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Taekrand

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For the most up-to-date info look on my website: http://nepwork.wikkii.com/wiki/Taekrand

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Name: Taekrand

Type: Fusional (sort of)

Alignment: Tripartite

Head Direction: Head-first with prepositions

Number of genders: No

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: No

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes No Yes
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes
Numbers No Yes No Yes No No No No
Participles No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Setting and HistoryEdit

Taekrand is a completely a priori language with no (deliberate) relationships with any existing languages. The speakers are a race of blue bird-like things and a similar race of similarly blue reptile-like things (which I can go into more detail about if anyone wants) called the Huinglu and Laes Hyaerra.

Taekrand has a long history, during which time it has split into a large number of dialects and regional variations (I will only write about the most common and 'official', as it were, dialect). Over this time it has also leveled quite a lot of its more unpredictable forms, such as inflection on the stressed syllable of the word rather than the end. Taekrand's closest related language is called Sanejrus, and is more distantly related to Lezoroimuco and Satun. All four languages evolved from a common ancestor called Shisad (literally 'first'). Because I don't want to duplicate all these languages (yet), and because some of them aren't mine to duplicate, I will link to them here:

Anyway, Taekrand first became a language in its own right when explorers (speakers of Shisad) left the islands of Fleh and went south. Over the subsequent years of no contact with Fleh the language diverged considerably from Sanejrus (which is the descendent of the language of the people who stayed). Sanejrus, as it happened, became extinct during a war, and was only rediscovered later, so Taekrand is the most important of the Eastern group of languages. I'd love to go into all the changes here but they'd be meaningless as you won't know about the original (If that doesn't deter you, they're on the Proto-Taekrand page at http://nepwork.wikkii.com/wiki/Proto-Taekrand ). So in short, there was a general lengthening of monosyllabic roots, increase in the number of cases and numbers (in both cases about double have existed, although some of them no longer survive), a massive emphasis on vowel harmony and assonance, and development of the vowel shift system.

PhonologyEdit

I use the Romanised letters in the following tables. Although an alphabet does exist, it is syllabic and impossible to reproduce on a web page. (Perhaps one day I will upload images.) Stops and sonorants in brackets are voiceless, as are all fricatives.

ConsonantsEdit

Biabial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal M N
Plosive B (P) D (T) G (K)
Fricative F TH S J (SH) CH H
Sonorants (HU) L, R (HY)

The letters C and K are (unfortunately, due to my own inconsistency) used interchangeably. Note that G and C are always 'hard' (ie. [g] and [k]; never [s] or [dʒ] etc.) - although in the case of C it is easier to use K than risk mispronunciation by English speakers.

H is very rare, only occuring in (to date) one word. It is a non-word-initial allophone of HY or HU.

The voiced-voiceless distinction is non-contrastive - some words and/or dialects prefer voiceless stops, others voiced, though voiceless voiced (sorry!) is much rarer. The important thing is that they are not aspirated, unlike in English (though if you cannot reproduce this, don't worry). If the stressed syllable ends in a voiced stop, a nasal is added between them (as in taekraNd) - this is written in the romanised letters but is not considered phonemic by native speakers. Note that the two approximants HY and HU are voiceless.

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close I U
Close-mid E W
Near-open AE
Open A O

NB. Near-open is the closest the IPA has for AE - it's not like English 'a' but slightly less open.

PhonotacticsEdit

The fluidity of the language is a priority for me, so clusters of obstruents have to be restricted to allow the liquids and vowels to take priority. Basically, consonant clusters of two or more fricatives, and three or more obstruents (of any sort), are forbidden and and consonants are lost from the root until this is achieved. Liquids are retained, as long as they are not between the two obstruents. Thus the genitive of 'taekrand' is 'taekdē' (ie. taek[r][n]dē), and the adjective from 'shachar' (dryness) is 'ashar' (ie. ash[ch]ar) (dry).

Basic GrammarEdit

Sequence of Vowels Edit

The six vowels, arranged in order, give rise to various grammatical distinctions like case, aspect etc. It is important to know the order, as most of the time the 'endings' are not formed by the use of a specific vowel, but rather 'shifting' vowels along the sequence. Thus, if for example a verb has its last vowel one 'shift' lower than usual, it can be deduced that it is in the future tense. The vowels, in order, are:

I E AE A O W U
[i] [e] [æ] [a] [ɒ] [o] [u]

It is possible to mark vowel shifts using accents. A shift up (ie. towards the 'i' end of the sequence) is marked by an upwards-pointing 'up' accent (ie. a circumflex), while a shift down is marked by a 'down' accent. Sometimes a grammatical form always uses the same vowel; this is called a 'flat' shift and is marked by a 'flat' accent.

(Unfortunately due to computer limitations 'w' cannot be accented, so a bit of guesswork is required. It helps to know that a flat shift to 'w' does not exist outside the relative case. Also for 'ae' the accent goes on the initial 'a')

So:

  • 'e' shifted up goes to 'î'
  • 'a' shifted down goes to 'ǒ'
  • a flat shift to 'e' is written 'ē'

Note that the letter 'w' is relatively unstable and sometimes forms use 'o' where 'w' would be expected and 'w' where 'o' would be expected.

Other forms that are important to recognise are inverted and compound forms. Inversion means that the position of a vowel and adjacent consonant are switched (ie. C-V → V-C or vice versa. Here C is a consonant and V a vowel.) Compounds have two vowels; typically this looks like a word which has been inverted and then had the original (or other) vowel added back (so V-C → V-C-V, for example). In both cases shifts can and often do affects the vowel(s) as well.

Roots Edit

All words in Taekrand are based on a root of (usually) three consonants. In between these consonants are (usually) two vowels. Depending on the position and shift of these vowels, different parts of speech can be derived from the root. For example, the word 'pucor' - land - has the root 'p-c-r', from which are derived the following:

  • 'upocr' (adj.) - of the land, natural
  • 'pucor' (adj.) - real, 'worldly'
  • 'pucor' (noun) - land, country
  • and others.

Almost all roots contain three consonants. (This is simply because there aren't enough two-consonant roots, but four-consonant ones are too long to be convenient for everyday words.) Some roots only have two consonant, for example those of the words 'mis' ('m-s') = 'thing'; 'sot' ('s-t') = 'in existence', "is". Other words appear to belong to this group, but actually a consonant has 'dropped out' because the word was too difficult to pronounce (see phonotactics). For example 'ashar' = 'dry' has the root 'sh-ch-r', as is evident in words like 'shachran' = 'a dry thing', "the dry". However, although the consonants are enough to identify the root meaning, the vowels are required to identify its grammar when shifts are concerned. To use the same example, the vowels in 'ashar' are 'a-a', so the essential noun is 'sh-a-ch-a-r', the adjective is 'a-sh-a-(ch)-r', and so on. A shift down in the word would give the vowel 'o', so 'oshar' is the ergative case; this could not be deduced if the root vowel were not known, as it would be impossible to determine the 'direction' in which the shift had taken place.

Nouns Edit

Nouns in Taekrand have eight cases: these are nominative, ergative, accusative, ablative, allative, genitive, relative and locative. Of these, the last three are 'oblique' and are only used to add extra information, while the first five can be used for arguments of the verb. There are four numbers: singular and plural, as in English, quantitative expressing a part or amount of something (eg. 'pishtâe' (qu.) = 'some water') and collective expressing a group of individuals that form a unit. For example 'lapesǔ' (cl.) = 'trees' would more naturally be translated as 'forest' (ie. a group of trees that functions as a unit).

Nom. Erg. Acc. Abl. All. Gen. Rel. Loc.
Singular Pucor Pucwr Pucâr Pucrā Pucrī Pucrē Pucrw Pucro
Plural Pucrw Pucrw Pucrâ Pucwrā Pucwrī Pucwrō Pucwrw Pucwro
Quantitative Pucro Pucrw Pucrâ Pucorā Pucorī Pucorē Pucorw Pucoro
Collective Pucērw* Pucērw Pucērâ Pucērāī Pucērōī Pucērō Pucērw Pucēro

*An alternative form here is 'pucwr'. This is used more often in speech, but is identical to the ergative singular

As a summary of an otherwise complicated table:

  • The singular has no specific mark. No compounds are used
  • The plural uses a vowel with shift down. All the cases except nom., erg. and acc. use compounds.
  • The quantitative uses a vowel with no shift. All the cases except nom., erg. and acc. use compounds.
  • The collective uses the flat shifted vowel 'e'. All the cases use compounds.

And:

  • The nominative has no vowel shift in the singular and quantitative, and a shift down in the plural and collective.
  • The ergative always shifts down, and the accusative always shifts up
  • The ablative always uses 'a', the allative always 'i' and the relative always 'w'
  • The locative never shifts, but can take inversions/compounds
  • The genitive uses 'e' or 'o' depending on the number.

Strong and Weak Nouns Edit

This is a distinction of form, not meaning. Although it cannot be predicted, the following are often weak rather than strong:

  • Abstract nouns
  • Long or technical words
  • Words in a vowel high up in the sequence
  • Some women's names*

*This use of so-called 'weak' words is NOT a reflection of the speakers' views on gender!

Weak nouns swap the endings of pairs of cases: erg. swaps with acc.; abl. with all.; and (singular only) gen. with an archaic form (which has disappeared from modern Taekrand) called the Absolute, which ends in x↓i - that is, like the weak accusative with an 'i' on the end forming a diphthong. So, for a weak noun like 'kutak' = 'hate', in the singular:

  • the ergative is 'kutâek'
  • the accusative is 'kutǒk'
  • the allative is 'kutkā'
  • the genitive is 'kutkǒī'

...and so on. Care needs to be taken not to confuse these shifts with their corresponding strong forms. Also note that in the plural, in a strong noun the nom. is the same as the erg., but in a weak noun it is the same as the acc.

Because of the pairs of cases that swap, it is likely that many weak nouns are weak because they are more often used in the accusative than the ergative. Thus the shift down, which usually results in a richer sound that may well have been thought of as more emphatic than an up shift, is used more often. (It is from this idea, that the ergative form of these nouns was less emphatic than the equivalent form in other words, that they got the English name 'weak'. The huinglu and laes hyaerra who speak the language, however, apparently have no word for it, and happily borrowed the English one when they needed it!)

Actually, that isn't quite true: the reason some words are weak and others aren't is historical. It depends on Shisad's pattern of 'complementary vowels' - that is, vowels were arranged in pairs and rather than shifting up (or down) they swapped to the other vowel in the pair. When the pairs were linked together to become a sequence in Proto-Taekrand, a noun was 'strong' or 'weak' according to which direction in the sequence its complementary vowel lay. As the idea of direction became more important than that of complement (ie. when the ergative case joined the accusative in being represented by a shift, rather than a nasal - suddenly vowels had two possibilities to change to) more and more nouns changed the direction of shift in these cases to conform to other nouns of similar meaning. Thus the nouns that have stayed weak and defied 'regularisation' to a strong form tend to be those that are either so common that any such change is too difficult to slowly integrate into speech, those which are so rare that they aren't used enough to have a chance to be changed or would simply be misunderstood if they were, or those for which there would be more ambiguous endings (where an up/down shift ending clashes with a flat shift one) if the direction were to change. Equally some, though a smaller number, have gone the other way.

Alignment Edit

This is confusing, with lots of subtleties, and the general pattern must be quickly learnt to make sense of the language. Apart from the oblique (gen., rel., loc.) ones, all the cases in Taekrand can be used as the argument of a verb. For now I will ignore the two 'indirect' cases (all., abl.) as they complicate the picture. This leaves nom., erg. and acc.

The purpose of the noun cases is primarily to convey emphasis and verb voicing distinctions before the noun's grammatical role in the sentence. As such, just about any case can be used for any argument. However, the distinction between the subject and object is made by the following rule:

The case of the subject (agent) is always 'below' that of the object (patient).

By 'below', I mean 'in a case that lends itself more strongly to the role of object (patient) in a sentence'. Namely, accusative is below nominative; nominative is below ergative. This system of case hierarchy is quite important in determining the grammatical role of each word in the sentence.

Beyond that, the use of cases is largely free for emphasis and voicing purposes. Now I will talk about each alignment system in turn:

  • Basic Alignment: The nominative case is used for the argument of intransitive verbs, accusative for the object of transitive verbs, and ergative for the subject of transitive verbs - ie. tripartite. (cf. Na'vi language; if the na'vi wikipedia page has a better explanation, let me know.) This alignment carries no voicing emphasis, and applies when both subject and object are given equal weight.
  • Secondary Alignment: This is an extention of the above system that allows a particular argument to be weighted more than the other. Here the nominative case is used for the argument with the most weight. So nom-acc has active 'antipassive' weight, while erg-nom has 'passive' weight and corresponds to the passive in English. Note that the hierarchy rule is still obeyed.
  • Nom-Nom Alignment This is occasionally used to give pronounced weight to both arguments, usually to emphasise (confusingly, as they are unmarked) that the subject and object are not reversed (as, perhaps, may have been the addressee's misconception). Here the word order (SOV) and/or the differential(s) distinguish subject from object. (Since no other emphasis is needed, word order can be used for this)

Use With Prepositions Edit

PronounsEdit

These are used very differently to in English. There is no first, second and third person, nor does the pronoun used change depending on the speaker and the addressee. Instead, replies will usually use the same pronoun to refer to the same people as was used previously. The two most important prepositions for use in conversation are 'dos', which is reflexive, and 'caeth', which refers to the narrator. This is made clearer by examples:

  • If you are talking about yourself or telling a story which you are in, refer to yourself as 'caeth', since you are the 'narrator'.
  • If you are asking a question, and the reply will be as described above, refer to the addressee as 'caeth'. When they reply, they will use 'caeth' of themselves, which doesn't involve anyone being referred to by a new pronoun.
  • If you are asking a question about yourself, use 'dos', even though you are the narrator, as using 'caeth' would prompt the addressee to reply using 'caeth', which to them would refer to themself. Their reply will also use 'dos', but this does not refer back to them (despite it being reflexive) as you have already used it for yourself.
  • If in doubt, the (indeclinable) pronoun 'thi' can be used in conjunction with any other pronoun, and is uniquely second person. However it is usually used for formal and polite questions, so it can sound odd if used with someone you are close to.

'caeth' and 'dos' are both regular in declension.

Narrative Pronouns Edit

These are used for referring to people when telling a story. The two most important pronouns are 'i' and 'oha'*. As with all other pronouns, the person they refer to should not be changed. Their uses are outlined in more detail below:

  • The 'hierarchy' is that 'i' is 'higher' than 'oha', so it refers to the most 'important' character: it is called the primary pronoun. 'Oha, the (you guessed it) secondary pronoun, refers to the second most 'important' character. While tertiary and subsequent pronouns do exist, they are considerably rarer, and identical to the equivalent ordinal (eg. shosad, taersad).
  • In a long narrative, 'i' always refers to the same person. 'Oha' usually does too, though its use is more flexible. (Tertiary and subsequent pronouns are generally avoided and almost always used as a one-off, whose character is understood from the context, and is likely to be different from the previous use and to change again before the next one.)
  • Alternatively, and this is more common in speech where many people are being referred to simultaneously, they can be used like (but much more commonly than) 'the former' and 'the latter' in English; thus 'i' is the last person mentioned , 'oha' is the person last mentioned before 'i' and so on. (Although it is more common to name a person again than use tertiary and especially quaternary pronouns).

'Oha' only has one number, singular, although it can refer to plural or collective nouns. It is as regular (strong) as any word ending in a vowel can be. Where inversions would normally happen, stick an 's' on the end - so the locative is 'ohas', etc. The ablative ends in 'o' (ie. 'ohos') so as not to clash with the locative. 'I' is highly irregular, though loosely weak. The singular and quantitative have a stem in s, although this is not seen in the nominative, as well as several unexpected diphthongs. The plural has a stem in r, while the collective borrows that of 'mis' = 'thing', which despite its stem is regular (strong) in itself: 'cērǎ' / 'cǎr' (from irregular plural 'crǎ').

Nom. Erg. Acc. Abl. All. Gen. Rel. Loc.
i si se sai sa sei sw so
ri ri re rai ra rei rw ro
is is es isai isa isei isw iso
cērǎ / cǎr cērǎ cērê cērāī cērōī cērō cērw cērae

Verbs Edit

Verbs in Taekrand fall into three main categories. The first is 'Verbs Of Action', which are most similar to English's verbs and have the familiar systems of tense, aspect, and so on. 'Verbs Of State' covers all those verbs which describe a state of being, such as 'to live', 'to know', etc. All the grammar for these verbs is exactly the same as for adjectives. 'Verbs Of Change Of State' are a form of Verbs of State which describes the action that caused that state to come about. They are dealt with in their own section.

Verbs in Taekrand belong to one of two tenses (present and past), three moods (indicative, weak and strong conditional - that's not including infinitive) and three aspects (imperfective [habitual], perfective, and aspect future - that's not including continuous, which is formed from the infinitive, or the perfect participle). Mostly, any combination of these is possible. The basic tense/aspect classification system is done by shift, so that the present forms are a shift up, the future forms a shift down, and the past forms unchanged. (This means you should always look up the past infinitive in a dictionary!) The mood is formed by inversion, so that the indicative is formed by inversion so that it ends in a vowel (eg. 'naecrw', from root 'naecor' [=flight], 'muta' [=do, verb-only root]), and the infinitive is formed by inverting the othe way, so that the two vowels are adjacent (eg. 'nae'wcr', 'mu'at'). In addition, there is a past suffix 'li'. The exact meanings vary between moods, so each is looked at separately:

  • In the indicative (almost) all aspects are possible in all tenses. The present tense is unmarked; the past technically adds the suffix 'li', although it is equally acceptable to omit it. The imperfective is used more or less as in English (x does/did [regularly] / used to do), as is the perfective (x did [on one occasion] - this only exists in the past tense). The future aspect is used only with reference to the current tense (: x is/was going to do) - it refers to a time after the one which the main story/speech refers to.
    • The imperfective is formed by a shift up from the root (eg. 'naecrô', 'mutâe')
    • The perfective has no shift (eg. 'naecrw', 'muta'). It is only used in the past tense (although the suffix 'li' is, as ever, optional)
    • The aspect future has a shift down (eg. 'naecrǔ', 'mutǒ').
    • Any of these can be made past by adding the suffix 'li', or by context.
  • The infinitive is used as in English (ie. 'to do x'). Between this and the participle, which has identical form, they can fill the role of any noun and adjective as well as verb, declining using the differential particle. Here the shifts mark tense, not aspect, so that the present infinitive has a shift up, the future one has a shift down, and the past one is umnarked.
  • The participle, identical to the infinitive, is also used to get round the lack of an imperfective (continuous) aspect by saying literally 'I am/was/will be a doer of x' ie. 'I am/was/will be doing x' by using the same shifts as the infinitive as described above, (optionally) agreeing it with the subject by way of the differential.

Taekrand has no passive (or any other) voice. Instead, different combinations of cases are used: erg-acc for normal emphasis; nom-acc for active/antipassive; erg-nom for passive (see also nouns.) Also the word order can be changed to bring the focus to the front of the sentence for emphasis, or delay it for tension and dramatic effect.

Adjectives Edit

Adjectives fall into two main declensions: thematic and athematic. This is a difference of form, not meaning, although patterns of meaning can be observed among adjective pairs derived from the same root but in different declensions. Thematic adjectives have a thematic vowel (ie an 'x') and decline by doing shifts and inversions to that vowel, while athematic ones simply 'borrow' the vowel and inversion from the noun they qualify. In both athematic and thematic adjectives, all such shifts and inversions happen to the initial vowel; thus 'asha(ch)r' (=dry) becomes 'aeshar' in the accusative, 'shichar' in the allative, etc; and 'pucor' (=real) uses forms like xpucor, px'ucor etc. (There are a small number of adjectives, most notably those numbers which decline, which shift the final vowel, like nouns.) Almost all adjectives Adjectives have only one number, so they only agree in case. In athematic adjectives, however, for numbers outside the singular, inversions take place as if the noun was singular. Thus 'ashar odbǔ' = dry people; ǔpucor (not pǔ'ucor) odbǔ = real people). The vast majority of thematic adjectives are strong; however there is a small group that is weak, and an even smaller group that can be either strong or weak, agreeing with the noun in 'strength'. (In athematic adjectives the distinction is meaningless, as the vowels do not in themselves determine the case, only which noun they qualify.)

Because the verb 'to be' does not exist (in a transitive sense, at least) an adjective agreeing with a noun is enough to convey the idea of being [something is something]; you can get a past tense [something was something] by adding '-li' to the end, as for verbs.

A lot of adjectives in Taekrand correspond to English verbs, such as 'to exist' = 'sot' (adjectival meaning: 'in existence'); 'to know' (aware of); to sleep (asleep), etc. Their grammar is exactly like any other adjectives.

It is also possible to 'back-form' a perfect participle from any verb (the opposite to the process of forming change-of-state verbs from adjectives). This has the (adjectival) meaning 'in a state resulting from having done x / been x-ed' (or some neater translation where one exists, or simply 'having done x / been x-ed' when one doesn't). These can be active or passive depending on the context; all For example:

  • 'Dos nacr' - 'I am in a state resulting from having flown' or simply 'I have arrived (by flying)' / 'I am here'
  • 'Âet mut' - 'It is in a state resulting from having been done' or simply 'It is done / finished' / 'It has been done'

To form these, the two vowels must be contracted to form one vowel. The new word behaves like a monosyllabic root (ie. CVC). The rule for contraction is:

  • 'The new vowel is one shift away from the first vowel in the direction of the second vowel'

Thus: nae'wcr > na↓cr, ne'isk > ni↑sk, shw'ek > sho↑k

Note that if the resulting vowel is w, it often shifts back to the one it came from, thus mu'at > mu↑↓t, not mw↑t.

Numbers Edit

Taekrand uses a base-8 number system. The numbers one and two decline like nouns (one is weak; two is strong and of course plural), and three like an adjective. Numbers greater than four can be declined using the differential where necessary. Ordinals are formed by adding '-ad' to the end (this becomes '-sad' after a vowel (ie. shisad, shasad) and '-d' after kwna and dwna (ie. kwnad, dwnad). At any rate they are easily recognisable).

For reference the numbers are as follows (the larger ones are in standard form):

1 Shi
2 Sha
3 Shos
4 Taer
5 Kws
6 Dws
7 Lun
8 (81) Theis
9 Shi Theis
10 Sha Theis
16 (2×81) Thas
24 (3×81) Thos
32 (4×81) Thaer
40 (5×81) Kwna
48 (6×81) Dwna
56 (7×81) Luna
64 (82) Shisan
65 Shi Shisan
72 Theis Shisan
73 Shi Theis Shisan
128 (2×82) Shasan
(3×82) Shosan
(4×82) Taersan
(5×82) Kwsin
(6×82) Dwsin
(7×82) Lusin
(83) Thoy
(2×83) Tho-sha
(3×83) Tho-shos
(4×83) Tho-taer
(84) Taeroy
(2×84) Taero-sha
(85) Kwsoy
(86) Dwsoy

NB. The pattern for the bigger numbers is: The number x×8n would be written no-x; so 6×87 is seveno-six (which is: luno-dws)

Subcognatives Edit

The following affixes can give extra detail about the role, strength of meaning, or specific-ness of a noun, verb or adjective:

Name Form Nouns Adjectives Verbs
Interrogative cha- 'which x?' 'how x?' 'does/did...x?'
Definite -s 'This x' 'This/so x' (-)
Comparative ~l (-) 'More x (than) [+rel.]' (-)
Indefinite eish- 'An/some x' (-) (-)
Inclusive ma- 'Any x' (-) (-)
Universal kol- 'Every/whatever x' 'The most/very x' (-)
Negative th- 'Not an x' 'Not x' 'To not do x'
Exclusive so- 'An anti-x' 'The opposite of/un- x' 'To do the opposite of x'
Revertive is- 'Everything but x' 'Everything but x' 'To undo x'

The first six are positive; the last three are negative. The three negatives correspond to the last three positives (th ≠ eish / so ≠ ma / is ≠ col). Note that with subcognatives 'mis' (=thing) uses the (strong) stem soc, giving eish(s)oc, colsoc etc. (and the irregular definite msol).

The negatives are all translated with 'not' in English in different ways, for example:

  • thdakw i aet-cos = he didn't say that it was finished
  • sodakw i aet-cos = he said that it wasn't finished / he denied that it was finished
  • thdakw i měs = he didn't say the thing
  • sodakw i měs -or- dakw i sosâc = he didn't say anything
  • thso'ot = not to make
  • thsot = not in existence / not having come to be made
  • isso'ot = to destroy / to 'un-make'
  • issot = no longer in existence / having come to be destroyed

Note that the three positive subcognatives can all be made using double negatives:

  • thmuta i th(s)âc = he did not-nothing = he did something
  • thmuta i sosâc = he did anti-nothing = he did anything
  • thmuta i issâc = he did all but nothing = he did everything

Change-Of-State Verbs Edit

These are verbs that describe the action that caused a state to happen. They are formed by doubling the vowel (eg. 'sot' > 'so'ot', 'cos' > 'co'os')

They can be transitive or intransitive depending on the combination of cases used. Some are transitive-orientated - that is, a single argument in the nominative is the subject, with the object unspecified. This means that by default the sentence structure is nom-acc; the reflexive pronoun 'dos' can be used as the accusative object. Others are intransitive-oriented - that is, a single argument in the nominative is both the subject and the reflexive object. Here the default sentence structure is a monovalent nom; it can be made transitive by adding an agent in the ergative. There is no pattern to which orientation a COS verb has.

Differential Edit

This particle has the following uses

  • To clarify ambiguous case-endings where the context isn't sufficient
  • To emphasise the grammatical role of the noun it agrees with over its meaning
  • To indicate the grammatical role of a noun when an unexpected case ending is used (eg. 'âet-taecor dakw = the word was said; cf. 'taecâr dakw' = something said the word)
  • To supply a noun where its grammatical role is important but not its meaning (eg. 'cos i âet' = he/she finished it; cf. 'cos i' = he/she are finished

It is hyphenated to the word it agrees with. It declines as follows:

Derivation Edit

A taekrand root can form lots of words. The most common and universal forms are:

  • Active = this is the verbal/adjectival form, and is formed by simple inversion. The meaning is basically the same as the root meaning. The adjective form is always thematic.
  • Essential = this is the noun form, and is also formed by inversion (or rather, the lack of it). The meaning is the state described by the adjective (corresponding to the suffix '-ness') or the process described by the verb (corresponding to the suffix '-ation') which is the active form.

And, when the active form is adjectival:

  • Athematic Adjectival = the meaning of this is often more abstract, but related (eg. 'upocr' = 'of the land'; 'earth-y' but 'pucor' = 'real' [cf. 'worldly']). Formed as expected.

Any other meanings are formed by creating a so-called secondary root by adding an extra letter. There is little pattern here, but some common letters are:

  • Consequential (aka subjective) = the typical subject of the verb, or noun described by the adjective; the 'doer'. Formed by adding perhaps ~n, ~l (eg. Taecor [=word] > taecrol [speaker]; Ash(ch)ar [=dry] > shachran [=a dry thing])
  • Objective = the typical object of the verb or adjective. Forms vary
  • Active = the process/means of doing the verb, usually a structure, system or process. Formed by adding perhaps ~d, ~↑d (eg Taecor [=word] > taekra↑nd [=language])


DictionaryEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


Example textEdit

Sorry for the slightly nonsensical content of this. The English translation is designed to mimic the rhyme and meter of the original. (OK, OK, I wrote the Taekrand to match the meter of the English, which I wrote first - and invented a few stylistic features (aka grammatical loopholes) to let me do it!)

Is-Aeshim

Pucro's alosh il hyut is-aeshmw
  Niskda's fa'ichash
Is-dlŵpŵ no osok ochaeshrw
  Shaer olael-eclash
Ta-no il dlŵpŵ so primâe-is
  Agol chei osp ma
Ati lachoshnā chei ptolâe'is
  hy'is'dlu'up so'nā

Which means:

You've lived here ever since retiring
  On this dusty street
You wake with orange sun desiring
  That you will it meet
You sleep only when collapsing
  Though your limbs may ache
For when consciousness is lapsing
  You may never wake

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