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سُل سَم

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sul sam
سل سم
Type
Alignment Ergetive-Absolutive
Word Order SVO
Head direction final
Tonal No
Declensions No
Conjugations Yes
Topic-Prominence No
Classes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


PhonologyEdit

Consonants

Labial Coronal Coronal > Pharyngeal

Palatal/post-alveolar

Velar Pharyngeal glottal
Nasal m n
Voiced stop b d
Unvoiced stop t k ʡ ʔ
Fricative f s ʃ x ħ h
Approximant l j w
Trill r

VowelsEdit

Front Back
short long short long
high i u
low ɑ ɑː

PhonotacticsEdit

Sul sam follows a CV(C)(C) phonotactics scheme. The glottal stop /ʔ/ is considered the "null" consonant.

Writing SystemEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Grapheme m n b d t th k q ' f
Sound m n b d t k ʡ ʔ f
Grapheme s sh j g h x l y w r
Sound s ʃ x ħ h l j w r

Sometimes a consonant can be geminiated. In this case the consonant is written twice.

Grapheme م ن ب د ت ط ك ق ا ف
Sound m n b d t k ʡ ʔ f
Grapheme س ص ش ع ح ه ل ي و ر
Sound s ʃ x ħ h l j w r

Initial מ נ ב ד ט ת כ ק א פ
Final ם ן ך ף
Sound m n b d t k ʡ ʔ f
Initial ס צ ש ג ח ה ל י ו ר
Final ץ
Sound s ʃ x ħ h l j w r

Sometimes a consonant can be geminiated. In this case the consonant is written twice.

Vowels & other signsEdit

Grapheme a aa a'a u uu u'u
Sound ɑ ɑː ɑʔɑ u uʔu
Grapheme i ii i'i ai ui
Sound i iʔi ɑi ui

Grapheme  َ ا َ  ً  ُ و ُ  ٌ  ِ ي ِ  ٍ
Sound ɑ ɑː ɑʔɑ u uʔu i iʔi
Grapheme ي َ ي ُ و َ و ِ أَ إِ ؤَ ئَ ء َ
Sound ɑi ui ɑw iw ʔa ʔi wa ya ?a

* in the arabic variant after a consonant that only has a destinct form in the isolate/final (so no initial/medial forms) and also the y (ي) consonant a vowel normally is long in the, this vowel is made short by using a hamzah.

The vowel diacrtitics, except for the ا, و  and ي, are not written in normal (informal) writing, they're written in formal writing and children's books (so they can (learn how to) pronounce new words without the need to search them up).

like the vowel diacritics, there are more in normal (informal) not written characters. Sometimes if a word has many homographs a vowel removal sign is actually used to seperate some of the homographs in normal (informal) writing,

Effect consonant geminiation (long consonant) vowel removal (no vowel after the consonant)
Grapheme  ّ  ْ

Grapheme  ַ  ֶ אַ ַ  ֻ ו ֻ אֻ ֻ  ִ
Sound ɑ ɑː ɑʔɑ u uʔu i
Grapheme י ִ אִ ִ  ֵ  ְ ו ַ ו ִ
Sound iʔi ɑi ui ɑw iw

The vowel diacrtitics, except י , א and ו , are not written in normal (informal) writing, they're written in formal writing and children's books (so they can (learn how to) pronounce new words without the need to search them up).

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

classesEdit

There are two classes a noun can have, besides being slightly unregular the following rules are in power for sorting the nouns into classes.

Nounclass 1 nouns often are humans, body parts, animals, plants and other alive things and abstract ideas.

Nounclass 2 nouns often are locations and tools.

casesEdit

Nouns get an infix after the first consonant(+vowel, if there's one) this is a suffix within the word. In the examples (and declination lists) the infixes will be bolded and made red to make them stand out.

For nounclass 1 nouns:Edit

singular paucal plural
absolutive ma'a ma
dative r ni'i mar
ergative d mi'in

singular paucal plural
absolutive مً م
dative ر نٍ مر
ergative د مٍن

singular paucal plural
absolutive מא מ
dative ר נא מר
ergative ד מאנ

An example of a declined nounclass 1 noun:Edit

singular paucal plural
absolutive massuruun mama'assuruun mamassuruun
dative marssuruun mani'issuruun mamarssuruun
ergative madssuruun mami'inssuruun

singular paucal plural
absolutive مسرن م‍مً‍سرن م‍م‍سرن
dative م‍ر‍سرن م‍نٍ‍سرن م‍مر‍سرن
ergative م‍د سرن م‍مٍن‍سرن

singular paucal plural
absolutive מססרן ממאססרן ממססרן
dative מרססרן מנאססרן ממרססרן
ergative מדססרן ממאנססרן

For nounclass 2 nouns:Edit

singular paucal plural
absolutive na'a na
dative r ni'i nar
ergative d ni'in

singular paucal plural
absolutive نً ن
dative ر نٍ نر
ergative د نٍن

singular paucal plural
absolutive נא נ
dative ר נא נר
ergative ד נאנ

An example of a declined nounclass 2 noun:Edit

singular paucal plural
absolutive bulraan buna'alraan bunalraan
dative burlraan buni'ilraan bunarlraan
ergative budlraan buni'inlraan

singular paucal plural
absolutive بلرن ب‍نً‍لرن ب‍ن‍لرن
dative ب‍ر‍لرن ب‍نٍ‍لرن ب‍نر‍لرن
ergative ب‍د‍لرن ب‍نٍن‍لرن

singular paucal plural
absolutive בלרן בנאלרן בנלרן
dative ברלרן בנאלרן בנרלרן
ergative בדלרן בנאנלרן

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives agree to the noun in both number and case, the paucal/plural numbers are merged.

singular paucal/plural
absolutive
dative ri nir
ergative di nid

singular paucal/plural
absolutive
dative رِ نِر
ergative دِ نِد

singular paucal/plural
absolutive
dative ר נר
ergative ד נד

An example of a declined adjective :Edit

singular paucal/plural
absolutive huum
dative huurim huunirm
ergative huudim huunidm

singular paucal/plural
absolutive حوم
dative حو‍رِ‍م حو‍نِر‍م
ergative حو‍دِ‍م حو‍نِد‍م

singular paucal/plural
absolutive חום
dative חורם חונרם
ergative חודם חונדם

VerbsEdit

Aspects and moodsEdit

In sul sam verbs can have an aspect to show their relation to time, the plain aspect is just normal. The perfect implies that an action is already done/finished. The momentane tells you that the action is ongoing at this moment, probably short. And the habitual implies that the action occurs more than once.

There are also four moods included in the circumfix, besides the normally used indicative there also are a conditional form. For a conditional to be realized there needs to be a condition. "if john kicks the ball (indicative), he would score(conditional)". There's also the potential form, the potential implies that something is possible, but often not the case. The last mood is a cross between imperative and optative, it could be used for wishes and for commands.

The circumfixes for verbsEdit

plain perfect momentane habitual
indicative -- ha--d hir-- 'an--maraa
conditional ma--ba ha--da hir--'an 'an--maru'u
potential ma--ban ha--dan hin--sid 'a--mas
optative-imperative man--sa han--sad hin--sil 'an--mar

replace -- with the stem

plain perfect momentane habitual
indicative -- ح--د حر-- أن--مر
conditional م--بَ ح--دَ حر--أن أن--مرٌ
potential م--بن ح--دن حن--سد أ--مس
optative-imperative من--سَ حز--سد حن--سل ‍أن--مر

replace -- with the stem

plain perfect momentane habitual
indicative -- ח--ד חר-- אנ--מר
conditional מ--ב ח--ד חר--אן אנ--מרא
potential מ--בן ח--דן חנ--סד א--מס
optative-imperative מנ--ס חנ--סד חנ--סל אנ--מר

replace -- with the stem

An example conjugated verbEdit

plain perfect momentane habitual
indicative hakilmafd hirkilmaf 'ankilmafmaraa
conditional makilmafba hakilmafda hirkilmaf'an 'ankilmafmaru'u
potential makilmafban hakilmafdan hinkilmafsid 'akilmafmas
optative-imperative mankilmafsa hankilmafsad hinkilmafsil 'ankilmafmar

plain perfect momentane habitual
indicative كلمف ح‍كلمف‍د حر‍كلمف أن‍كلمف‍مر
conditional م‍كلمف‍بَ ح‍كلمف‍دَ حر‍كلمف‍أن أن‍كلمف‍مرٌ
potential م‍كلمف‍بن ح‍كلمف‍دن حن‍كلمف‍سد أ‍كلمف‍مس
optative-imperative من‍كلمف‍سَ حز‍كلمف‍سد حن‍كلمف‍سل ‍أن‍كلمف‍مر

plain perfect momentane habitual
indicative כלמף חכלמפד חרכלמפ אנכלמפמר
conditional מכלמפב חכלמפד חרכלמפאן אנכלמפמרא
potential מכלמפבן חכלמפדן חנכלמפסד אכלמפמס
optative-imperative מנכלמפס חנכלמפסד חנכלמפסל אנכלמפמר

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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