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Talamäskaski Verb Conjugation

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Main article: Talamäskaski

This is a paradigm of Talamäskaski verbs, that is, a set of conjugation tables, for the model regular verbs and for some of the most common irregular verbs.

The tables include only the simple tenses. Continuous or passive forms can be easily put together by using the appropriate verb prefixes öp- (passive), prö- (progressive).

The pronouns ja, wos/kos, ong/ang/ing/eng, sandwa, sxidwa/qidwa, ondwa/andwe/indwije/endwije, san, sxi/qi and ongs/angs/ings/engs are used to symbolise the three persons and three numbers. Note, however, that Ubell is a pro-drop language and so it is the norm to omit subject pronouns when not needed for contrast or emphasis.

Following the convention in Latin studies, we cite the 4 principal parts from which these Spanish words derive.

Regular -arti verbs (wadarti, to speak)Edit

Non-finite
Infinitive wadarti
Passive öpwadarti
Progressive pröwadarti
Indicative Mood
Pronoun Pers. Inf. Present Past Future Conditional
Preterite Imperfect
Ja (I) wadarm wadaju wade wadao/wadala wadez wadaqu
Wos, Kos (You) wadarsx wadajesx wades wadao/wadala wadezi wadaqesx
Ong, Ang, Ing, Eng (He, she, it, it) wadar wadaje wadet wadao/wadala/wadalo wadeaza wadaqe
Sandwa (We two) wadarä wadajan wadatte wadaly wadok wadaqina
Sxidwa, Qidwa (You two) wadare wadajn wadabe wadaly wadoknö wadaqest
Ondwa, Andwe, Indwije, Endwije (They two) wadaros wadajun wadebt wadaly wadoak wadaqesni
San (We) wadarmo wadajem wadons wadale wadam wadaqemo
Sxi, Qi (You pl.) wadarte wadajet wadu wadale wadatsi wadaqet
Ongs, Angs, Ings, Engs (They) wadarje wadajut wadent wadale wadeazja wadaqen

Regular -erti verbs (komerti, to eat)Edit

Non-finite
Infinitive komerti
Passive öpkomerti
Progressive prökomerti
Indicative Mood
Pronoun Pers. Inf. Present Past Future Conditional
Preterite Imperfect
Ja (I) komerm komeju komdisse komeo/komea komez komequ
Wos, Kos (You) komerx komejex komdissex komeo/komea komezi komeqex
Ong, Ang, Ing, Eng (He, she, it, it) komer komeje komdïst komeo/komea/komel komeaza komeqe
Sandwa (We two) komerä komejan komdissulla komely komok komeqina
Sxidwa, Qidwa (You two) komere komejn komdissule komely komoknö komeqest
Ondwa, Andwe, Indwije, Endwije (They two) komeros komejun komdissuu komely komoak komeqesni
San (We) komermo komejem komdissions komele komam komeqemo
Sxi, Qi (You pl.) komerte komejet komdissiez komele komatsi komeqet
Ongs, Angs, Ings, Engs (They) komerje komejut komdissent komele komeazja komeqen

Regular -irti verbs (wiwirti, to live, exist)Edit

Non-finite
Infinitive wiwirti
Passive öpwiwirti
Progressive pröwiwirti
Indicative Mood
Pronoun Pers. Inf. Present Past Future Conditional
Preterite Imperfect
Ja (I) wiwirm wiwiju wiwtor wiwal/wiwala wiwez wiwiqu
Wos, Kos (You) wiwirsx wiwijesx wiwabil wiwal/wiwala wiwezi viviqex
Ong, Ang, Ing, Eng (He, she, it, it) wiwir wiwije wiwkar wiwal/wiwala/wiwalo wiweaza wiwiqe
Sandwa (We two) wiwirä wiwijan wiwzxäl wiwaly wiwok wiwiqina
Sxidwa, Qidwa (You two) wiwire wiwijn wiwïgnja wiwaly wiwoknö wiwiqest
Ondwa, Andwe, Indwije, Endwije (They two) wiwiros wiwijun wiwajkü wiwaly wiwoak wiwiqesni
San (We) wiwirmo wiwijem wiwauka wiwale wiwam wiwiqemo
Sxi, Qi (You pl.) wiwirte wiwijet wiwoa wiwale wiwatsi wiwiqet
Ongs, Angs, Ings, Engs (They) wiwirje wiwijut wiwramazx wiwale wiweazja wiwiqen

Regular -[consonant]ti verbs (pisxti, to write)Edit

Non-finite
Infinitive pisxti
Passive öppisxti
Progressive pröpisxti
Indicative Mood
Pronoun Pers. Inf. Present Past Future Conditional
Preterite Imperfect
Ja (I) pisxtirm pisxju pisxeja pisxo/pisxla pisxez pisxqu
Wos, Kos (You) pisxtirsx pisxjesx pisxejas pisxo/pisxla pisxezi pisxqesx
Ong, Ang, Ing, Eng (He, she, it, it) pisxtir pisxje pisxeja pisxo/pisxla/pisxlo pisxeaza pisxqe
Sandwa (We two) pisxtirä pisxjan pisxetja pisxly pisxok pisxqina
Sxidwa, Qidwa (You two) pisxtire pisxyjn pisxetsy pisxly pisxoknö pisxqest
Ondwa, Andwe, Indwije, Endwije (They two) pisxtiros pisxjun pisxetsy pisxly pisxoak pisxqesni
San (We) pisxtirmo pisxjem pisxejamos pisxle pisxam pisxqemo
Sxi, Qi (You pl.) pisxtirte pisxjet pisxejajs pisxle pisxatsi pisxqet
Ongs, Angs, Ings, Engs (They) pisxtirje pisxjut pisxejan pisxle pisxeazja pisxqen

Irregular VerbsEdit

Birti, to beEdit

Non-finite
Infinitive birti
Passive öpbirti
Progressive pröbirti
Indicative Mood
Pronoun Pers. Inf. Present Past Future Conditional
Preterite Imperfect
Ja (I) birtirm boz bïl/bïla sidel/sidla sarez sidejqu
Wos, Kos (You) birtirsx bidaas bïl/bïla sidel/sidla sarezi sidejqesx
Ong, Ang, Ing, Eng (He, she, it, it) birtir bjetü bïl/bïla/bïlo sidel/sidla/sidlo sareaza sidejqe
Sandwa (We two) birtirä boornïk bïlzx sidly sarok sidejqina
Sxidwa, Qidwa (You two) birtire bordoo bïlzx sidly saroknö sidejqest
Ondwa, Andwe, Indwije, Endwije (They two) birtiros boorat bïlzx sidly saroak sidejqesni
San (We) birtirmo baretmo bïlt sidle saram sidejqemo
Sxi, Qi (You pl.) birtirte barirst bïlt sidle saratsi sidejqet
Ongs, Angs, Ings, Engs (They) birtirje baprtnën bïlt sidle sareazja sidejqen

Jesti, to beEdit

Non-finite
Infinitive jesti
Passive öpjesti
Progressive pröjesti
Indicative Mood
Pronoun Pers. Inf. Present Past Future Conditional
Preterite Imperfect
Ja (I) haati jem jam htjel/htjela haatez htjöqu
Wos, Kos (You) haatesqi jex jee htjel/htjela haatezi htjöqesx
Ong, Ang, Ing, Eng (He, she, it, it) haateu je sxtü htjel/htjela/htjelo haateaza htjöqe
Sandwa (We two) haatrü jenüm jambo htjely haatok htjöqina
Sxidwa, Qidwa (You two) haatrolj jölï jöbïn htjely haatoknö htjöqest
Ondwa, Andwe, Indwije, Endwije (They two) haatrn jürs jors htjely haatoak htjöqesni
San (We) haatemus jemö jemi htjeli haatam htjöqemo
Sxi, Qi (You pl.) haatestji jesxta jeni htjeli haatatsi htjöqet
Ongs, Angs, Ings, Engs (They) haatteram jeljet janü htjeli haateazja htjöqen

Gejnti, to goEdit

Gejnti is one of the few verbs in Talamäskaski that did not regain it's dual forms during the language reformation.

Non-finite
Infinitive gejnti
Passive öpgejnti
Progressive prögejnti
Indicative Mood
Pronoun Pers. Inf. Present Past Future Conditional
Preterite Imperfect
Ja (I) geejnrm irju irdisse gejno/gejna geejnpe irajqu
Wos, Kos (You) geejnrsx irjesx irdissesx gejno/gejna geejnjas irajqesx
Ong, Ang, Ing, Eng (He, she, it, it) geejnre irje irdïst gejno/gejna/gejnu geejnpo irajqe
Sandwa (We two)
Sxidwa, Qidwa (You two)
Ondwa, Andwe, Indwije, Endwije (They two)
San (We) geejnrmo irjemo irdissions gejntsja geejnpimos irajqem
Sxi, Qi (You pl.) geejnrte irsxtje irdissiez gejntsja geejnpajsx irajqet
Ongs, Angs, Ings, Engs (They) geejnrje irjet irdissent gejntsja geejnparon irajqen

De-Verbalization During the ReformationEdit

During the Language Reformation, many auxiliary verbs lost there 'verb status' and now only exist in what are known as 'verbal clitics.' These clitizied verb forms are used in conjunction with the proper conjugation of the verb that the auxiliary would be helping. Also, the clitic forms do reflect number and gender.

English Vacroqki (Old Ubellian) Ubell (Middle Ubellian) Talamäskaski
to have to... mu:s:n müßenti muussenti => mjussal, mjussla, mjusslo, mjussly, mjussle
to be permitted/allowed to... du:rfn dürfenti duurfenti => doral, dorla, dorlo, dorly, dorle
to want to... volln vollenti vollenti => vlag, vlagla, vlaglo, vlagly, vlagle
to be, supposed to... solln sollenti sollenti => sljao, sljala, sljalo, sljaly, sljale
to feel, like... fu:rn: fürnenti fuurnenti => goral, gorla, gorlo, gorly, gorle

ex:

    Ja vlag dormirm, nuha mne sistralla vlagla yraas mirarä filmoge
    I want to sleep, but my sister wants us to watch a movie.

Talamäskaski AmbiguityEdit

Terti, to have (tangible object) ivEdit

Non-finite
Infinitive terti
Passive öpterti
Progressive pröterti
Indicative Mood
Pronoun Pers. Inf. Present Past Future Conditional
Preterite Imperfect
Ja (I) tertirm terju tereja tero/terla terez terqu
Wos, Kos (You) tertirsx terjesx terejas tero/terla terezi terqesx
Ong, Ang, Ing, Eng (He, she, it, it) tertir terje tereja tero/terla/terlo tereaza terqe
Sandwa (We two) tertirä terjan teretja terly terok terqina
Sxidwa, Qidwa (You two) tertire teryjn teretsy terly teroknö terqest
Ondwa, Andwe, Indwije, Endwije (They two) tertiros terjun teretsy terly teroak terqesni
San (We) tertirmo terjem terejamos terle teram terqemo
Sxi, Qi (You pl.) tertirte terjet terejajs terle teratsi terqet
Ongs, Angs, Ings, Engs (They) tertirje terjut terejan terle tereazja terqen

Terti, to have (intangible object) iiEdit

Non-finite
Infinitive terti
Passive öpterti
Progressive pröterti
Indicative Mood
Pronoun Pers. Inf. Present Past Future Conditional
Preterite Imperfect
Ja (I) term teju txisse teo/tea tez tequ
wos, Kos (You) tersx tejesx txissesx teo/tea tezi teqesx
Ong, Ang, Ing, Eng (He, she, it, it) ter teje txïst teo/tea/tel teaza teqe
Sandwa (We two) terä tejan txissulla tely tok teqina
Sxidwa, Qidwa (You two) tere tejn txissule tely toknö teqest
Ondwa, Andwe, Indwije, Endwije (They two) teros tejun txissuu tely toak teqesni
San (We) termo tejem txissions tele tam teqem
Sxi, Qi (You pl.) terte tejet txissiez tele tatsi teqet
Ongs, Angs, Ings, Engs (They) terje tejut txissent tele teazja teqen

English AmbiguityEdit

There are a lot of these verbs in the Talamäskaski language. The most common example would be the copula be in English. In Talamäskaski nouns and adjectives can become this type of verb.

Another example of this happening is when a verb has multiple meanings in English, whereas Talamäskaski has multiple verbs differentiating the meanings. The prime example in this case would be the English verb love, where in Talamäskaski there are 7 verbs for to love

Outside of the Indicative MoodEdit

Subjunctive MoodEdit

To form the subjunctive mood, use the subjunctive marker yraas (or ut for birti, jesti, gejnti, and terti) in front of the verb form you wish to use.

NB - Subjunctive mood only occurs with the following tenses: present, past (imperfect), and future.

Imperative MoodEdit

To form the imperative mood, use the imperative marker ytraj (or yst for birti, jesti, gejnti, and terti) in front of the verb form you wish to use.

NB - Imperative mood is a command in the present and future tenses. But is used as an exclamation in all five tenses (present, preterite, imperfect, future, and conditional).

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