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Taalk Aur

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Taalk Aur
"Our Language"
Type
Fusional
Alignment
SVO - SOV
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar  Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m̥ - m n̥ - n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p t ʈ k
Fricative
Affricate
Approximant ɻ j ʍ-w
Trill
Flap or tap ɾ ɽ
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l ɭ ʎ
Lateral flap

There are no fricatives. Bilabial and alveolar nasals can be voiced or unvoiced. Voiced nasals, retroflex consonants and [ j ] can be geminated ; vowels preceeding geminated consonants are always short.

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i - i: u - u:
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid ə
Open-mid
Near-open
Open a - a:

There are two diphthongs : ai and au. There is a distinction between short and long vowels. The mid-central vowel is always short.

Since there is lenght distinction for both vowels and consonants, there are minimal pairs like : ama = to love, amma = mum, aama = here , amaa = loved , ammaa = come here !

Alphabet 

Bilabial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar
Nasal mh - m n nh ny ng
Plosive p t th k
Approximant x j wh - w
Flap r rh
Lateral l lh ly

Long vowels are written as double letters : "aa", "ii" and "uu". The mid-central vowel is written "e". Geminate consonants are written as double letters : pp, tt, thth, kk, xx, jj, whwh, ww, rr, rhrh, ll, lhlh and lyly.

PhonotacticsEdit

StressEdit

Stress is predictable :

Words with stress on the last syllable 

  1. Monosyllabic words ( ta - to stay )
  2. Place adverbs ( aama - here )
  3. Future and desiderative verbs ( panhkau - will make )

Words with stress on the penultimate syllableEdit

The majority of words have stress on the penultimate syllable ( ama - to love )

Words with stress on the antepenult syllable Edit

  1. Words of four or more syllables having short vowels in their last three syllables ( maatulhtaku - mill )
  2. Words of three or more syllables having a diphthong in their antepenult syllable ( kaukaalte - quickly )

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes No Yes No No
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No Yes No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Taak Aur grammar tends to be regular.

ArticlesEdit

Indefinite article is not present.

The definite article is al ( an before words whose first letter is l ), used for both singular and plural words.

Nouns Edit

Nouns are declensed by case ( nominative, genitive, dative, accusative and locative ) and by number ( singular and plural ). 

There are three declensions : the first, whose nominative ends with a nasal consonant, the second, whose nominative ends with another consonant, and the third, whose nominative ends with a vowel.

First Declension

N = nasal consonant Singular Plural
Nominative -N Ne-... -N
Genitive -Nu Ne-...-Num
Dative -Na Na-...-Na
Accusative -NNum Ne-...-NNum
Locative -Nti Nti-...-Nti

Second DeclensionEdit

C = consonant Singular Plural
Nominative -C Ce-...-C
Genitive -Cu Ce-...-CCum
Dative -Ca Ce-...-Ca
Accusative -CCuk Ce-...-C
Locative -CCiit Ce-...-CCiit

Third Declension

V = vowel Singular Plural
Nominative -V -Vwh
Genitive -Vwhu -Vwhuu
Dative -Vwha -Vwhaa
Accusative -Vn -Vwhun
Locative -Vti -Vtinh

Examples Edit

Singular man ( hand ) kaalh ( horse ) amma ( mother )
Nominative man kaalh amma
Genitive  manu kaalhu ammawhu
Dative mana kaalha ammawha
Accusative mannum kalhlhuk amman
Locative manti kalhlhiit ammati
Plural
Nominative neman lhekaalh ammawh
Genitive nemanum lhekalhlhu ammawhuu
Dative namana lhekalha ammawhaa
Accusative nemannum lhekaalh ammawhun
Locative ntimanti lhekalhlhiit ammatinh

Irregular NounsEdit

There are just three irregular nouns : whamuu, meaning person, pilh, meaning son or daughter, and wutha, meaning fluid substance. Their declension, really different from regular one, is given in the table below.

Singular Whamuu Pilh Wutha
Nominative whamuu pilh wutha
Genitive whamuwhu pilhu wuthau
Dative whamuwha pilha wuththa
Accusative whamuum pilhulm wuthana
Locative whamuuti pilhiit wuthanait
Plural
Nominative whemuu paipilh thawutha
Genitive whemuwhu paupilhu thauwuthau
Dative whemuwha paipilha thawuththa
Accusative whemuum paupilh thawuthana
Locative whemuuti paipilhiit taiwuthanait

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives follow noun's declension. They ever come after the noun and they must agree with noun's case and number : wutha klhana - blue liquid, manu talluxu - tall man's, whemuwhu xetalluxu - tall men's.

VerbsEdit

Verbs are simple and quite regular. There are two tenses ( present and past ), four moods ( indicative, imperative, desiderative and infinitive ) and two numbers ( singular and plural ). Verbs do not conjugate according to person.

InfinitiveEdit

Infinitive always ends with "a" : kalla - to call, bajja - to buy, ama - to love.

IndicativeEdit

PresentEdit

Present indicative has two forms, singular and plural. Singular form is created by the desinence "aa" to verb's stem, so the only difference between infinitive and present indicative is the final vowel's lenght. Plural form is created by adding the desinence "aang" :' 'kallaa - call ( singular subject ), kallaang - call ( plural subject ).

PastEdit

Singular past is formed by adding the desinence "elhe", while plural past desinence is "elheng" : kallelhe - called ( singular subject ), kallelheng - called ( plural subject ).

DesiderativeEdit

Desiderative verbs have the meaning of "wanting to (verb)". The stress falls ever on the last syllable.

PresentEdit

Singular present desiderative is formed by adding the desinence "kau", while plural desinence is "kiing" : kallau - would call ( singular subject ), kalliing - would call ( plural subject ).

PastEdit

Past desiderative is formed analytically by adding the adverb "ja" ( before ) to present desiderative forms : ja kallau - would have called ( singular subject ), ja kalliing - would have called ( plural subject ).

ImperativeEdit

Imperative is simply formed by putting the emphatic pronouns after the infinite verb : kalla thxii - call (you) !

Irregular verbsEdit

The only irregular verbs are etha - to be, ta - to stay, lha - to walk and tuula - to receive/to gather. Their conjugation pattern, shown in the table, is really different from the regular one.

Infinitive Pres. Indicative Past Indicative Pres. Desiderative Past Desiderative
To be etha ethaa wui ure ja ure
ethaanh waax ureththi ja ureththi
To stay ta tuu tap taparii ja taparii
tuunh tapn tapariinh ja tapariinh
To walk lha lhaa lhe lhii ja lhii
lhaanh lhenh lhiinh ja lhiin

To receive or

to gather

tuula tulaa tut tujti ja tujti
tulaanh tuththnh tujtiinh ja tujtiinh

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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