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Takka

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Name: Takka

Type: Agglutinating, Polysynthetic

Alignment: Varied

Head Direction: Varied

Number of genders: 9

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No Yes No Yes No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Setting and InfoEdit

I've started designing Takka with an idea in mind: a language whose orthography and phonology are clearly influenced by Uralic languages, combined with a dictionary distinctly not Uralic, even borrowing slightly from Slavic languages. It's an experiment into extreme agglutination and polysynthesis, sometimes bordering on oligosynthesis.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labiode. Dental Alveol. Postalve. Retrofl. Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn. Epiglot. Glottal
Plosives p (p)
p: (pp)
t (t)
t: (tt)
c (g)
c: (gg)
ɟ (g)
ɟ: (gg)
k (k)
k: (kk)
Affricates t͡s (ts)
t͡s' (ts')
t͡s (ts)
t͡s' (ts')
ɟ͡ʝ (gj)
ɟ͡ʝ' (gj')
Fricatives f (f)
f: (ff)
s (s)
s: (ss)
x (h)
x: (hh)
Lateral Fricatives ɬ (l)
ɬ: (ll)
ʎ̥˔ (ł)
ʎ̥˔: (łl)
ʎ˔ (ł)
ʎ˔: (łl)
Lateral Affricates t͡ɬ (tl)
t͡ɬ' (tl')
c͡ʎ̥˔ (gl)
c͡ʎ̥˔' (gl')
ɟ͡ʎ˔ (gl)
ɟ͡ʎ˔' (gl')
Nasals m (m) ɱ (mv) n (n) ŋ (nk)
Trills ɽ (r)
Flaps / taps
Glides Approxim. w (w) ʋ (v) j (j)
ɥ (y)
Lateral Appr.
Co-art. approx.

The voiced and voiceless palatal variants are in free variation or dialectical allophones.

VowelsEdit

Front Near front Central Near back Back
Close i ( i ) y ( í ) ɯ (ú) u (u)
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid ɛ (e) œ (é)
Near-open
Open a (a) ɶ (á)

Double, consecutive vowels are treated as long and two different vowels are treated as dipthongs with the respective elements.

Vowel HarmonyEdit

Takka has a simple progressive vowel harmony system based on roundness. Each vowel has two variants, and there are four rules for harmony:

  1. In the enviroment that there is either a rounded or an unrounded vowel as the last vowel in the word and a vowel of a different type is added, rule no. 2 is applied.
  2. E and É, I and Í are interchangeable in harmony, while A and Á, U and Ú aren't.
  3. E and É and I and Í can be substituted in harmony, while only Á and Ú can be harmonised (into A and U respectively).
  4. Harmony is applied only to suffixes (not to infixes, compounds etc.)

PhonotacticsEdit

Takka has a simple syllable structure. The groups significant to syllable structure are Consonants and Vowels, C and V respectively. The structure is:

(C) (C) V (C)

Other than the limitations to the length of a single syllable, no other preventions are in effect, and every consonant cluster is allowed.

Sometimes, a consonant can be alone, but only one can be found outside "true" syllable boundaries.

Basic GrammarEdit

TerminologyEdit

In the grammar section, I will use two methods of indicating types of letters in a suffix, namely the precise and underlying sound value of a letter.

Each miniscule letter carries its alphabetical value as indicated in the phonology section, but capital letters indicate the general type of letter, along with the vowel type.

Letter Underlying Type
Either "á" or "ú"
V Any Vowel
A Either "a" or "á"
E Either "e" or "é"
I Either "i" or "í"
U Either "u" or "ú"
C Any Consonant
N Any Nasal
L Any Lateral
J Any Palatal

NominalsEdit

In Takka, nouns are heavily agglutinated upon. Case, gender and number are in different suffixes and compounds are easily formed. All nominals except pronouns have an extremely regular morphology.

GendersEdit

In Takka, any full nominal (noun, adjective, number) can have any of the 9 genders. The genders are listed as follows:


Number Name Description and Suffix
1. Male Gender Masculine form, takes -EN as suffix
2. Female Gender Feminine form, takes -A as suffix
3. General Human General human form, takes -(V)t as suffix
4. Animal Form General animal form, takes -U as suffix
5. Of Plant Origin General plant class, takes -Ih as suffix
6. Edible Class General class of edibles, takes -VL as suffix
7. Artificial Form Class of artificial forms, takes -Vpp as suffix
8. Abstract Form Class of abstracts, takes -Vk as suffix
9. Divine and Mystic Class of divines, takes -\varnothing as suffix

NumbersEdit

Each nominal in Takka has one of three numbers. Full nominal suffixes are:

Number Description and Suffix
Singular

One Instance of, takes -\varnothing as suffix

Dual Two Instances of, takes -rEg as suffix
Plural Multiple Instances of, takes -tl'A as suffix

CasesEdit

Name of Case Suffix
Nominative -\varnothing
Accusative -uk
Absolutive -\varnothing
Ergative -qE
Transitive -\varnothing
Intransitive -Vtl'
Genitive* -tta
Possessive* -łU
Locative -tsV
Terminative -glE
Essive -Ikk
Ablative -sa
Instrumental-Commitative -pEh
Ornative -Ar
Dative -kkV
Lative -Es
Allative -Ukk
Vocative -LUk

 *The Possessive and Genitive forms (when used with possession) only indicate the type of possession, the Possessive indicates alienable while the Genitive indicates inalienable possession. Both cases can also be used to indicate origin.

PossessionEdit

Possession in any nominal is a suffix which indicates possession, possessed and possessor(s). It is one of the very few, rare features which are synthetic and compact. There are two suffix groups, one for possesseor of object and one for possession of object:


Possessor of Object
Singular Dual Plural
1st Person -gAr -rUr -tl'Ar
2nd Person -gUg -rIg -tl'Eg
3rd Person -glAl -rVl -tlAl
General, Unknown -JUp -rEp -lap
Possessed of Object
Singular Dual Plural
1st Person -gEkk -rIL -tl'E
2nd Person -gaL -rU -tl'kka
3rd Person -gu -rEmv -tlul
General, Unknown -Jałl -rav -Lah

PronounsEdit

Pronouns in Takka are declined according to number, case, person and possession. There are stressed and unstressed forms of each pronoun. The third person pronoun gets gender suffixes per gender. Otherwise it is either divine or gender-neutral.

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person General
Stressed Unstressed Stressed Unstressed Stressed Unstressed Stressed Unstressed
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Case Nominative ek niki

íke

k ki hi tsek tsva atsa tsú tsú tsa ák ekke ge ák kke ge slú sel ésel el él
Accusative/Reflexive ekár nikis íkam kár kis kam sihi tusk etes ihi suk es
Absolutive akah ekep akapp kah kúp kapp ts'ak ts'emv etsan sak
Ergative akama eseme íkame kam sme sem sagj tsúgj sagu agj
Transitive íkem níkér ninker kem ník nink sak sák nkasak sak
Intransitive íkan níkam ehap kan íka eap sełak saléh sukel łak
Genitive mekel nkaeł kéł mkel nke neł atsek ések katsak tsek
Possessive akel nahel úkel kel hel neel tsan nkats rinats
Locative ekeni akesi ukane kken kes uane sehak sukú tsaheh
Terminative kakani kupar gehar kkan kpar gar ts'ké ákés asakk
Essive ekam kamve ekep kam mve kúp sge segj ggesek
Ablative mékél míkel makel kél mík úkel setsek sets'é ts'ats
Instrumental Commitative mran mvum ran rán mvum ran sar sákar satse
Ornative úmank marek nkanek ánk múrek nkek petseg ts'ege nkets
Dative míka níke míkel ík ník míl gjsek gj'sa sekka
Lative umá umá asak úmá sak sakk ságe nukes
Allative káma iłama ekemá úma iłma kúmá sene súne salek
Vocative \varnothing \varnothing \varnothing \varnothing \varnothing \varnothing sappar saggar ggekes

DictionaryEdit


No. English Takka
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36womanpuła
37man (adult male)gen
38man (human being)kuvenk
39childrét
40wifekáppa
41husbandmváppém
42motherjapa
43fatherkapem
44animaltlepú
45fishkapú
46birdtsatsú
47dogégju
48lousepuhu
49snaketsmíju
50wormts'vu
51treeallvih
52forestallveih
53stickgrápih
54fruitvakał
55seedglrútl
56leafliih
57rootkúkih
58barktrákíh
59flowersáł
60grasstamvitl
61ropekirepp
62skinsakat
63meatnúł
64bloodnékut
65bonesarú
66fatkałal
67eggsugjul
68hornsratsú
69tailálnu
70featherpíkku
71hairts'at
72headkawat
73earslúkat
74eyeakrat
75nosemvnkít
76mouthránat
77toothtsupput
78tonguekasit
79fingernailmvákkát
80footníkát
81legnegúsat
82kneenegúsakkit
83handglíyakkat
84wingpíu
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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