| Name: 체파
Head Direction: Final
Number of genders: 1
체파 (Tceitsa) is a constructed language created primarily to test a number of grammar ideas. There is no conworld or or grander purpose. I just think it's an interesting language. The overall inspiration for the language is from Lojban, Toki Pona, and Sona.
The vocabulary is drawn from English, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, Esperanto, Lojban, and my head.
Tceitsa should be written in Hangul, the Korean alphabet. This is the only official orthography. The Latin alphabet should only be used for teaching purposes. This document will primarily use Hangul.
|n||ㄴ||n ~ m ~ ŋ|
|c||ㅈ||ʃ ~ ɕ|
|j||ㅉ||ʒ ~ ʑ|
|tc||ㅊ||tʃ ~ tɕ|
A syllable is in the form CV(n). So an initial consonant (which can be the silent consonant ㅇ) and a vowel are required, and a final "n" is optional. The "n" can change to a nasal of the same place of articulation as the following consonant. (For example, "m" before a "p".)
/ʃ/, /tʃ/, and /ʒ/ are palatalized before consonants starting in /i/, /y/, or /j/. If you can't pronounce these sounds, don't worry about it too much.
Tceitsa's grammar is similar to Japanese. There are no prepositions, only postpositions. Verbs always come at the end of the sentence. Nouns, verbs, and adjectives are essentially the same part of speech, and have the same alignment. We will call them verbs for simplicity.
Tceitsa is oligosynthetic. There are a few hundred single syllable "radicals" that are combined to form nearly all the words of the language. Loan words are kept to a minimum.
|야||yes, indeed, truly (not as emphatic as in English)|
|너||no, logical not|
|내||not, "other than"|
|두||changes a normally static action into a dynamic one|
These particles can go in almost any position with slight differences in meaning. At the end of the sentence, they apply to the entire idea. After a verb, they negate the entire verb, including its qualifiers. Before a verb, they negate only the core idea of the verb.
There are five main cases.
|아||agent||causer of action or state|
|어||patient||experiencer of action or state|
|오||subject||causer and experiencer of action or state|
|우||focus||focus of action or state|
|이||topic||most prominent argument of verb|
|리||I, we||normally singular|
|로리||I||only used for emphasis|
|두||you||singular or plural|
|다||he, she, they||any number of sentient beings|
|로다||he, she||one sentient being, only used for emphasis|
|로또다||he||only used for emphasis|
|로느다||she||only used for emphasis|
Numbers are rather simple. They are spelled out digit by digit.
Optionally you can add 교 between thousands. So 6,345,902 becomes 꼬교러무꾸교쪼노뚜. It is never necessary to use extra 노s, so 6,000 can be 꼬교 and 6,001 can be 꼬교로.
Because there are so few root words, Tceitsa does not usually have separate words for opposites. "bad" is "not-good". However, there are several different types of opposites that are marked differently.
For scalar qualities with no fixed endpoint (e.g. goodness), 도 makes the scalar opposite. So 뽀 means "good" and 도뽀 means "bad".
For scalar qualities with a fixed endpoint (e.g. speed, temperature, distance, duration), 보 makes a quality that is low on the scale. So 뢔 means "fast", and 보괘 means "slow".
Verbs are static by default. This means that they indicate a state. 두 is used to make them dynamic. For example, 개 means "to open". 리아먼어개 means "I opened the door" but it refers to the time after I opened it in which it is open. 리아먼어개두 also means "I opened the door" but it refers to my opening the door, not the door being open.