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Takka

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Name: Takka

Type: Agglutinating, Polysynthetic

Alignment: Varied

Head Direction: Varied

Number of genders: 9

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No Yes No Yes No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Setting and InfoEdit

I've started designing Takka with an idea in mind: a language whose orthography and phonology are clearly influenced by Uralic languages, combined with a dictionary distinctly not Uralic, even borrowing slightly from Slavic languages. It's an experiment into extreme agglutination and polysynthesis, sometimes bordering on oligosynthesis.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labiode. Dental Alveol. Postalve. Retrofl. Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn. Epiglot. Glottal
Plosives p (p)
p: (pp)
t (t)
t: (tt)
c (g)
c: (gg)
ɟ (g)
ɟ: (gg)
k (k)
k: (kk)
Affricates t͡s (ts)
t͡s' (ts')
t͡s (ts)
t͡s' (ts')
ɟ͡ʝ (gj)
ɟ͡ʝ' (gj')
Fricatives f (f)
f: (ff)
s (s)
s: (ss)
x (h)
x: (hh)
Lateral Fricatives ɬ (l)
ɬ: (ll)
ʎ̥˔ (ł)
ʎ̥˔: (łl)
ʎ˔ (ł)
ʎ˔: (łl)
Lateral Affricates t͡ɬ (tl)
t͡ɬ' (tl')
c͡ʎ̥˔ (gl)
c͡ʎ̥˔' (gl')
ɟ͡ʎ˔ (gl)
ɟ͡ʎ˔' (gl')
Nasals m (m) ɱ (mv) n (n) ŋ (nk)
Trills ɽ (r)
Flaps / taps
Glides Approxim. w (w) ʋ (v) j (j)
ɥ (y)
Lateral Appr.
Co-art. approx.

The voiced and voiceless palatal variants are in free variation or dialectical allophones.

VowelsEdit

Front Near front Central Near back Back
Close i ( i ) y ( í ) ɯ (ú) u (u)
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid ɛ (e) œ (é)
Near-open
Open a (a) ɶ (á)

Double, consecutive vowels are treated as long and two different vowels are treated as dipthongs with the respective elements.

Vowel HarmonyEdit

Takka has a simple progressive vowel harmony system based on roundness. Each vowel has two variants, and there are four rules for harmony:

  1. In the enviroment that there is either a rounded or an unrounded vowel as the last vowel in the word and a vowel of a different type is added, rule no. 2 is applied.
  2. E and É, I and Í are interchangeable in harmony, while A and Á, U and Ú aren't.
  3. E and É and I and Í can be substituted in harmony, while only Á and Ú can be harmonised (into A and U respectively).
  4. Harmony is applied only to suffixes (not to infixes, compounds etc.)

PhonotacticsEdit

Takka has a simple syllable structure. The groups significant to syllable structure are Consonants and Vowels, C and V respectively. The structure is:

(C) (C) V (C)

Other than the limitations to the length of a single syllable, no other preventions are in effect, and every consonant cluster is allowed.

Sometimes, a consonant can be alone, but only one can be found outside "true" syllable boundaries.

Basic GrammarEdit

TerminologyEdit

In the grammar section, I will use two methods of indicating types of letters in a suffix, namely the precise and underlying sound value of a letter.

Each miniscule letter carries its alphabetical value as indicated in the phonology section, but capital letters indicate the general type of letter, along with the vowel type.

Letter Underlying Type
Either "á" or "ú"
V Any Vowel
A Either "a" or "á"
E Either "e" or "é"
I Either "i" or "í"
U Either "u" or "ú"
C Any Consonant
N Any Nasal
L Any Lateral
J Any Palatal

NominalsEdit

In Takka, nouns are heavily agglutinated upon. Case, gender and number are in different suffixes and compounds are easily formed. All nominals except pronouns have an extremely regular morphology.

GendersEdit

In Takka, any full nominal (noun, adjective, number) can have any of the 9 genders. The genders are listed as follows:


Number Name Description and Suffix
1. Male Gender Masculine form, takes -EN as suffix
2. Female Gender Feminine form, takes -A as suffix
3. General Human General human form, takes -(V)t as suffix
4. Animal Form General animal form, takes -U as suffix
5. Of Plant Origin General plant class, takes -Ih as suffix
6. Edible Class General class of edibles, takes -VL as suffix
7. Artificial Form Class of artificial forms, takes -Vpp as suffix
8. Abstract Form Class of abstracts, takes -Vk as suffix
9. Divine and Mystic Class of divines, takes -\varnothing as suffix

NumbersEdit

Each nominal in Takka has one of three numbers. Full nominal suffixes are:

Number Description and Suffix
Singular

One Instance of, takes -\varnothing as suffix

Dual Two Instances of, takes -rEg as suffix
Plural Multiple Instances of, takes -tl'A as suffix

CasesEdit

Name of Case Suffix
Nominative -\varnothing
Accusative -uk
Absolutive -\varnothing
Ergative -qE
Transitive -\varnothing
Intransitive -Vtl'
Genitive* -tta
Possessive* -łU
Locative -tsV
Terminative -glE
Essive -Ikk
Ablative -sa
Instrumental-Commitative -pEh
Ornative -Ar
Dative -kkV
Lative -Es
Allative -Ukk
Vocative -LUk

 *The Possessive and Genitive forms (when used with possession) only indicate the type of possession, the Possessive indicates alienable while the Genitive indicates inalienable possession. Both cases can also be used to indicate origin.

PossessionEdit

Possession in any nominal is a suffix which indicates possession, possessed and possessor(s). It is one of the very few, rare features which are synthetic and compact. There are two suffix groups, one for possesseor of object and one for possession of object:


Possessor of Object
Singular Dual Plural
1st Person -gAr -rUr -tl'Ar
2nd Person -gUg -rIg -tl'Eg
3rd Person -glAl -rVl -tlAl
General, Unknown -JUp -rEp -lap
Possessed of Object
Singular Dual Plural
1st Person -gEkk -rIL -tl'E
2nd Person -gaL -rU -tl'kka
3rd Person -gu -rEmv -tlul
General, Unknown -Jałl -rav -Lah

PronounsEdit

Pronouns in Takka are declined according to number, case, person and possession. There are stressed and unstressed forms of each pronoun. The third person pronoun gets gender suffixes per gender. Otherwise it is either divine or gender-neutral.

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person General
Stressed Unstressed Stressed Unstressed Stressed Unstressed Stressed Unstressed
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Case Nominative ek niki

íke

k ki hi tsek tsva atsa tsú tsú tsa ák ekke ge ák kke ge slú sel ésel el él
Accusative/Reflexive ekár nikis íkam kár kis kam sihi tusk etes ihi suk es
Absolutive akah ekep akapp kah kúp kapp ts'ak ts'emv etsan sak
Ergative akama eseme íkame kam sme sem sagj tsúgj sagu agj
Transitive íkem níkér ninker kem ník nink sak sák nkasak sak
Intransitive íkan níkam ehap kan íka eap sełak saléh sukel łak
Genitive mekel nkaeł kéł mkel nke neł atsek ések katsak tsek
Possessive akel nahel úkel kel hel neel tsan nkats rinats
Locative ekeni akesi ukane kken kes uane sehak sukú tsaheh
Terminative kakani kupar gehar kkan kpar gar ts'ké ákés asakk
Essive ekam kamve ekep kam mve kúp sge segj ggesek
Ablative mékél míkel makel kél mík úkel setsek sets'é ts'ats
Instrumental Commitative mran mvum ran rán mvum ran sar sákar satse
Ornative úmank marek nkanek ánk múrek nkek petseg ts'ege nkets
Dative míka níke míkel ík ník míl gjsek gj'sa sekka
Lative umá umá asak úmá sak sakk ságe nukes
Allative káma iłama ekemá úma iłma kúmá sene súne salek
Vocative \varnothing \varnothing \varnothing \varnothing \varnothing \varnothing sappar saggar ggekes

DictionaryEdit


No. English Takka
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanpuła
37man (adult male)gen
38man (human being)kuvenk
39childrét
40wifekáppa
41husbandmváppém
42motherjapa
43fatherkapem
44animaltlepú
45fishkapú
46birdtsatsú
47dogégju
48lousepuhu
49snaketsmíju
50wormts'vu
51treeallvih
52forestallveih
53stickgrápih
54fruitvakał
55seedglrútl
56leafliih
57rootkúkih
58barktrákíh
59flowersáł
60grasstamvitl
61ropekirepp
62skinsakat
63meatnúł
64bloodnékut
65bonesarú
66fatkałal
67eggsugjul
68hornsratsú
69tailálnu
70featherpíkku
71hairts'at
72headkawat
73earslúkat
74eyeakrat
75nosemvnkít
76mouthránat
77toothtsupput
78tonguekasit
79fingernailmvákkát
80footníkát
81legnegúsat
82kneenegúsakkit
83handglíyakkat
84wingpíu
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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