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Sveg

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Progress 92%
Sveg
Svigeg
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
0
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Sveg is a descendant language of Exgotian Natraden and adopts several grammar rules from Natraden. The pronunciation has change and is the first Natrodian language not to naturally use the tapped R. It is also the first Natrodian language to not use the full latin alphabet excluding loanwords and it is also the Natrodian language with the most digraphs. Finally, it is the only Natrodian language not to decline nouns to case.

PronounciationEdit

The pronunciation can vary quite a bit, especially in the digraph category.

Single LettersEdit

Sveg International Phonetic Alphabet
A ɑ
Æ ɛ
Å ɔ
B b / b̥
(C) Depends on loanword
D d / d̥
E ɛ
Ë ɛ
F f
G g / g̊
H h
I i
J j
K k
L ʟ / l
M m
N n
O ɒ
Œ ɶ
P p(ʰ)
(Q) Depends on loanword
R ʁ
S s
T t
U u
Ů ʌ
V ʋ / v
(W) v / w (Depends on loanword)
X ks
Y y
(Z) Depends on loanword

DigraphsEdit

Digraph International Phonetic Alphabet
AG ɛj
ÆG e
EG o
IG j / i
NG ŋ
OG ɨ
ŒG ø
UG ʉ
DJ d͡ʒ
EJ aj
SJ ʃ / ɕ
NK ŋk
AR ɑ:
ÆR eɐ̯
ÅR ɔɐ̯
ER ɐ
ʁ (before vowel)
IR ɛɐ̯
OR ɒɐ̯
ŒR œɐ̯
YR yɐ̯
ET
ŒT œ
UT ʏ
ŮT ɯ

Phonetic RulesEdit

  1. G is silent unless in the word-initial position
  2. T is silent at the end of a word
    1. TT overrides this
  3. Æ can only appear in the first syllable
  4. Words cannot end in a vowel that isn't E or Ë
  5. E is pronounced /e/ in the first syllable
    1. Æ is used in the same position for the sound /ɛ/
    2. /ə/ at the end of a word
      1. Ë can only be placed at the end of a word to prevent the schwa.
        1. Belige /'b̥ɛljə/ means Belgium
        2. beligë /'b̥ɛljɛ/ means  Joy
      2. Es are also pronounced as a schwa in the syllable after the one with stress (see the second example on rule 7.4 below)
        1. In the same position, A would be pronounced /a/ and I would be pronounced /ɪ/
  6. Double consonants are lenthened:
    1. LL /l:/
    2. TT /t:/
      1. A the end of a word. this is pronounced /t͡ʔ/
    3. Double voiced stops cannot occur
    4. The elongation isn't needed at the end of a word
    5. Can only appear once in a root word.
    6. Es in the same syllable as a double letter are pronounced /ɛ/
      1. Overrides rule 5.0
      2. Likewise, A is pronounced /a/ and I is pronounced /ɪ/ when in the same syllable
  7. Stress is semi-important: it does not affect the definition of words but contributes to how well you speak the language..
    1. Stressing more than once in a word will make you sound awkward
    2. Pronouns are always stressed
    3. Verbs are never stressed and often blend in with the subject and/or
      1. Jeg erI am /'jo ɐ/
        1. Overrides rule 12
      2. Infinitives, gerundsand participles can be stressed
    4. The first syllable is mostly stressed unless a double consonant exists in the word where the syllable before the double consonant is stressed.
      1. krystell /kʁysˈtɛl(:)/ Crystal
      2. Krystel /ˈkʁystəl/ Christ
  8. Only proper nouns and words beginning a sentence are capitalised unlike other Natrodian languages, which capitalise all (pro)nouns.
  9. /ɐ̯/ becomes /:/ if the next sound is a vowel
    1. ir er /ˈɛ: ɐ/ he is
    2. boren /ˈb̥ɒ:ən/
  10. There can only be one vowel letter in a syllable
  11. There cannot be two vowel letters in a row in the same word
    1. This is one of the reasons why G is silent.
  12. Similar vowel sounds that run into each other are separated with a glottal stop.
    1. låg eg /lɔʔo/ let them

Word OrderEdit

The word order is taken from Exgotian Natraden:

  1. Subject
  2. (Auxiliary) Verb
  3. Indirect Object
  4. Adverb
  5. Object
  6. Preposition
  7. Locative Object
  8. Other Information
  9. Participle
  10. Verb [when auxiliary verb is used]

The word order is strict unless rules specify otherwise. Inversion can also occur.

Verb ConjugationEdit

Verb conjugation applies to the mood and tense (and aspect; continuous is merged with simple) and be and have are the only irregular verbs. All infinitive verbs must end in EN.

To BeEdit

Tense, Mood and Aspect

Conjugated Form or Auxiliary Verb

Participle and/or infinitive if necessary
Infinitive ogen
Imperative oger
Gerund ogn
Present Simple er
Present Perfect her ogte
Past Simple egle
Past Perfect hal ogte
Simple Future veger ogen
Simple Conditional vegle ogen
Future Perfect veger ogte haren
Conditional Perfect vegle ogte haren

To HaveEdit

Tense, Mood and Aspect

Conjugated Form or Auxiliary Verb

Participle and/or infinitive if necessary
Infinitive haren
Imperative hær
Gerund harn
Present Simple her
Present Perfect her hæfte
Past Simple hal
Past Perfect hal hæfte
Simple Future veger haren
Simple Conditional vegle haren
Future Perfect veger hæfte haren
Conditional Perfect vegle hæfte haren

Normal ConjugationEdit

The example: to like

Tense, Mood and Aspect

Conjugated Form or Auxiliary Verb

Participle and/or infinitive if necessary
Infinitive logen
Imperative log
Gerund logn
Present Simple loger
Present Perfect her logte
Past Simple logle
Past Perfect hal logte
Simple Future veger logen
Simple Conditional vegle logen
Future Perfect veger logte haren
Conditional Perfect vegle logte haren

DoersEdit

To make a verbinto a noun, you conjugate it with ere or era depending on the gender.

lagen to love

lagerelover [male/gender unknown or neuter; boyfriend/partner]

lageralover [female; girlfriend]

NegationEdit

This is done by adding the particle ůn /ʌn/ before the verb:

jeg er

I am

jeg ůn er

I am not

Reflexive VerbsEdit

These are formed with the same pronouns. There aren't reflexive pronouns like in other Natrodian languages.

jeg loger jeg

I like myself

Loger tog tog?

Do you like yourself?

Passive VerbsEdit

These verbs are formed with the past participle and the auxiliary verb to getfågen

jeg fåger borte

I am born

jeg veger borte fågen

I will have been born

Imperative VerbsEdit

Imperative verbs are formed by removing the infinitive's en ending. When the subject is omitted, the 2nd person singular pronoun is implied. Otherwise, the subject is required.

Personal PronounsEdit

Since personal pronouns don't decline to case, they rely on the word order to determine their relation to a verb.

0th 1st 2nd 3rd
- Sing. Plural Sing. Plural Sing. Plural.
M F N
on jeg og tog vœt ir ag ig eg
ˈɒn ˈjo ˈɨ ˈtɨ ˈvœ ˈɛɐ̯ ˈɛj ˈi ˈo

ArticlesEdit

The articles onlyexist as indefinite and definite. The negative article doesn't exist as verb negation is used instead. Articles decline the cases Nominative, Accusative, Dative and Locative (NOM, ACC, DAT & LOC)

Article Nominative Accusative Dative & Locative
Definite det denn deg
Indefinite ett en ener

PossessionEdit

There are two ways to show possession:

CompoundingEdit

If the possessor isn't being modified and isn't a pronoun, you can create compound words:

ejskrystell

ice crystal

This can only happen with two words. The two are pronounced seperately and the second word loses its stress but maintains the pronunciation as a result of the stress. This means the above is pronounced /ˈajs.kʁystɛl(:)/

SuffixingEdit

If the conditions aren't met for compounding, then the possessor gains the suffix -s, -es if the root word ends in s:

ejses det krystell

the crystal of ice

This is just an example, as you can write det ejskrystell (the ice crystal). In this version, both words keep their stress and this version can have more than two nouns. The above is pronounced /ˈajsəs deˑ kʁysˈtɛl(:)/.

This is the only version that allows pronouns, as possessive adjectives don't exist:

jegs det ejskrystell

my ice crystal

When belonging to a pronoun, the definite article is required.

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives also decline to case, like the articles.

Form English Dictionary Form NOM ACC DAT & LOC
Normal cold kalt kalter kalten kaltet
good leg leger legen leget
Svegian svigeg svigeger svigegen svigeget
Comparative colder kalter kalterer kalteren kalteret
better leger legerer legeren legeret
Superlative coldest kaltst kaltster kaltsten kaltstet
best legst legster legsten legstet

Adjectival VerbsEdit

To make adjectival verbs, you take the present conjugation and take off the er or the past conjugation.

illumen /ˈil:umɛn/ - to illuminate

illum /ˈil:um/ - illuminating

illumle /ˈil:umlə/ - illuminated

Dictionary Form NOM ACC DAT & LOC
illum illumer illumen illumet
illumle illumler illumlen illumlet

SupinesEdit

Supines are formed with the use of commas. Like it's Aunt language Xynder , every clause must be separated with punctuation.

Jeg loger, ogen kalt.

I like(,) to be cold

InterrogationEdit

This is the first Natrodian language not to have a conjugation for interrogation. Sveg inverts the verb and subject's positions. Interrogative adverbs come first in the word order as opposed to the normal adverb position.

Låger tog legs?

Are you letting go?

AdverbsEdit

English Sveg
What are you letting go? Vat låger tog legs?
Where are you letting go? Vor låger tog legs?
When are you letting go? Vyn låger tog legs?
Who are you letting go? Vyr låger tog legs?
Why are you letting go? Vy låger tog legs?
How are you letting go? Vys låger tog legs?

Numerical SystemEdit

Numeral Natraden Abbreviation [+3]
0 nůl
1 enn
2 tug
3 tere
4 fjåg
5 fen
6 ses
7 syt
8 œt
9 ing
10 tyn
11 el
12 tölv
13 teretyn
14 fjågtyn
15 fentyn
16 sestyn
17 syttyn
18 œttyn
19 ingtyn
20

tuger

21 enntuger
30 terer
40 fjåger
50 fener
60 seser
70 syter
80 œter
90 ingter
100 ett hynter
101 ett hynter lig enn
110 ett hynter lig tyn
113 ett hynter lig teretyn
200 dugter
300 tereter
400 fjågter
500 fenter
600 sester
700 synter
800 œnter
900 ingenter
1,000 tys 1t.
2,000 tug tyser 2t.
3,000 tere tyser 3t.
10,000 tyn tyser 10t.
20,000 duger tyser 20t.
30,000 terer tyser 30t.
100,000 ett hynter tyser 100t.
1 million ett milligon 1mio.
10 million tyn milligoner 10mio.
100 million ett hynter milligoner 100mio.
1 billion ett milligard 1mia.
1 trillion ett billigon 1bio.
1 quadrillion ett billigard 1bia.

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