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|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
I was just bored so I made this conlang. Kinda based off of Klingon and Esperanto, Asian languages, and some other lesser-known languages. I made this to stretch my mind a bit by creating new ideas with new words.
|Nasal||m /m/||n /n/||ŋ /ŋ/|
|Plosive||b /b/||d /ɖ/||k /qʰ/||` /ʔ/|
|Fricative||v /v/||s /ʂ/||
|Lateral app.||l /l/|
As of now, there are no specific rules on consonant or vowel clusters.
tah grammar is very flexible in that one can change any word from one part of speech to another and that new words can be built from prefixes, much like Esperanto. For example, we can take vsnene (urban or urbanly) and change it to vsneno (urbanness).
Nouns all end in -o and there are 13 cases.
- -o is the agent of an intransitive verb: kclopi japluĭo = The person goes.
- -ovo is the subject of transitive verb: sreŋgi jakipono jacasovo = I hit you.
- -ono direct object: sreŋgi jakipono jacasovo = I hit you.
- -olo indirect object: vivi jakipolo javievono jacasovo = I give you an apple.
- -ogo locative/at something
- -oya’o causal/because of something
- -oplo temporal/during something
- -ojo instrumental/using something
- -orho comitative/along with something
- -omvo than something
- -ogeo genitive/possession
- -ovdo like/as something
- -oco distributive/per something
When turning a modifier into a noun, the noun represents the idea that the modifier represents (like how -ness works in English). So, if we take the adjective yekĭe (meaning "new") and change it to yekĭo, it means "newness." If we want to talk about a new thing, a novelty, then we add the prefix ja-, and we get jayekĭo. Note that this applies to every noun, so a pluĭo is not a person! It means "humanness." The prefix ja- is needed for every single noun that is meant to be a physical thing (or action).
The process for turning a verb into a noun is quite similar. kclopi means "to go," and kclopo roughly means "goingness" in English. To talk about the action of running, the ja- prefix is needed again to make jakclopo.
There are 3 moods.
- -i realis
- -isi irrealis
- -ici imperative
- -igi general
There is no verb "to be" in tah. Some words that turn into verbs mean "to be" whatever that certain quality is. If we take the modifier qeyekĭe and change it to qeyekĭi, we get the verb "to be new." Or pluĭi means "to be person-like."
Both adjectives and adverbs are considered the same part of speech in tah and all end in -e.
Interjections end in -u and give sentences a sort of context to them. For example, hnu is a feeling of uncertainty, and because of that, marks a yes or no question. Interjections are also easily changed into modifiers e.g. hne means "uncertain." Changing other words into interjections can also lead to some funky emotions. For example, given the modifier dahje (meaning "catlike" or "cattishly"), one could say dahju meaning the speaker feels like a cat.
These all end in -a and can combine two or more of the same part of speech in a sentence or join two or more sentences like in most other languages
Word order is free but follows mostly VOS or VA. Modifiers always come after the noun, verb, interjection, or other modifier they describe, including clauses that describe a noun.
The first syllable is stressed unless the word has a prefix. If there are one or more prefixes on a word, then the stress of the root word is kept. For example, pluĭo roughly means humanness, and the stress is on pluĭ-. The prefix ja- turns the word into an actual, concrete thing, so a human would be a japluĭo, and the stress is still on pluĭ-.
- ve- much/many: This is used as sort of a positive indicator since opposites don't really exist in tah outside of this. To better explain, we shall use the word qoe (temporal). When saying veqoe, it literally means "much time," but it is better translated as "in the future."
- va- more: comparitive form of ve-
- vo- most: superlative form of ve-
- qe- little/few: This ending acts as the opposite of ve-. For example, qeqoe means "little time," but is better translated as "in the past."
- qa- less/fewer: comparitive form of qe-
- qo- least/fewest: superlative form of qe-
- gi- negative connotation: Self explanatory. For example, a gijapluĭo is an evil person or just someone you don't like.
- di- positive connotation: Opposite of gi-
- pla- strengthens word/augment: Usually means a great amount of respect for someone. Very formal.
- mimo- weakens word/dimunitive: Used when talking to kids or people very familiar to you.
- ja- concrete manifestation of something: A very important prefix. All base nouns are the noun versions of their modifier counterparts (much like English -ness e.g. happiness), and adding this prefix will make it an actual object.
- ŋuĭ- one who does thing related to object (like English -ist): Self explanatory. Example: ŋuĭjapeŋĭo is one who studies rocks.
- kna- collection of something: Example: knajatelmo is a forest (collection of trees)
- byi- place where something is performed/kept: Example: a byibeqo is any place where religion is performed e.g. church or mosque
- `ivi- era of something: Example: the `ivipeŋĭo is the Stone Age
- pri- holder/container for something: Example: a prijapleplo is a water container
True tense does not exist in tah. When speaking of the past or future, use veqoe or qeqoe, respectively. Otherwise, the present tense is assumed.
When saying something like "Running is fun," one needs to use a noun clause. To do this, we use the words do and jdo. It comes at the end of the clause. For example if we want to say "Hitting people is fun," we'd say "do, sreŋgi japluĭono jdovo, gihi." do represents which case the phrase is in the main clause while jdo is how it's acting in the subordinate clause. Similar is the adjective clause. If we want to say "The running person is correct," we'd translate it as "japluĭo de, kclopi jdo, veyaŭ`i."
- jacaso - I/we
- jakipo - you
- sŋe - no/not
- yaŭ`o - correctness
- veyaŭ`e - correct
- qeyaŭ`e - incorrect
- hnu - [yes/no question]/[uncertainty]
- ja`aĭ’o - what[?] (interrogative)
- ja`ato - that thing (demonstrative)
- jaĭo - something (indefinite)
- jamaqo - everything (universal)
- jamampo - self
- jdo - (end of noun/modifier clause)
- do - (start of noun clause)
- de - (start of modifier clause)
- la - both, and
- paga - either, or (or both)
- qoda - either, or (but not both)
- kcoa - neither, nor
- japluĭo - person
- kclopi - to go/run/walk
- sreŋgi - to hit
- vereŋi - to steal
- qrci - to swim
- vivi - to give
- yekĭe - age
- jadahje - cat
- javlcine - dog
- jariŋoe - mouse
- javievo - apple
- ru - [feeling of welcomeness]/hello
- jamiyao - world/planet
- vsnene - urban
- qoe - temporal
- peŋĭe - rocky
- pluple - watery
- vacene - fiery
- telme - treelike
- beqe - religous
- gihe - fun