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Tceitsa

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Name: 체파

Type: Isolating

Alignment: Ergative

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: 1

Declensions: No

Conjugations: No

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


AboutEdit

체파 (Tceitsa) is a constructed language created primarily to test a number of grammar ideas. There is no conworld or or grander purpose. I just think it's an interesting language. The overall inspiration for the language is from Lojban, Toki Pona, and Sona.

The vocabulary is drawn from English, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, Esperanto, Lojban, and my head.

WritingEdit

Tceitsa should be written in Hangul, the Korean alphabet. This is the only official orthography. The Latin alphabet should only be used for teaching purposes. This document will primarily use Hangul.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Romanization Hangul IPA
(x)
h h
k
g g
t
d d
p
b b
f f
v v
n n ~ m ~ ŋ
m m
c ʃ ~ ɕ
j ʒ ~ ʑ
s s
z z
tc tʃ ~ tɕ
ts ts
l l

VowelsEdit

Romanization Hangul IPA
a a
e
i i
o
u u
w y
ya ja
yai jaɪ̯
ye je̞
yei je̞ɪ̯
yo jo̞
yu ju
ai aɪ̯
ei e̞ɪ̯
oi o̞ɪ̯
wi uɪ̯
oa o̞ ̯a
oai o̞ ̯aɪ̯
ue we̞
uei we̞ɪ̯
ui wi

PhonotacticsEdit

A syllable is in the form CV(n). So an initial consonant (which can be the silent consonant ㅇ) and a vowel are required, and a final "n" is optional. The "n" can change to a nasal of the same place of articulation as the following consonant. (For example, "m" before a "p".)

/ʃ/, /tʃ/, and /ʒ/ are palatalized before consonants starting in /i/, /y/, or /j/. If you can't pronounce these sounds, don't worry about it too much.

GrammarEdit

Tceitsa's grammar is similar to Japanese. There are no prepositions, only postpositions. Verbs always come at the end of the sentence. Nouns, verbs, and adjectives are essentially the same part of speech, and have the same alignment. We will call them verbs for simplicity.

Tceitsa is oligosynthetic. There are a few hundred single syllable "radicals" that are combined to form nearly all the words of the language. Loan words are kept to a minimum.

ParticlesEdit

Tceitsa Meaning
yes, indeed, truly (not as emphatic as in English)
no, logical not
not, "other than"
changes a normally static action into a dynamic one

These particles can go in almost any position with slight differences in meaning. At the end of the sentence, they apply to the entire idea. After a verb, they negate the entire verb, including its qualifiers. Before a verb, they negate only the core idea of the verb.

PostpositionsEdit

There are five main cases.

Tceitsa Case Notes
agent causer of action or state
patient experiencer of action or state
subject causer and experiencer of action or state
focus focus of action or state
topic most prominent argument of verb

PronounsEdit

Tceitsa English Notes
I, we normally singular
로리 I only used for emphasis
you singular or plural
he, she, they any number of sentient beings
로다 he, she one sentient being, only used for emphasis
또다 he, they masculine
로또다 he only used for emphasis
느다 she, they feminine
로느다 she only used for emphasis

NumbersEdit

Numbers are rather simple. They are spelled out digit by digit.

Tceitsa Digit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Optionally you can add 교 between thousands. So 6,345,902 becomes 꼬교러무꾸교쪼노뚜. It is never necessary to use extra 노s, so 6,000 can be 꼬교 and 6,001 can be 꼬교로.

CountingEdit

Tceitsa Meaning

OppositesEdit

Because there are so few root words, Tceitsa does not usually have separate words for opposites. "bad" is "not-good". However, there are several different types of opposites that are marked differently.

For scalar qualities with no fixed endpoint (e.g. goodness), 도 makes the scalar opposite. So 뽀 means "good" and 도뽀 means "bad".

For scalar qualities with a fixed endpoint (e.g. speed, temperature, distance, duration), 보 makes a quality that is low on the scale. So 뢔 means "fast", and 보괘 means "slow".

VerbsEdit

Verbs are static by default. This means that they indicate a state. 두 is used to make them dynamic. For example, 개 means "to open". 리아먼어개 means "I opened the door" but it refers to the time after I opened it in which it is open. 리아먼어개두 also means "I opened the door" but it refers to my opening the door, not the door being open.

Example sentencesEdit

Tceitsa English

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