| Name: Tekapton
Head Direction: Both
Number of genders: Multiple
|ʃ (sh)||h (h)|
|Nasals||m (m)||n (n)|
|Flaps / taps|
|Lateral Appr.||l (l)|
|Front||Near front||Central||Near back||Back|
|Close||i (i)||u (u)|
Combinations -ai-, -ei-, -oi- and -ui- form diphtongs [aɪ], [eɪ], [ɔɪ] and [uɪ].
The stress in Tekapton words usually falls on the last syllable.
In Tekapton's unique grammar every word is grammatically a noun. Some of these noun-words describe a real object (person, house, car etc.), others refer to abstract categories (beauty, good, evil), and some describe actions or states (seeing, running etc.) However, in the grammar there is very little difference in how these types of nouns are treated.
Each noun in a Tekapton sentence is preceded by an article. The article defines the word's case and number, and is agreeing with the main word. If there are no dependent words between the word and it's article, the article and the noun are written as one word. Otherwise, the dependent words are placed between the article and the main word. The article for singular Ergative case is empty most of the time but it is still there when the noun changes to plural.
Lit.: Father in speech
|Lit.: Speech of beauty|
Nouns in Tekapton have a category, or generalized gender. The category is determined by the first consonant(s) of the word, and nouns dependent to this word have to agree with it. Naturally the starting consonants overlap for some groups, and some groups have several possible starting consonants.
Categories group things that are loosely related to each other by a certain criteria. For example
- (k-, h-) men (haz "father", hon "brother", kikol "son") or persons of certain profession or quality (kalam "worker", kigelir "teacher")
- (m-) women (mam "mother", mon "sister", mikol "daughter")
- (-) long things (ilg "hair", il "rope", "rope", ilede "road", ileza "river")
- (g-) thin things (gaged "finger", ga "stick", gagetun "branch", gageli "pencil", gageder "tail", gagedag "horn")
- (d-) flat things (dadetun "leaf", dadeli "page", dadelar "plate", dadeza "lake")
- (v-) things that have a horizontal surface (vanvelar "table", vanvego "floor", vanvedag "ceiling", vanvast "sky", vanvetar "bed")
- (s-) vertical things (sorsegor "wall", sorsask "fence", sorsetun "tree")
- (ch-) round things (chochebar "ball", chochedor "sun", chochechetot "moon")
- (n-) things that stick out (nugneyor "hill", nugnatevepar "thorn", nug "nose")
- (sh-) collections (shirshetun "forest", shirshedadeli "book", shirshechedor "week", shirsheyu "dust")
- (s-) materials (saksetun "wood", saksegam "flesh", sakseyor "soil", saksejil "metal")
- (y-) small things (yuyelar "crumb", yuyeli "dot", yu "particle", yuyevanvast "star")
- (l-) food
- (z-) liquids (za "water", zazeli "ink", zazeteuk "urine")
- (r-) solids, hard things (ro "rock", rorespateze "brick", roreza "ice")
- (r-) containers (rakrespateze "box", rakrede "bag", rakreza "cup", rakregor "room", rakrededaza "boat", rakrededek "car")
- (b-, p-, f-) qualities (bir "good", pir "evil", wrong, right, birbalo "beauty", difference, size, height, heat, fun)
- (n-, r-) states (posession, ability, love, life, death)
- (d-, t-, tr-) transitions (movement, becoming, change, start, finish)
- (l-, t-) actions (sight, delivery, payment, attack, control)
- (s-) places (place in, out, around, above, under)
- number (few, many, one, two, three)
and some others. Of course, due to historical reasons, sound changes, foreign words etc. some categories contain words that do not seem to belong there.
There are 6 cases in Tekapton. Cases are formed by changing the article:
|Essive||i gor||is a house|
|Genitive/Absolutive||e gor||of the house|
|Allative||u gor||to the house|
|Inessive||a gor||in the house|
|Ablative||o gor||from the house|
Kabal kagor - The boy is in the house
Gor gar gigor gekabal—This (house) is the boy's house. (lit: The house in here is the house of the boy)
Gor galo lekabal - The boy sees the house (lit.: The house is in the view of the boy)
kabal kabir - a good boy
As you can see, English adjectives and present-tense verbs are usually translated into Tekapton using Inessive. Thus you say "in view" to translate "see", "in beauty" to translate "beautiful", and so on.
When there is no object to the action, the pattern Subject-in-State/Transition is used. The Subject in this case is in Ergative, and its article is usually omitted. With the object present, the pattern changes to Object-in-Action-of-Subject. The subject in this case follows the action and is put in Absolutive (Genitive); the object stays in front and is in Ergative.
This pattern agrees with the general way sentences are formed in Absolutive/Ergative languages. At the same time, it looks like something that is a rather natural way of expression of an English speaker. E.g. you say "I am in power" but "this is in my power". Also, when a house is burning, you might say "the house is on fire"; if you are burning the house, it is "the house is on fire (set) by me". You might say "I am in (the process of) viewing" but "this is in my view" and so forth. This way of expression directly corresponds to how Tekapton phrases are constructed.
It might be helpful to look closer at the agreement of words in one of the above examples, e.g. ""gor galo lekabal". Here "galo" ("in view") is agreeing with "gor" ("house") and it is therefore has article "ga-". Similarly "lekabal" ("of the boy") is agreeing with "galo" and therefore its genitive article "le-" starts with the first letter of the main word, "l-". One can illustrate that using color:
gor galo lekabal
Finally, it is worth mentioning that the order of words can be different in these phrases. The following are good Tekapton phrases as well:
galo lekabal gor
gor ga lekabal lo
ga lekabal lo gor
You can see here how the article is written separately from the main word when dependent words are put in between.
Allative and AblativeEdit
Similarly to Inessive, when Allative and Ablative are used with words that mean states, transitions or actions, they indicate perfective or future tense. For example:
Luton lehaz - Father is going to say something (lit.: Something is into fathers speech.)
Poton ten - I have said everything (Everything is from speech of mine)
To put a word into plural, one has to add -ma to its article.
gor gekabal (the boy's house) -- gor gemakabal (the house of boys) -- magor gemakabal (the houses of boys)
To express negation, the particle "ye" is added. For example,
Kabal ye kagor—The boy in not in the house
To form a question, one uses the particle "she", e.g.
Gor gar she gadez? -- Is this your house? (lit. House in here in your posession?)
There are a number of words in Tekapton that have no vowels in their root. Such words are always written together with their article, and their dependent words can not come before them. Moreover, if a dependent word immediately follows such consonant-only word, and is agreeing with it, then, instead of repeating the consonant twice, both words are fused together. For example
Naks—I go (lit. "I am in movement") = N + a + ks
Here N means "I" (root n), which is fused with naks "in movement" (Inessive article na, agreeing with n, + root ks).
Naksur—I go here (I am in the movement into there)
The part ur is made of the Allative article u (agreeing with ks), + the consonant-only root r "here, this place".
Rigor gaden—this is my house
Gaden means "my" and is a fusion of gad (in-possession, agreeing with gor) + den (of-me, agreeing with d for possession). Rigor can be literally translated as "this is a house" and is the fusion of of r (this), and rigor (is-a-house, agreeing with r for "this").
Below is the list of the most commonly used all-consonant roots:
n -- I, we (plural)
z -- you, you (plural)
k -- he, they (plural)
m -- she, they (plural)
r -- this, this place
st—top, high palce, place above
sht—bottom, low place, place below
sk -- (place) outside
shk -- (place) inside
sp—neighborhood, place near
s -- that, that place; state
ks—movement, process, change
p -- everything
l -- thing, something
y -- nothing
b -- day, time
d -- hand, possession
t -- likeness, sameness
g -- cause
j -- wish, desire
f -- need
v - help, use
Here are some more examples:
Yalo len lar—I see nothing here. (lit. Nothing is in my view in here.).
Shoton tez? -- What did you say? (lit. What is from your speech?").
Lafen feton tuz—I have to tell you something. (lit. Something is in my need of speech to you).
Ye rapten ptelam—I can't do it. (lit.: This is not in my ability of doing.)
a - and
ak - air, smell, weather
ad - five
alo - sea (blue color - fanfatealo)
adu - grass (green color - fanfateadu)
an - milk (white color - fanfatean)
ar - blood (red color - fanfatear)
'b - day, time
bal - youth; kabal - boy
balak - courage
bar - fun
be - weakness
ben - order
bi - mountain (high)
bir - kindness; good feeling; kibir—good man; birbalo - beauty
bin - cold
bo - ready one
bor - whole thing; full amount; enough
bul - sweet taste
'd - hand; posession (ablative: give)
da - leaf, blade, sheet; width; dadayed - narrow
dar - truth, right
dag - head
dagash - surprize
de - movement; yedyede - lack of movement; stillness
den - start, front, face
der - finish, end, back
di - arrival; future
dil - giant (large size)
dinak - left hand side
dikar - right hand side
do - fruit
dor - light
don - sound
el - three
er - permission
'f - need
fan - color, paint
fal - angle, turn
fir - dirt; firfayak - cleanlyness
fiton - rejection, refusal
fol - ball, circle
fosh - death
fum - delay
fur - short distance; stump, segment
'g - cause
ga - stick, branch, finger, rod
gam - body
gez - error, mistake
gil - mouse (tegil - small hight)
go - leg, foot
gor - house
gun - mouth, hole
gur - animal
'j - desire
jal - money
jan - shield
jag - control, service, slavery; kajag - slave
jil - metal
jin - randomness, crazyness; kajin - crazy person
hamar - excitement
hash - silence
haz - father
hen - bug, insect
ho - contact, touch, feeling
hon - brother
hur - friend
il - thread, rope
ilde - distance
ilg - thread, hair (= iledag)
ir - two
irair - simplicity
isha - snake, lizard
'k - man, person, someone
ke - part, piece
kis - disappointment; sour taste
kol - child; kikol - son; mikol - daughter
'kt - topic, theme
'l - something, thing
lar - food
lam - work, deed
lap - obstacle
le - life
lep - anything
lesh - hatered; kalesh - enemy
li - image, drawing, writing
lir - knowledge, understanding
lo - eye
log - ear
'm - woman, girl
maz - mother
mon - sister
'n - I
na - open door
nak - silk (soft)
naz - multitude, crowd, number; naznevuz - small number, few
ner - string (stretched)
nim - oil; tenim - smoothness, slipperiness; nimnayed - friction, roughness
nug - nose; bump, hill
oh - but
ok - ten
or - spirit, soul
'p - everything
par - attack, strike, fight
pash - sadness, boredom; kapash - sad person
patar - fear
pek - trash, garbage
pekta - bitter fruit
peshva - fish
pir - evil one
po - old age
'pt - ability, power
'r - this, here (place)
raj - strength
radaz - problem, difficulty
rag - lock; closed door
rak - box, jug, container
raz - heat
red - spring (tered - squeezed state)
resh - difference
ro - rock (tero = solid state, hardness)
's - that, there (place)
sak - material, substance
sal - salt
se - place
'sk - place outside
sor - wall (vertical surface)
'sp - side, place near
'st - place above, top
'sh - what?
shan - way
sham - chance, attempt
shir - collection
'shk - place inside
'shp - middle, place in between; heart
'sht - place below, bottom
't - similarity, likeness, sameness
ta - love
tagar - hiding place
tan - dress, cover (ablative: undress)
tar - rest
tep - ignorance, confusion
tir - departure; past
tot - darkness
ton - speech
tun - plant, vegetation, tree (= tuntatero)
uk - sand (yellow color - fanfateuk)
'v - help, use
van - surface, table, floor
ver - origin
vok - space; room
vuz - one
'y - nothing
yed - absence
yor - earth, land
yu - particle, speck, crumb; teyu - small size
'z - you
za - water, liquid
zam - name
ze - arrow
'zg - result
- The stone fell. Ro roksusht.
- A bird flew by my stores display window. Gurgeak goksaak ksaspegungesor gegorgedojal gen.
- The old man [that enjoys reading] walked up to me. Kapo lilaton lata tek kodi duspen.
- A white cart [which my aunt had gone to the store with] is being transported to a store [that no one really likes] [because it is just too old] Rakrefol rafanfean, monmemaz men moksugorgedojal ksavel, raksugorgedojal gata teyek togepo pel.
- The sun shines. Folfedor fador.
- The sun is shining. Folfedor fador.
- The sun shone. Folfedor fodor.
- The sun will shine. Folfedor fudor.
- The sun has been shining. Folfedor fodor.
- The sun is shining again. Folfedor fador dabeir.
- The sun will shine tomorrow. Folfedor fudor dabedor beir.
- The sun shines brightly. Folfedor fador deraj.
- The bright sun shines. Folfedor feraj fador.
- The sun is rising now. Folfedor faksust ksaber.
- All the people shouted. Pekoton teraj.
- Some of the people shouted. Daz dekoton teraj.
- Many of the people shouted twice. Naz nekoir ebeton teraj.
- Happy people often shout. Makabebir katon teraj tanaz neb.
- The kitten jumped up.
- The kitten jumped onto the table.
- My little kitten walked away.
- It's raining.
- The rain came down.
- The kitten is playing in the rain.
- The rain has stopped.
- Soon the rain will stop.
- I hope the rain stops soon.
- Once wild animals lived here.
- Slowly she looked around.
- Go away!
- Let's go!
- You should go.
- I will be happy to go.
- He will arrive soon.
- The baby's ball has rolled away.
- The two boys are working together.
- This mist will probably clear away.
- Lovely flowers are growing everywhere.
- We should eat more slowly.
- You have come too soon.
- You must write more neatly.
- Directly opposite stands a wonderful palace.
- Henry's dog is lost.
- My cat is black.
- The little girl's doll is broken.
- I usually sleep soundly.
- The children ran after Jack.
- I can play after school.
- We went to the village for a visit.
- We arrived at the river.
- I have been waiting for you.
- The campers sat around the fire.
- A little girl with a kitten sat near me.
- The child waited at the door for her father.
- Yesterday the oldest girl in the village lost her kitten.
- Were you born in this village?
- Can your brother dance well?
- Did the man leave?
- Is your sister coming for you?
- Can you come tomorrow?
- Have the neighbors gone away for the winter?
- Does the robin sing in the rain?
- Are you going with us to the concert?
- Have you ever travelled in the jungle?
- We sailed down the river for several miles.
- Everybody knows about hunting.
- On a Sunny morning after the solstice we started for the mountains.
- Tom laughed at the monkey's tricks.
- An old man with a walking stick stood beside the fence.
- The squirrel's nest was hidden by drooping boughs.
- The little seeds waited patiently under the snow for the warm spring sun.
- Many little girls with wreaths of flowers on their heads danced around the bonfire.
- The cover of the basket fell to the floor.
- The first boy in the line stopped at the entrance.
- On the top of the hill in a little hut lived a wise old woman.
- During our residence in the country we often walked in the pastures.
- When will your guests from the city arrive?
- Near the mouth of the river, its course turns sharply towards the East.
- Between the two lofty mountains lay a fertile valley.
- Among the wheat grew tall red poppies.
- The strong roots of the oak trees were torn from the ground.
- The sun looked down through the branches upon the children at play.
- The west wind blew across my face like a friendly caress.
- The spool of thread rolled across the floor.
- A box of growing plants stood in the Window.
- I am very happy.
- These oranges are juicy.
- Sea water is salty.
- The streets are full of people.
- Sugar tastes sweet.
- The fire feels hot.
- The little girl seemed lonely.
- The little boy's father had once been a sailor.
- I have lost my blanket.
- A robin has built his nest in the apple tree.
- At noon we ate our lunch by the roadside.
- Jones made a knife for his little boy.
- Their voices sound very happy.
- Is today Monday?
- Have all the leaves fallen from the tree?
- Will you be ready on time?
- Will you send this message for me?
- Are you waiting for me?
- Is this the first kitten of the litter?
- Are these shoes too big for you?
- How wide is the River?
- Sit here by me.
- Keep this secret until tomorrow.
- Come with us.
- Bring your friends with you.
- Be careful.
- Have some tea.
- Pip and his dog were great friends.
- John and Elizabeth are brother and sister.
- You and I will go together.
- They opened all the doors and windows.
- He is small, but strong.
- Is this tree an oak or a maple?
- Does the sky look blue or gray?
- Come with your father or mother.
- I am tired, but very happy.
- He played a tune on his wonderful flute.
- Toward the end of August the days grow much shorter.
- A company of soldiers marched over the hill and across the meadow.
- The first part of the story is very interesting.
- The crow dropped some pebbles into the pitcher and raised the water to the brim.
- The baby clapped her hands and laughed in glee.
- Stop your game and be quiet.
- The sound of the drums grew louder and louder.
- Do you like summer or winter better?
- That boy will have a wonderful trip.
- They popped corn, and then sat around the fire and ate it.
- They won the first two games, but lost the last one.
- Take this note, carry it to your mother; and wait for an answer.
- I awoke early, dressed hastily, and went down to breakfast.
- Aha! I have caught you!
- This string is too short!
- Oh, dear! the wind has blown my hat away!
- Alas! that news is sad indeed!
- Whew! that cold wind freezes my nose!
- Are you warm enough now?
- They heard the warning too late.
- We are a brave people, and love our country.
- All the children came except Mary.
- Jack seized a handful of pebbles and threw them into the lake.
- This cottage stood on a low hill, at some distance from the village.
- On a fine summer evening, the two old people were sitting outside the door of their cottage.
- Our bird's name is Jacko.
- The river knows the way to the sea.
- The boat sails away, like a bird on the wing.
- They looked cautiously about, but saw nothing.
- The little house had three rooms, a sitting room, a bedroom, and a tiny kitchen.
- We visited my uncle's village, the largest village in the world.
- We learn something new each day.
- The market begins five minutes earlier this week.
- Did you find the distance too great?
- Hurry, children.
- Madam, I will obey your command.
- Here under this tree they gave their guests a splendid feast.
- In winter I get up at night, and dress by yellow candlelight.
- Tell the last part of that story again.
- Be quick or you will be too late.
- Will you go with us or wait here?
- She was always, shabby, often ragged, and on cold days very uncomfortable.
- Think first and then act.
- I stood, a little mite of a girl, upon a chair by the window, and watched the falling snowflakes.
- Show the guests these shells, my son, and tell them their strange history.
- Be satisfied with nothing but your best.
- We consider them our faithful friends.
- We will make this place our home.
- The squirrels make their nests warm and snug with soft moss and leaves.
- The little girl made the doll's dress herself.
- I hurt myself.
- She was talking to herself.
- He proved himself trustworthy.
- We could see ourselves in the water.
- Do it yourself.
- I feel ashamed of myself.
- Sit here by yourself.
- The dress of the little princess was embroidered with roses, the national flower of the Country.
- They wore red caps, the symbol of liberty.
- With him as our protector, we fear no danger.
- All her finery, lace, ribbons, and feathers, was packed away in a trunk.
- Light he thought her, like a feather.
- Every spring and fall our cousins pay us a long visit.
- In our climate the grass remains green all winter.
- The boy who brought the book has gone.
- These are the flowers that you ordered.
- I have lost the book that you gave me.
- The fisherman who owned the boat now demanded payment.
- Come when you are called.
- I shall stay at home if it rains.
- When he saw me, he stopped.
- Do not laugh at me because I seem so absent minded.
- I shall lend you the books that you need.
- Come early next Monday if you can.
- If you come early, wait in the hall.
- I had a younger brother whose name was Antonio.
- Gnomes are little men who live under the ground.
- He is loved by everybody, because he has a gentle disposition.
- Hold the horse while I run and get my cap.
- I have found the ring I lost.
- Play and I will sing.
- That is the funniest story I ever heard.
- She is taller than her brother.
- They are no wiser than we.
- Light travels faster than sound.
- We have more time than they.
- She has more friends than enemies.
- He was very poor, and with his wife and five children lived in a little low cabin of logs and stones.
- When the wind blew, the traveler wrapped his mantle more closely around him.
- I am sure that we can go.
- We went back to the place where we saw the roses.
- "This tree is fifty feet high," said the gardener.
- I think that this train leaves five minutes earlier today.
- My opinion is that the governor will grant him a pardon.
- Why he has left the city is a mystery.
- The house stands where three roads meet.
- He has far more money than brains.
- Evidently that gate is never opened, for the long grass and the great hemlocks grow close against it.
- I met a little cottage girl; she was eight years old, she said.