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Susjin

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Name: Susjin

Type: Analytic

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Mixed

Number of genders: 1

Declensions: No

Conjugations: No

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Susjin is a mostly-isolating analytic language. The name is a shortened perversion of the original official name, Su Sjin ta Djuan du Raum, which translates into English as The United Language of Earth. For a full lexicon, view the article "Susjin Lexicon."

SettingEdit

Susjulin is spoken by the populace of the Terran Federation in the year 2317. The Terran Federation is the federal government of the planet Earth. It evolved from the United Nations until it was the higher government of every nation on the planet. When the language was first created, it was instated as the lingua franca of politics. Soon it was adopted as the lingua franca of business, as well. As the language grew in usage, many languages instated laws which forbid its use in certain contexts so as to preserve their native languages. However, because the majority of the planet's economies had become capitalist, the language of business became the most important, and soon all inhabitants of Earth were fluent. Within a century, the laws which had secured the life of the natural languages were relaxed, and the native languages of the world's nations became extinct. The name of the language, Susjin, is a shortened perversion of its original, official name, Su Sjin ta Djuan du Raum, which translates into English as The United Language of Earth.

PhonologyEdit

The International Phonetic Alphabet Chart for the Consonantal Phonemes
Place of Articulation → Liabial Coronal Dorsal Radical
Manner of Articulation ↓ Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m (m) n (n) ŋ (ň)
Plosive p (p) b (b) t (t) d (d) k (k) g (g)
Frictive f (f) v (v) θ (ŧ) ð (đ) s (s) z (z) ʃ (š) ʒ (ž) ç (h) x (x) ɣ (q) h (h)
Approximant ɹ (r) j (j)
Trill
Tap or Flap
Lateral Frictive
Lateral Approximant l (l)
Lateral Flap

The letter [h] is used to represent three phonemes, depending on its preceding vowel. If it follows /i/, /e/, or /ɛ/, it is pronounced as /ç/. If it follows /a/, it is pronounced as /ħ̞/. If it follows /u/, it is pronounced as /ʍ/.


International Phonetic Alphabet Chart for Susjulin Vowels
Front Near-Front Central Near-Back Back
Close i (i) u (u)
Near-Close
Close-Mid e (i) o (u)
Mid
Open-Mid ɛ (i)
Near-Open
Open ä (a)

There are only three written vowels, [i], [a], and [u], but they correspond to five different phonemes. [i] is normally pronounced /i/, but is pronounced /ɛ/ after a palatalized consonant, except at the end of a word when it is pronounced /e/. [u] is normally pronounced /u/, but is pronounced /o/ after a labialized consonant.

Two vowels can be legally placed proximally. If they are identical, this creates a geminated vowel unless it follows palatalization (in which case a double [ii] is pronounced as the diphthong /ei/) or labialization (in which case the double [uu] is pronounced as the diphthong /ou/). If they are not identical, this creates a diphthong. All Susjulin diphthongs are falling, including the opening diphthongs.


Because the Susjulin orthography is a semi-syllabary, sounds are organized into onsets and rimes. Every syllable consists of both an onset and a rime.

Susjulin Onsets
IPA Latin Transcription IPA Latin Transcription IPA Latin Transcription IPA Latin Transcription
p p pr pr tx tx ʃr šr
f f pʃ θp ŧp ʃk šk
t t px px θt ŧt kf kf
θ ŧ fp fp θl ŧl kθ
s s ft ft θr ŧr ks ks
l l fl fl θk ŧk kl kl
r r fr fr sp sp kr kr
ʃ š fk fk st st kʃ
k k tf tf sl sl kx kx
x x tθ sr sr xp xp
pf pf ts ts sk sk xt xt
pθ tl tl ʃp šp xl xl
ps ps tr tr ʃt št xr xr
pl pl tʃ ʃl šl xk xk

There is additionally a null-onset, not shown in Latin transcription, which shows that the syllable begins with a vowel. Each onset can be palatalized or labialized, which adds a [j] or [w] respectively to the end of the onset (this includes the null-onset, which causes the syllable to begin with the [j] or [w]). Each (except for [l] and [r]) can also receive a diacritic which marks that a consonant or consonant cluster is voiced.

Susjulin Rimes
IPA Latin Transcription IPA Latin Transcription IPA Latin Transcription IPA Latin Transcription IPA Latin Transcription
i/e/ɛ i im/ɛm im in/ɛn in iŋ/ɛŋ iç/ɛç ih
i:/ei ii i:m/eim iim i:n/ein iin i:ŋ/eiŋ iiň i:ç/eiç iih
ia/ea ia iam/eam iam ian/ean ian iaŋ/eaŋ iaň iaħ̞ iah
iu/eu iu ium/eum ium iun/eun iun iuŋ/euŋ iuň iuʍ iuh
a a am am an an aħ̞ ah
a: aa a:m aam a:n aan a:ŋ aaň a:ħ̞ aah
ai ai aim aim ain ain aiŋ aiň aiç aih
au au aum aum aun aun auŋ auň auʍ auh
u/o u um/om um un/on un uŋ/oŋ uʍ/oʍ uh
u:/ou uu u:m/oum uum u:n/oun uun u:ŋ/ouŋ uuň u:ʍ/ouʍ uuh
ui/oi ui uim/oim uim uin/oin uin uiŋ/oiŋ uiň uiç/oiç uih
ua/oa ua uam/oam uam uan/oan uan uaŋ/oaŋ uaň uaħ̞/oaħ̞ uah


The first syllable in a word always receives primary stress. Secondary stress falls on odd syllables, unless there is a geminated syllable. Geminated syllables receive secondary stress, unstressing the previous syllable if it is not geminated as well and would otherwise receive secondary stress.

PhonotacticsEdit

P = any plosive

F = any frictive

L = any liquid

S = any semivowel (shown by palatalization/labialization diacritic)

N = any nasal

V = any vowel

Onset = O = P+(F)+(S) / P+(L)+(S) / F+(P)+(S) / F+(L)+(S) / L+(S)

Rime = R = V+(V)+(N) / V+(V)+(h)

Syllable: O+R

The final syllable of any morpheme (other than some articles, determiners, conjunctions, prepositions, and other particles) will always end with a nasal or [h]. Therefore, all morphemes in a word (i.e. after derivation or compounding) will be separated by a nasal or [h].

OrthographyEdit

The Susjulin orthography is a semi-syllabary. This means that sounds are organized into onsets and rimes, both of which are used in every syllable in the language. When a word begins with a vowel, a null-onset grapheme is used. There are 57 onset graphemes which show all possible consonant and consonant cluster sounds. Up to two diacritics can be added to each onset, one to show palatalization or labialization, and the other to show voicing (except the graphemes for [l], [r], and the null-onset, which can not receive the voicing diacritic). There are 60 rimes, corresponding to the three vowels, their geminates, and the six diphthongs with the five possible codas, [m], [n], [ň], [h], and a null coda.

GrammarEdit

Susjulin is completely analytical. This means that nouns are not declined and verbs are not conjugated. Instead, they are marked by the presence of particles.

Each part of speech is marked by specific endings.

Verb: -am/-an/-aň

Noun/Pronoun: -im/-in/-um/-un

Adjective/Adverb: -iň/-uň

Derivational Affixes: -ih/-ah/-uh

All else (articles, determiners, conjunctions, prepositions, particles): -ih/-ah/-uh/-i/-a/-u

VerbsEdit

Verbs are not conjugated. Instead, they are preceded by modifying particles.

Tense/MoodEdit

Tense/Mood

Particle

Present/Indicative

sa

Present/Conditional

sah

Present/Imperative

sja

Past/Indicative

tu

Past/Conditional

tuh

Future/Indicative

li

Future/Conditional

lih

Voice/AspectEdit

Voice/Aspect

Particle

Active/Imperfect

ka

Active/Perfect

kah

Active/Progressive

kwa

Passive/Imperfect

vu

Passive/Perfect

vuh

Passive/Progressive

vju

Middle/Imperfect

gži

Middle/Perfect

gžih

Middle/Progressive

gžwi

ParticiplesEdit

Participle

Particle

Example

Present/Active

ska

carrying

Present/Passive

zbu

being carried

Present/Middle

zgi

carrying

Past/Active

tsa

having carried

Past/Passive

dvu

having been carried

Past/Middle

dži

having carried

Present/Adjectival

ku

carrying

Past/Adjectival

ta

carried

Gerundive

uih

carrying

Pro-VerbsEdit

Pro-verbs act on verbs in the same way that pronouns act on nouns.

Pro-Verb

Description

žgjam

"do," "do it," "can," "to," or any other pro-verb in English

NounsEdit

Nouns are preceded by articles. These show that a noun is definite, indefinite, partitive, or negative. These articles are always used, and are not changed by number or case.

Article

Particle

English Example

Definite

su

I want the steak.

Indefinite

lu

I want a steak.

Partitive

ru

I want (some) steak

Negative

fu

I want no steak.

Nouns are not declined. Instead, they are preceded and/or followed by modifying particles.

CaseEdit

Grammatical case is shown by the presence of a preceding particle.

Case

Particle

Nominative

Accusative

da

Dative

di

Genitive

du

Instrumental

xu

Benefactive

bi

Causal

lwuh

Comitative

ŧwah

Privative

twih

Illative

džji

Inessive

džja

Elative

džju

Allative

kšji

Adessive

kšja

Ablative

kšju

Translative

bvji

Essive

bvja

Exessive

bvju

Temporal

raih

NumberEdit

Grammatical number is shown by the presence of a following particle.

Number

Particle

Singular

Dual

ljah

Paucal

fjah

Plural

va

PronounsEdit

Pronouns are treated in the exact same way as nouns.

Personal PronounsEdit

Person

Singular

Dual

Plural

1st (Inclusive)

kin

šjin

kšin

1st (Exclusive)

žjin

gžin

2nd

tin

sjin

tsin

3rd (human)

pin

fjin

pfin

3rd (non-human)

bin

vjin

bvin

Reciprocal PronounsEdit

Pronoun

Description

qwim

"each other" or "one another"

Reflexive PronounsEdit

Pronoun

Description

pljum

"himself," "myself," or any other reflexive pronoun in English

Demonstrative PronounsEdit

Pronoun

Description

Proximal

xain

"this (near me)"

Medial

đjain

"that (near you)"

Distal

pfain

"that (away from both of us)"

Indefinite PronounsEdit
Relative PronounsEdit
Interrogative PronounsEdit

Adjectives and AdverbsEdit

Adjectives and adverbs use the exact same word. The meaning is derived based on its location in the sentence. If it immediately follows a noun, it is an adjective, if it immediately follows a verb, it is an adverb.

Adjectives and adverbs can be modified by a preceding particle to show comparativity.

Comparativity

Particle

Positive

Comparative

pih

Superlative

žjuh

DeterminersEdit

Demonstrative DeterminersEdit

Indefinite DeterminersEdit

Interrogative DeterminersEdit

ConjunctionsEdit

Coordinating ConjunctionsEdit

Correlative ConjunctionsEdit

Subordinating ConjunctionsEdit

NumeralsEdit

CardinalEdit

OrdinalEdit

PartitiveEdit

MultiplicativeEdit

CollectiveEdit

DistributiveEdit

DerivationEdit

Word OrderEdit

DictionaryEdit

Sample TranslationEdit

Narrative TranslationEdit

Schleicher's FableEdit

This article or section requires fix up.
It will be done soon.
Schleicher's Fable by August Schleicher
Laimgjuň du Šlaixjirim lwuh Augustum Šlaixjirim

English: On a hill, a sheep that had no wool saw horses, one of them pulling a heavy wagon, one carrying a big load, and one carrying a man quickly. The sheep said to the horses: "My heart pains me, seeing a man driving horses". The horses said: "Listen, sheep, our hearts pain us when we see this: a man, the master, makes the wool of the sheep into a warm garment for himself. And the sheep has no wool". Having heard this, the sheep fled into the plain.

Susjulin: Kšja lu twum, lu xwin twih žaim tu plam da lu kwuim fjah,

The North Wind and the SunEdit

This article or section requires fix up.
It will be done soon.
The North Wind and the Sun by Aesop


English: The North Wind and the Sun were disputing which was the stronger, when a traveler came along wrapped in a warm cloak. They agreed that the one who first succeeded in making the traveler take his cloak off should be considered stronger than the other. Then the North Wind blew as hard as he could, but the more he blew the more closely did the traveler fold his cloak around him; and at last the North Wind gave up the attempt. Then the Sun shined out warmly, and immediately the traveler took off his cloak. And so the North Wind was obliged to confess that the Sun was the stronger of the two.

Susjulin:

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