

Stems and affixes are generally quoted using the protophonemes in both their beginning and ending. Alterations must be taken into account when applying a prefix or suffix to a word. Actual words, however, are always quoted with the proper allophones. So, if you see the form ilepap, using the archiphonemes l and p, you should consider this form as a stem, not as an actual word. If the word is meant, the altered form illebbaf should be used. Then, a form of indicating the addition of an affix would have the altered form of the word (as it is pronounced) together with the base form of the affix and, finally, the resulting word. E.g.: illebbaf + -ok = illebbabbosh.

PhonotacticsEdit

Syllables in Sukika have the structure: (C)V(C), that is, an obligatory vowel that may be preceded and/or followed by one consonant. No more than two consonants can come together in the middle of a word.

Stress is not meaningful. All syllables receive a medium stress, while some syllables may receive more or less stress depending on rhythm or emphasis. Stressed syllables have the tendency to be spoken in a high pitch, although it is not obligatory and has no meaning other than conveying some kind of emphasis. Ex.:

(irtoy = today; numosh = learn; iweddar= turn on (n. or v.); iwposhpunoam = computer)

MetathesisEdit

The sound changes in Sukika go beyond simple allophony. Metathesis occurs as well, when one consonant of the mentioned group (p, t, k) comes together with a liquid (l), an aspirated (h) or with a nasal (m or n). In these cases, the liquid, aspirated or nasal must always come first, with l changing to r (semi-retroflex) and the nasals being realized as m with p and as n with the other two. The three consonants themselves are not changed with the liquid and the aspirated, but are realized as voiced consonants when joined to a nasal. So we get:

  • p + l or l + p -> rp
  • t + l or l + t -> rt
  • k + l or l + k -> rk
  • p + h or h + p -> hp
  • t + h or h + t -> ht
  • k + h or h + k -> hk
  • p + m or m + p -> mb
  • t + m or m + t -> nd
  • k + m or m + k -> ng
  • p + n or n + p -> mb
  • t + n or n + t -> nd
  • k + n or n + k -> ng

These changes occur always when a suffix or prefix is added to a word, or when two roots are joined to make a composite stem.

MorphologyEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns have a very complex declension system, considering the various sound changes that happen when adding affixes to a stem. Number, case, possession and definiteness are indicated by means of suffixes.

NumberEdit

Suffix Example
Singular (not marked) illebbaf "word"
Dual -ok illebbabbosh "two words"
Trial -yup illebbapyuf "three words"
Simple Plural -nu (an indefinite, not very large, quantity) illebbambu "(some) words"
Multitudinal -it (inanimated), -il- (animated) (a very large quantity) illebbabbis "(many) words"

CaseEdit

Suffix Example
Nominative (not marked) illebbaf
Accusative -u- illebbabbu
Dative -yu- illebbapyu
Genitive -huk- illebbahpush
Locative -ku- illebbafku
Instrumental -tu- illebbaftu
Ablative -ik- illebbabbish

DefinitenessEdit

Suffix Example
Indefinite (not marked) illebbaf
Definite -in- illebbabbin
Demonstrative "this" -lu- illebbarpu
Demonstrative "that" -pu- illebbabbu
Demonstrative "such" -nuy- illebbambuy

PossessionEdit

Suffix Example
Possessive "my" -yu illebbapyu
Possessive "thy", "your" -ik illebbabbik
Possessive "his", "her", "its" -it illebbabbis
Possessive "our" -hul illebbahpur
Possessive "your" -wup illebbapwuf
Possessive "their" -um illebbabbum

DeclensionEdit

The suffixes come in the following order: [stem] [number] [case] [definiteness/possession]

The suffixes of definiteness and possession are mutually excluding, that is, you can not use suffixes of both classes together.

ExamplesEdit
Word Stem Number Case Def./Poss Meaning
tumbaiddiggin tumbais - ik in "because of the high temperature"
iddewartullu iddewar - tu lu "with this book"
iddewarnuddullu iddewar nu tu lu "with these books"
iddeggayiggish iddeggay - ik ik "from your house"
iddeggaykuyu iddeggay - ku yu "in my house"
iheggafku iddeggayhuhlush iheggafku iddeggay - hul huk "in front of our house"
puggoggiyuin puggoggi - yu in "to her family"
illebbabbiddiggin illebbaf it ik in "according to his words"
puhush iddewartullu puhush iddewar - tu lu "with this book of mine"
iddowinnehtu iddowinneh - tu - "by means of a good idea"
iddowirnendu iddowirnen - tu - "by means of a bad idea"
Full DeclensionEdit

Let's use the word iwenash "car" (base iwenak) to illustrate the use of nominal suffixes.

Full declension
Indefinite ("a ...")
Singular Dual Trial Paucal Multitudinal
Nominative iwenash iwenaggosh iwenakyuf iwenangu iwenaggir
Accusative iwenaggu iwenaggoggu iwenakyubbu iwenanguu iwenaggillu
Dative iwenakyu iwenaggokyu iwenakyupyu iwenanguyu iwenaggilyu
Genitive iwenahkush iwenaggohkush iwenakyuhpush iwenanguhush iwenaggihlush
Locative iwenaggu iwenaggoggu iwenakyufku iwenanguggu iwenaggirku
Instrumental iwenashtu iwenaggoshtu iwenakyuftu iwenanguddu iwenaggirtu
Ablative iwenaggish iwenaggoggish iwenakyubbish iwenanguish iwenaggillish
Definite ("the ...")
Singular Dual Trial Paucal Multitudinal
Nominative iwenaggin iwenaggoggin iwenakyubbin iwenanguin iwenaggillin
Accusative iwenagguin iwenaggogguin iwenakyubbuin iwenanguuin iwenaggilluin
Dative iwenakyuin iwenaggokyuin iwenakyupyuin iwenanguyuin iwenaggilyuin
Genitive iwenahkuggin iwenaggohkuggin iwenakyuhpuggin iwenanguhuggin iwenaggihluggin
Locative iwenagguin iwenaggogguin iwenakyufkuin iwenangugguin iwenaggirkuin
Instrumental iwenashtuin iwenaggoshtuin iwenakyuftuin iwenangudduin iwenaggirtuin
Ablative iwenaggiggin iwenaggoggiggin iwenakyubbiggin iwenanguiggin iwenaggilliggin
"this ..."
Singular Dual Trial Paucal Multitudinal
Nominative iwenarku iwenaggorku iwenakyurpu iwenangullu iwenaggillu
Accusative iwenaggullu iwenaggoggullu iwenakyubbullu iwenanguullu iwenaggillullu
Dative iwenakyullu iwenaggokyullu iwenakyupyullu iwenanguyullu iwenaggilyullu
Genitive iwenahkurku iwenaggohkurku iwenakyuhpurku iwenanguhurku iwenaggihlurku
Locative iwenaggullu iwenaggoggullu iwenakyufkullu iwenanguggullu iwenaggirkullu
Instrumental iwenashtullu iwenaggoshtullu iwenakyuftullu iwenanguddullu iwenaggirtullu
Ablative iwenaggirku iwenaggoggirku iwenakyubbirku iwenanguirku iwenaggillirku
"that ..."
Singular Dual Trial Paucal Multitudinal
Nominative iwenashppu iwenaggoshpu iwenakyubbu iwenangubbu iwenaggirpu
Accusative iwenaggubbu iwenaggoggubbu iwenakyubbubbu iwenanguubbu iwenaggillubbu
Dative iwenakyubbu iwenaggokyubbu iwenakyupyubbu iwenanguyubbu iwenaggilyubbu
Genitive iwenahkushpu iwenaggohkushpu iwenakyuhpushpu iwenanguhushpu iwenaggihlushpu
Locative iwenaggubbu iwenaggoggubbu iwenakyufkubbu iwenanguggubbu iwenaggirkubbu
Instrumental iwenashtubbu iwenaggoshtubbu iwenakyuftubbu iwenanguddubbu iwenaggirtubbu
Ablative iwenaggishpu iwenaggoggishpu iwenakyubbishpu iwenanguishpu iwenaggillishpu
"such ..."
Singular Dual Trial Paucal Multitudinal
Nominative iwenanguy iwenaggonguy iwenakyumbuy iwenangunuy iwenaggirnuy
Accusative iwenaggunuy iwenaggoggunuy iwenakyubbunuy iwenanguunuy iwenaggillunuy
Dative iwenakyunuy iwenaggokyunuy iwenakyupyunuy iwenanguyunuy iwenaggilyunuy
Genitive iwenahkunguy iwenaggohkunguy iwenakyuhpunguy iwenanguhunguy iwenaggihlunguy
Locative iwenaggunuy iwenaggoggunuy iwenakyufkunuy iwenanguggunuy iwenaggirkunuy
Instrumental iwenashtunuy iwenaggoshtunuy iwenakyuftunuy iwenanguddunuy iwenaggirtunuy
Ablative iwenagginguy iwenaggogginguy iwenakyubbinguy iwenanguinguy iwenaggillinguy
Possessive "my ..."
Singular Dual Trial Paucal Multitudinal
Nominative iwenakyu iwenaggokyu iwenakyupyu iwenanguyu iwenaggilyu
Accusative iwenagguyu iwenaggogguyu iwenakyubbuyu iwenanguuyu iwenaggilluyu
Dative iwenakyuyu iwenaggokyuyu iwenakyupyuyu iwenanguyuyu iwenaggilyuyu
Genitive iwenahkukyu iwenaggohkukyu iwenakyuhpukyu iwenanguhukyu iwenaggihlukyu
Locative iwenagguyu iwenaggogguyu iwenakyufkuyu iwenangugguyu iwenaggirkuyu
Instrumental iwenashtuyu iwenaggoshtuyu iwenakyuftuyu iwenangudduyu iwenaggirtuyu
Ablative iwenaggikyu iwenaggoggikyu iwenakyubbikyu iwenanguikyu iwenaggillikyu
Possessive "thy ..."
Singular Dual Tllial Paucal Multitudinal
Nominative iwenaggish iwenaggoggish iwenakyubbish iwenanguish iwenaggillish
Accusative iwenagguish iwenaggogguish iwenakyubbuish iwenanguuish iwenaggilluish
Dative iwenakyuish iwenaggokyuish iwenakyupyuish iwenanguyuish iwenaggilyuish
Genitive iwenahkuggish iwenaggohkuggish iwenakyuhpuggish iwenanguhuggish iwenaggihluggish
Locative iwenagguish iwenaggogguish iwenakyufkuish iwenangugguish iwenaggirkuish
Instrumental iwenashtuish iwenaggoshtuish iwenakyuftuish iwenangudduish iwenaggirtuish
Ablative iwenaggiggish iwenaggoggiggish iwenakyubbiggish iwenanguiggish iwenaggilliggish
Possessive "his/her ..."
Singular Dual Tllial Paucal Multitudinal
Nominative iwenaggis iwenaggoggis iwenakyubbis iwenanguis iwenaggillis
Accusative iwenagguis iwenaggogguis iwenakyubbuis iwenanguuis iwenaggilluis
Dative iwenakyuis iwenaggokyuis iwenakyupyuis iwenanguyuis iwenaggilyuis
Genitive iwenahkuggis iwenaggohkuggis iwenakyuhpuggis iwenanguhuggis iwenaggihluggis
Locative iwenagguis iwenaggogguis iwenakyufkuis iwenangugguis iwenaggirkuis
Instrumental iwenashtuis iwenaggoshtuis iwenakyuftuis iwenangudduis iwenaggirtuis
Ablative iwenaggiggis iwenaggoggiggis iwenakyubbiggis iwenanguiggis iwenaggilliggis
Possessive "our ..."
Singular Dual Tllial Paucal Multitudinal
Nominative iwenahkur iwenaggohkur iwenakyuhpur iwenanguhur iwenaggihlur
Accusative iwenagguhur iwenaggogguhur iwenakyubbuhur iwenanguuhur iwenaggilluhur
Dative iwenakyuhur iwenaggokyuhur iwenakyupyuhur iwenanguyuhur iwenaggilyuhur
Genitive iwenahkuhkur iwenaggohkuhkur iwenakyuhpuhkur iwenanguhuhkur iwenaggihluhkur
Locative iwenagguhur iwenaggogguhur iwenakyufkuhur iwenangugguhur iwenaggirkuhur
Instrumental iwenashtuhur iwenaggoshtuhur iwenakyuftuhur iwenangudduhur iwenaggirtuhur
Ablative iwenaggihkur iwenaggoggihkur iwenakyubbihkur iwenanguihkur iwenaggillihkur
Possessive "your ..."
Singular Dual Tllial Paucal Multitudinal
Nominative iwenakwuf iwenaggokwuf iwenakyupwuf iwenanguwuf iwenaggilwuf
Accusative iwenagguwuf iwenaggogguwuf iwenakyubbuwuf iwenanguuwuf iwenaggilluwuf
Dative iwenakyuwuf iwenaggokyuwuf iwenakyupyuwuf iwenanguyuwuf iwenaggilyuwuf
Genitive iwenahkukwuf iwenaggohkukwuf iwenakyuhpukwuf iwenanguhukwuf iwenaggihlukwuf
Locative iwenagguwuf iwenaggogguwuf iwenakyufkuwuf iwenangugguwuf iwenaggirkuwuf
Instrumental iwenashtuwuf iwenaggoshtuwuf iwenakyuftuwuf iwenangudduwuf iwenaggirtuwuf
Ablative iwenaggikwuf iwenaggoggikwuf iwenakyubbikwuf iwenanguikwuf iwenaggillikwuf
Possessive "their ..."
Singular Dual Tllial Paucal Multitudinal
Nominative iwenaggum iwenaggoggum iwenakyubbum iwenanguum iwenaggillum
Accusative iwenagguum iwenaggogguum iwenakyubbuum iwenanguuum iwenaggilluum
Dative iwenakyuum iwenaggokyuum iwenakyupyuum iwenanguyuum iwenaggilyuum
Genitive iwenahkuggum iwenaggohkuggum iwenakyuhpuggum iwenanguhuggum iwenaggihluggum
Locative iwenagguum iwenaggogguum iwenakyufkuum iwenangugguum iwenaggirkuum
Instllumental iwenashtuum iwenaggoshtuum iwenakyuftuum iwenangudduum iwenaggirtuum
Ablative iwenaggiggum iwenaggoggiggum iwenakyubbiggum iwenanguiggum iwenaggilliggum


DerivationEdit

There are still some other suffixes that, not having any grammatical function, are used to express differences or modifications in the original meaning of the root.

  • Diminutive: -nun- (equivalent to the use of the attributive adjective "small" or "little")
  • Augmentative: -to- (equivalent to the use of the attributive adjective "big", "large" or "great")
  • Pejorative: -len- (equivalent to the use of the attributive adjective "bad" or "evil")
  • Meliorative: -neh- (equivalent to the use of the attributive adjective "beautiful" or "good")
  • Degradative: -kel- (equivalent to the use of the attributive adjective "ancient" or "old")

These suffixes are added directly to the word root, before any other suffixes, thus forming a new word with the normal nominal flexion.

E.g.:

  • iwenangun "small car"
  • iwenashto "large car"
  • iwenarken "bad car"
  • iwenangeh "good car"
  • iwenagger "old car"
  • iwenangurnu "this small car"
  • iwenangehyu "my good car"
  • iwenaggellish "your old car"

ExamplesEdit

  • ihellaggush "friend"
  • ihellagguk-neh-nu-yu-yu -> ihellaggungehnuyuyu "to my good friends"
  • iddeggay-nun-ku-um -> iddeggaynunguum "in their (small) house"
  • kubboddim-neh-it-tu-ik -> kubboddimnehidduish "with your (many) good ideas"

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives have no form of agreement with nouns. Attributive adjectives come before nouns, and in some dialects they actually form compound words with nouns. Some elementary attributes (see above) are expressed by means of derivational suffixes.

  • iweddawuf yuddongushpa "native tongue", in some dialects realized as iweddawup-yuddongushpa
  • ihellabbuf nuddaggeor "true love", in some dialects realized as ihellabbum-buddaggeor

ComparisonEdit

Degrees of comparison in adjectives are formed by means of suffixes:

  • Comparative of superiority ("more ... "): -mey
  • Comparative of inferiority ("less ... "): -ihno
  • Comparative of equality ("as ... "): -luh
  • Superlative of superiority ("the most ..."): -lap
  • Superlative of inferiority ("the least ..."): -mol
  • Intensive ("very/extremely ..."): -ot

Examples:

  • iyebbaw tukwan "a cheap (piece of) clothe"
  • iyebbawmey tukwan "a cheaper (piece of) clothe"
  • iyebbawihno tukwan "a not so cheap (piece of) clothe"
  • iyebbawluh tukwan (ish) "a (piece of) clothe as cheap (as)"
  • iyebbawlaf tukwan "the cheapest (piece of) clothe"
  • iyebbamwor tukwan "the least cheap (piece of) clothe"
  • iyebbawos tukwan "an extremely cheap (piece of) clothe"
  • iggellar iddewar "an expensive book"
  • iggellarmey iddewar "a more expensive book"
  • iggellallihno iddewar "a not so expensive book"
  • iggellalluh iddewar (ish) "a book as expensive (as)"
  • iggellallaf iddewar "the most expensive book"
  • iggellarmor iddewar "the lest expensive book"
  • iggellallos iddewar "a very expensive book"

PronounsEdit

PersonalEdit

person Normal form Special form Short form
1st person sing. iggellan puhtash pu
2nd person sing. iyeddas yuh
3rd person sing. num´a tumo uf
1st person pl. tubbo hurmash tu
2nd person pl. wubbom iddenar wu
3rd person pl. yuddo yum

The short forms are used with case endings and when there is no emphasis. The longer forms are used without case endings and carry an emphatic meaning. The special forms are a kind of honorific, used only in very polite or religious language and expressing a high degree of respect.

PossessiveEdit

Possession is indicated by means of declensional possessive suffixes (see above). The genitive of the short form of the personal pronouns may be used for emphasis:

  • (puhush) ihellaggukyu "my friend"
  • (yuhhush) ihellagguggish "thy friend"
  • (uhpush) ihellagguggin "his/her friend"
  • (tuhush) ihellagguhkur "our friend"
  • (wuhush) ihellaggukwuf "your friend"
  • (yuhmush) ihellagguggum "their friend"

RelativeEdit

The only relative pronoun is ken, which is declined according to number and case.

NumeralsEdit

CardinalEdit

  • 0: puddo; indo
  • 1: ihenan
  • 2: yuggo; ifko
  • 3: yufkaddush; iggeski
  • 4: puggoni
  • 5: iggerwi
  • 6: puesh
  • 7: purkarte
  • 8: iw´oyif
  • 9: iwmosh
  • 10: ineham
  • 11: ihenanigges
  • 12: yuggoigges; ifkoigges
  • 13: yufkadduggigges; iggeskiigges
  • 14: puggoniigges
  • 15: iggerwiigges
  • 16: pueggigges
  • 17: purkarteigges
  • 18: iw´oyibbigges
  • 19: iwmoggigges
  • 20: ibbeggash
  • 30: iggeyaw
  • 40: purwah
  • 50: pubbos
  • 60: nuehar
  • 70: puddoshpun
  • 80: iggehash
  • 90: luddobbur
  • 100: tumbaddur
  • 200: ifkoddumbaddur
  • 300: iggeskiddumbaddur
  • 400: puggoniddumbaddur
  • 500: iggerwiddumbaddur
  • 600: pueshtumbaddur
  • 700: purkarteddumbaddur
  • 800: iw´oyiftumbaddur
  • 900: iwmoshtumbaddur
  • 1,000: ibbehas
  • 2,000: ifkoibbehas
  • 3,000: iggeskiibbehas &c.

You can listen to the numbers from 1 to 10, and from 11 to 20.

CountingEdit

Numerals one, two and three are rarely used with nouns, as there are specific endings for expressing these numbers. Usually but not as a rule, the number "four" is expressed by the Paucal ending. Nonetheless, explicit numbers can always be used for emphasis or to avoid ambiguity. Generally, the paucal ending is used with numbers up to ten, while multitudinal is used with higher numbers, although there are not fixed boundaries for the use of these endings. E.g.:

  • iddewar "(one) book"
  • iddewallosh "two books"
  • iddewalyuf "three books"
  • iddewarnu "(four) books"
  • puggoni iddewarnu "four books"
  • iggerwi iddewarnu "five books"
  • puesh iddewarnu "six books"
  • purkarte iddewarnu "seven books"
  • iw´oyif iddewarnu "eight books"
  • iwmosh iddewarnu "nine books"
  • ineham iddewarnu "ten books"
  • ihenanigges iddewallis "eleven books"
  • ibbeggash iddewallis "twenty books"
  • pubbos iddewallis "fifty books"
  • tumbaddur iddewallis "a hundred books"

Click here to listen

OrdinalEdit

Ordinal numbers are created by adding the suffix -kan to the cardinal numbers:

  • 1st: ihenangan
  • 2nd: yuggoggan; ifkoggan
  • 3rd: yufkadduggan; iggeskiggan
  • 4th: puggoniggan
  • 5th: iggerwiggan &c.


VerbsEdit

Verbs in Ravumi receive prefixes and suffixes indicating various grammatical categories as time, aspect, person, number and transitiveness.

Passive voice is obtained by using a transitive verb in intransitive form, i.e., without object affixes. Agent is put in ablative case. Compare:

  • Iykomiyleddenubba (iykomiy-le-ten-uf-a) "He has chosen (it)".
  • Iykomiyleddena (ubbish) (iykomiy-le-ten-a) "He has been chosen (by her)".

AspectEdit

Aspect is indicated by means of suffixes:

  • Stative: -ki-
  • Durative: -na-
  • Perfective: -le-
  • Aorist: -tut-
  • Frequentative: -hek-
  • Inchoative: -won-

TimeEdit

Time suffixes come after aspect suffixes:

  • Past: -ten-
  • Present: -a-
  • Future: -mu-

ObjectEdit

Direct object is indicated by means of suffixes:

  • 1st person sing. -el-
  • 2nd person sing. -at-
  • 3rd person sing. -uf-
  • 1st person pl. -po-
  • 2nd person pl. -ten-
  • 3rd person pl. -um-

While indirect objects are indicated by means of the same forms, but used as prefixes:

  • 1st person sing. el-
  • 2nd person sing. at-
  • 3rd person sing. uf-
  • 1st person pl. po-
  • 2nd person pl. ten-
  • 3rd person pl. um-

These indirect object prefixes come before any other possible prefixes.

SubjectEdit

The subject suffixes are always the last element in a verb.

  • 1st person sing. -uh
  • 2nd person sing. -at
  • 3rd person sing. -a
  • 1st person pl. -ol
  • 2nd person pl. -ow
  • 3rd person pl. -to


DerivationEdit

Some prefixes are added to change the base meaning of the root:

  • "again", "re-": to-
  • "many times": kel-
  • "for the first time": pon-
  • "unwillingly": lit-
  • "make" (causative): kot-
  • "can" (ability): map-
  • "try": yet-

Meaning of Aspects and TimesEdit

Here is an explanation about the meaning of each aspect+time combination of suffixes.

  • Present
    • Stative Present Tense (-kia-): "I am sitting", "She looks good"
    • Durative Present Tense (-naa-): "I am working", "She is waiting"
    • Perfective Present Tense (-lea-): "I just ate", "He is dead"
    • Aorist Present Tense (-tudda-): "I have already seen it once", "She has just called for her mom"
    • Frequentative Present Tense (-hegga-): "I always eat there", "She keeps calling you"
    • Inchoative Present Tense (-wona- ): "I get to work now", "It is starting to rain"
  • Past
    • Stative Past Tense (-kidden-): "I was sitting", "She looked good"
    • Durative Past Tense (-nadden-): "I was working", "She has been waiting"
    • Perfective Past Tense (-ledden-): "I had just eaten", "He had died dead"
    • Aorist Past Tense (-tudden-): "I had already seen it before", "She had called for her mom"
    • Frequentative Past Tense (-heshten-): "I used to eat there", "She kept calling you"
    • Inchoative Past Tense (-wonden- ): "I got to work then", "It was starting to rain"
  • Future
    • Stative Present Tense (-kimu-): "I will be sitting", "She is going to look good"
    • Durative Present Tense (-namu-): "I will be working", "She will wait for some time"
    • Perfective Present Tense (-lemu-): "I will already have eaten", "He is going to be dead"
    • Aorist Present Tense (-tundu-): "You will already have seen it once", "She will have put it somewhere"
    • Frequentative Present Tense (-hengu-): "I will always love you", "She is going to call you lots of times"
    • Inchoative Present Tense (-wonmu- ): "I will get to work in two hours", "It will start raining in a few minutes"


Sample ConjugationEdit

Tense Suffix Combination Composition Form Translation
Stative Present Tense -kia- nuddoynuf-ki-a-uh nuddoynufkiauh "I see", "I am seeing"
Durative Present Tense -naa- nuddoynuf-na-a-uh nuddoynumbaauh "I am seeing", "I am looking at", "I keep looking"
Perfective Present Tense -lea- nuddoynuf-le-a-uh nuddoynurpeauh "I have just seen"
Aorist Present Tense -tudda- nuddoynuf-tut-a-uh nuddoynuftuddauh "I have already seen"
Frequentative Present Tense -hegga- nuddoynuf-hek-a-uh nuddoynuhpeggauh "I see many times", "I keep looking at"
Frequentative Present Tense -wona- nuddoynuf-won-a-uh nuddoynupwonauh "I get a look at", "I start seeing"
Stative Past Tense -kidden- nuddoynuf-ki-ten-uh nuddoynufkiddenuh "I was seeing", "I was able to see"
Durative Past Tense -nadden- nuddoynuf-na-ten-uh nuddoynumbaddenauh "I was seeing", "I was looking at", "I kept seeing"
Perfective Past Tense -ledden- nuddoynuf-le-ten-uh nuddoynurpeddenuh "I had just seen"
Aorist Past Tense -tudden- nuddoynuf-tut-ten-uh nuddoynuftuddenuh "I had already seen"
Frequentative Past Tense -heshten- nuddoynuf-hek-ten-uh nuddoynuhpeshtenuh "I saw many times", "I kept looking at"
Frequentative Past Tense -wonden- nuddoynuf-won-ten-uh nuddoynupwondenuh "I got a look at", "I started seeing"
Stative Future Tense -kimu- nuddoynuf-ki-mu-uh nuddoynufkimuuh "I will see", "I will am seeing", "I will be able to see"
Durative Future Tense -namu- nuddoynuf-na-mu-uh nuddoynumbamuuh "I will be seeing", "I will be looking at", "I am going to keep looking"
Perfective Future Tense -lemu- nuddoynuf-le-mu-uh nuddoynurpemuuh "I will have just seen"
Aorist Future Tense -tundu- nuddoynuf-tut-mu-uh nuddoynuftunduuh "I will have already seen"
Frequentative Future Tense -hengu- nuddoynuf-hek-mu-uh nuddoynuhpenguuh "I will see many times", "I will keep looking at"
Frequentative Future Tense -wonmu- nuddoynuf-won-mu-uh nuddoynupwonmuuh "I am goint to get a look at", "I will start seeing"

An example of the use of direct object suffixes (these come before the subject suffixes):

  • nuddoynumbaaelluh "I am seeing myself"
  • nuddoynumbaaadduh "I am seeing you (sg.)"
  • nuddoynumbaaubbuh "I am seeing him/her/it"
  • nuddoynumbaabbouh "I am seeing us"
  • nuddoynumbaaddenuh "I am seeing you (pl.)"
  • nuddoynumbaaumuh "I am seeing them"

Other examples:

  • Verb root: nuddoynuf (base: nutoynup)
    • nutoynup-na-a-uh -> nuddoynumbaauh "I am seeing"
    • nutoynup-ki-a-uh -> nuddoynfkiauh "I see (I am a living being with the ability to see)"
    • nutoynup-le-a-uf-uh -> nuddoynurpeaubbuh "I have seen it" ("I have the experience of having seen it")
    • nutoynup-tut-mu-el-at -> nuddoynuftunduellas "you shall see me (once, definitely)"
    • at-kot-nutoynup-tut-mu-uf-uh -> askonduddoynuftunduubbuh "I will show it to you"
  • Verb root: nuddash (base: nuttak)
    • nuttak-ki-a-at-uh -> nuddaggiaadduh "I love you"
  • Verb root: pubbomir (base: pupomil)
    • to-pupomil-le-mu-uf-a -> tobbubbomillemuubba "he will bring it again"
  • Verb root: turnagguf (base: tunlakup)
    • map-tunlakup-na-a-ten-uh -> mafturnaggumbaaddenuh "I can help you now"
    • kel-tunlakup-hek-a-el-to -> kerturnagguhpeggaerto "they always help me"
    • lit-tunlakup-ki-a-at-a -> liddurnaggufkiaadda "he is helping you against his will"
  • Verb root: imboh (base: impoh)
    • impoh-le-a-uf-a -> imbohleaubba "he has broken it"

Sample DerivationEdit

  • tonuddoynuf "see again"
  • kernuddoynuf "see many times"
  • ponnuddoynuf "see for the first time"
  • linduddoynuf "unwillingly see"
  • konduddoynuf "cause (someone) to see"
  • mambuddoynuf "can see"

NegationEdit

Negation is done by means of the word luddo placed before or after the verb:

  • luddo impoh-tut-mu-uf-uh -> luddo imbohtunduubbuh "I won't break it."
  • luddo muggo-ki-a-uf-at -> luddo muggoggiaubbas "You don't know it."
  • nuddoynumbaaubbuh luddo "I am not seeing him/her/it."
  • mambunoggiynaaumow luddo "You cannot kill them."

QuestionEdit

A sentence may be turned to a question simply by changing the intonation, mostly the same as in most Terran languages. However, there are two particles used to turn a sentence unmistakably into a question:

  • Ke, used right before the subject (almost always at the beginning of the sentence)
  • nas, placed at the end of the sentence.

The particle ke may only be used if the subject is explicit.

Examples:

  • Mambunoggiynaaumow (nas)? "Can you kill them?"
  • (Ke) iddowirnu inella uhpush (nas)? "Is this his idea?"

SyntaxEdit

Word OrderEdit

Sukika is basically a SVO language, but word order is somewhat flexible, due to the extensive use of suffixes establishing the relation of the words.

Pronoun suffixesEdit

As a rule, subject and object pronouns must be used, even when subject and object are explicitly used. E.g., in Ihtobbiddin ubbimemadduddenubba nuemahu lumnadduhyuin, "The boy wrote a letter to his grandmother", we have the verb imemas "to write" in the Past Perfective form imemaddudden "wrote". It has the indirect object prefix uf- (referring to lumnadduhyuin "to his grandmother") as well as the direct object suffix -uf- (referring to nuemahu "a letter"), together with the subject suffix -a (referring to ihtobbiddin "the boy"). Anyway, in some dialects, the object affixes may be left out in spoken language, so it is also possible to say Ihtobbiddin imemadduddena nuemahu lumnadduhyuin with the same meaning.

It should be noted, however, that, in the standard language, all pronominal affixes are required, since the lack of a direct object affix in a transitive verb conveys the idea of a passive voice. E.g.: Nuemah ubbimemadduddena lumnadduhyuin "a letter was sritten to his grandmother".

VocabularyEdit

Sukika is known for its rich vocabulary. There are many cases in which a single English word can be translated by several Sukika words, according to slight nuances in meaning. Sometimes a word is used only in specific environments, while other words with basically the same meaning are used in others. It is related that, for some words, even native speakers themselves are unable to explain why they choose one word and not another one.

Here go some examples:

  • "star" may be:
    • pumobbus (used specificly in astronomy, meaning "a sun", "the nucleus of a solar system")
    • iyeddas (visible stars at night)
    • puhkaske (reserved for large bright stars)
    • nuhka (reserved for visibly blinking stars)
    • puey (mythical and figurative sense, like in "destiny star" or also "rock star")
  • "uncle" may be:
    • ibbeman, ibbemar "father's brother"
    • puggosh "mother's brother"
    • puyta (indefinite relationship, can be anything like "an older friend of the family", "an elder cousin")
    • imboyim "father's or mother's brother-in-law"
  • "fear" may be:
    • pueynih ("light fear")
    • pu´ownu ("terror", "horror")
    • in´ongu (undetermined specificity)
    • pumof (undetermined specificity)
    • puhka (undetermined specificity)
  • "document" may be:
    • illeddaw (personal documents)
    • mubboy (ownership documents for an object, e.g. a car)
    • mues (documentation for a company)
    • ´uyos (documentation for a process)
    • iddebban (undetermined specificity, may also be used instead of illeddaw)
    • muyoddir (generic, undefinite)
  • "medicine" may be:
    • pukya (natural medicine, e.g. leaves or oils)
    • yuwom´ur (pills)
    • yuyo (solution, e.g., a powder dissoluted in water)
    • puyohtu (creams, ointment, used on the skin)
    • yukyante (injection &c.)
    • yuef (undetermined specificity)
  • "sky" may be:
    • eyoles "day sky"
    • oggawush "nightly sky"
    • ebbanes "sky (as a medium, for an airplane for example)"
    • pehendif "nightly starry sky (astronomical term)"
    • kuuf "cloudy sky (as the source of rain)"
    • ineddon "heaven (the inverted ocean, used in a religious context)"

DerivationEdit

Sukika employs several prefixes and suffixes to create new words from existing ones.

AdjectivalEdit

  • kum-: makes the opposite from an adjective. Ex.: turkahu "happy", kundurkahu "sad"
  • ak-: gives the idea of privation. Ex.: puerkis "money", ashpuerkis "deprived from money"
  • -nan: creates an adjective from a noun, with the idea of "relating to the notion of". Ex.: illerpi "community", illerpinan "communitary"; inebbaf "nation", inebbamban "national"

NominalEdit

  • -tut, creates an abstract noun from basic quality adjectives and from verbs. Ex.: weshta "red", weshtaddus "the colour red"; ewumish "rich", ewumishtus "wealth"; tuhwallu "align", tuhwalluddus "alignment"
  • -la, creates an agent noun from adjectives and verbs. Ex.: weshta "red", weshtalla "the one who turns red"; ewumish "rich", ewumirka "that who makes rich"; nendo "sell", nendolla "seller"
  • en-...-os, creates a passive participle from a verb, that may work as a noun or as an adjective. Ex.: aggedder "tire", "get tired", enaggeddellos "tired".
  • wal- indicates a tool. Ex.: imemas "write", wallimemas "writing tool, pen"; puhpaske "stab", warpuhpaske "dagger"

VerbalEdit

  • on-, creates verbs from adjectives with the idea of "making", "turning". E.g.: weshta "red", onweshta "turn red"; ewumish "rich", onewumish "make rich", "turn rich"; ashpuerkis "deprived from money", onashpuerkis "deprive someone from money"
  • uyu- is a causative prefix, giving the idea of having someone do something. Ex.: nu´onyu "learn", uyunu´onyu "teach"

ListsEdit

Example textsEdit

Text Analysis Translation

Tuhos tuggospuillin ispobbilleaddo iherwih, ´ueshpiiggum tuer iggeharnuiggum. Yuddo kuggoykiaufto inenamu tuer tumbaggu. Yuddo iggebbandaaddo luwon ihenan tuggorpuyu iddeddaddu imwoddihush.

listen
tuhot tukotpu-il-in itpopi-le-a-to ihelwih, ´uekpi-ik-um tuel ikehal-nu-ik-um. Yuto kukoy-ki-a-up-to inenam-u tuel tupmak-u. Yuto ikepat-na-a-to luwon ihenan tukolpu-yu itetat-tu imwoti-huk. "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."
Nupwallu huggom puendinduddena.

Ku´oftuddena puendimyuin tuhmaiggin ´uhoshtuhuggin, tuhmaiggin iddebbahkuggin tuer tuhmaiggin inellaggihluggin pumorkuhnush.

listen

Suk puendim

Nupwa-lu hukom puemtim-tut-ten-a.

Ku´of-tut-ten-a puemtim-yu-in tuhma-ik-in ´uhoktu-huk-in, tuhma-ik-in itepak-huk-in tuer tuhma-ik-in inelak-il-huk-in pumoklun-huk.

This language was once featured.

Thanks to its level of quality, plausibility and usage capabilities, it has been voted as featured.

Sample Basic Sentences

The house is new.

Iddeggayin inella anoggas.

My house is large.

Iddeggayyu inella niddear.

Your house is beautiful.

Iddeggayish inella iytuskaf.

Their houses are far.

Iddeggaynuum inerto pebbaype;

This book is mine.

Iddewallu inella puhush.

Those books are yours.

Idewarnubbu inerto wuhush.

This is his idea.

Iddowirnu inella uhpush.

These are not my shoes.

Uyallondullu inerto luddo puhush.

The money is not in the bag.

Pairkaddin luddo inella in´oykuin.

His family is in this town.

Puggoggiis inella taindayaskuin.

The worker is tired.

Tabbabbertain inella enaggeddellos.

You are smart.

(Iyeddas) inellas nihker.

Are they friendly?

(Ke Yuddo) inerto ponillo nas?

TriviaEdit

  • The first name of this language was Ravumi. It was chosen long before the language was designed. But, as it was a "foreign" reference (from an Efhang source), it was kept as an alternate name.
    • The original name is Tukik or, with the suffix -a, Tukika. The form Sukika is an old dialect form.
      • The current native form of the name is either Tuggish or Tuggigga. The suffix -a is an old collective plural ending, not used anymore actively in the language. So, Tukik/Tuggish is the simple ethnic designation of the people, culture language &c., while the form Tukika/Tuggigga/Sukika originally meant "the Sukika people". There is no difference in the use of these forms in the current language.
  • From a phonological point of view, the language has only ten consonants (P, T, K, m, n, L, ´, h, y, w) and five vowels (a, e, i, o, u).
    • From a phonetical point of view, with the addition of the allophones for P, T, K and L and the current free variations, the number of consonants rises to twenty six, and with the addition of vowel variants (open and closed e and o, nasality &c.), the quantity of vowels rises to twenty ([a], [ɑ], [e], [ɛ], [i], [ɪ], [o], [ɔ], [u], [ʊ], both oral and nasal). However, these variants are completely free, so they are not relevant either lexically or grammatically.
  • In the first design of the language, it was meant to resemble Finnish, both in morphology and in grammar. Later on, some similarities with Eskimo-Aleut languages were added, like a degree of polysynthesis and the small number of phonemes.
  • The roots for Sukika words are relatively long, partly as a compensation for the low number of phonemes, partly as the initial design principle of mirroring Finnish features.

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