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Těmle miphȃ
Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General informationEdit



Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Postalveolar/Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n

p pʰ b

t tʰ d

k kʰ g

Fricative f s ʃ h
Affricate tʃ tʃʰ dʒ
Approximant ɹ j w
Lateral app. l


Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a


Consonants (in above order from left to right, up to down): m n p ph b t th d k kh g f s x h c ch j r y w l

Vowels (in above order from left to right, up to down): i u e o a


Tone Edit

Těmle does have a simple tonal system (pitch accent). An accented syllable can have either rising tone, falling tone, falling-rising tone (as in Těmle), or rising-falling tone, whereas an unaccented syllable has neutral tone. Tone is used to convey a variety of inflections (see below.)


Pronouns Edit

Personal Edit

Těmle has ten personal pronouns.

singular dual plural dual (exclusive) plural (exclusive)
1st ipa ippal ipamm sippal xipamm
2nd eto ettol etamm
3rd uka ukkal ukamm

Note the dual forms and exclusive pronouns, both of which are not found in English.

Correlative Edit

question one two multiple all no near pointer far pointer
person ranse ranku rankkul rankumm ranbe randu ranla ranpha
animate object hatse hatku hatkkul hatkumm hatbe hatdu hatla hatpha
inanimate object thilse thilku thilkkul thilkumm thilbe thildu thilla thilpha
time mosse mosku moskkul moskumm mosbe mosdu mosla mospha
place nugse nugku nugkkul nugkumm nugbe nugdu nugla nugpha
cause milse milku milkkul miltkumm milbe mildu milla milpha
method ginse ginku ginkkul ginkumm ginbe gindu ginla ginpha
motivation takse takku takkul takkumm takbe takdu takla takpha
amount golse golku golkkul golkumm golbe goldu golla golpha

Correlatives for one, two, and multiple unknown objects can be formed by adding -n onto the end of the noun.


Case Edit

The case system of Těmle is indicated by the tone of the final two syllables.

Ergative: falling, neutral

Absolutive: neutral, rising

Genitive: neutral, rising-falling

Vocative: falling-rising, neutral

Dative: neutral, falling

Locative: rising, neutral

Lative: rising-falling, neutral

Ablative: neutral, falling-rising

Number Edit

Number is indicated in a slightly complex but totally consistent method.

Singular nouns require no inflection and are considered the root for all modifications.

To form a dual noun, geminate the first consonant of the final syllable and add an -l to the end.

To form a plural noun, add a geminate m to the end.

Verbs Edit

Tense + Aspect Edit

Tense and aspect are not mandatory in fast speech or a situation where the context is very clear. For example, a story may offer some courtesy by initially indicating tense and aspect, and then not using it until the tense changes.

Syntax Edit

Word order is most often SOV.

ìpa etó loxpi

1s/ERG 2s/ABS see


Example textEdit

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