|from 3 to 14|
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Teshyawa (Тышяўа [ˈtɕawɐ])
|Stop||p p'||t t'||k k'|
|Fricative||f v||s z||ʂ ʐ||(ɕ) (ʑ)||h|
- Retroflex consonants become alveolopalatal before /j/.
- /ʐ/ is a very dialectal sound, appearing as [ʐ], [dʒ], [ɖʐ], [ɟ], or even unpronounced. It is always devoiced in the coda.
- /h/ is either /h/ or /x/ in free variation. /h/ is unpronounced after a coda /N/. /h/ is [ç] in the coda, when geminated, or before /j/.
- /ɻ/ is normally [ɻ] or [ɻ̝], in free variation. When palatalized it becomes [ʑ]. In the coda it is [æ̯]. In consonant clusters it is [ɾ]. Before /w/, it is pharyngealized.
Nasals, tenuis stops, affricates, voiceless fricatives, and approximants may be lengthened.
(C)(/w/, /j/)V(/w/, /j/)(F)
Final consonants: /N/, /p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/, /ʂ/, /ʐ/, /h/, /l/, and /ɻ/.
- /N/ is a nasal homorganic to a following consonant. If the consonant is /h/, /j/, or /w/, then it becomes [m]
Allowed consonant clusters:
- /s/ + /m/, /n/, /ɻ/, /l/, or stops
- stops + /ɻ/
- nonapproximants + /l/
- Full list: /sm/, /sn/, /sɻ/, /sp/, /sp’/, /st/, /st’/, /sk/, /sk’/, /pɻ/, /p’ɻ/, /tɻ/, /t’ɻ/, /kɻ/, /k’ɻ/, /ml/, /nl/, /ŋl/, /pl/, /p’l/, /tl/, /t’l/, /kl/, /k’l/, /tsl/, /ʈʂl/, /fl/, /vl/, /sl/, /zl/, /ʂl/, /ʐl/, and /hl/
The sequences /wu/ and /ji/ do not occur.
Stress in Teshyawa may not appear regular, but it in fact is. It relies on a principle called stress priority in which certain vowels are stressed more than others.
- The basic stress order is /a/, /u/, /i/, /ə/. ex. t'esma /t'əsmá/ "mirror"
- If more than one of the same vowel appears in a word, then the one which is in a diphthong or followed by a coda consonant is stressed.
- If they are both in closed syllables or both in open syllables, then the first one is stressed. ex. fipri /fípɻi/ "fish"
- If stress would be placed after a geminated consonant by stress priority, then it moves immediately beforehand without regard to what vowel it is. ex. iwffa /íwfːa/ "cutie"
Noun classes Edit
The noun class system of Teshyawa is very complex. It can be broken down into four archiclasses with between two and five subclasses.
'A' class Edit
The 'A' class contains the most vocabulary. The singular forms typically end in -a. The class contains three very useful derivational endings:
- wa-wam. These are languages, such as Teshyawa.
- ya-yam. These are instruments (tools), such as guya "knife".
- uy-ay. These are agents (doers), such as ahvluy "lawyer".
The rest end in -a in the singular and either -am or -ay in the plural, with no difference in meaning and about equal frequency.
Other examples: iwffa "cutie", t'esma "mirror", etc.
'I' class Edit
The 'I' class contains a large percentage of vocabulary. The singular forms end in -i or a consonant. The subclasses with a separable meaning are:
- i-ey. These are animals, such as fipri "fish".
- il-ce. This is an inquorate class, containing only three terms: myuskil "music", tranil "animal", and krassiyil "enemy".
The rest end in either -i or a consonant in the singular, with no difference in meaning and about equal frequency, and -ce in the plural.
Other examples: zheki "place", k'lawt "klutz", etc.
'U' class Edit
The 'U' class is exclusively used for vocabulary refering to substances. The singular ends in either -u or -um, with no difference in meaning and about equal frequency, and -am in the plural.
Examples: puythu "stone", naek'yum "ink", vuvlu "silk", etc.
'V' class Edit
The 'V' class exists only to contain two inquorate subclasses:
- ve-viy. This has only 14 members, most of which are body parts, such as galave "leg".
- pri-viy. This has only 6 members, including aypri "house".
Dictionary forms Edit
The dictionary form of a word is given as stem.sg/pl. ex. usnuy/ay, fipri/ey
Verbal morphology Edit
Affix order Edit
The perfective is formed from the imperfective by an ending -(e)Cye. The C is a consonant which matches the initial consonant of the root and the e only appears if the root ends in a consonant cluster. ex. chape, chapchye
If there is no initial consonant then the C disappears. ex. usne, usneye "fight"
The imperfective takes the action over time, in repeating instances, or as ongoing. The perfective views the action as an instant. In storytelling, the imperfective is used to set the background and the perfective is used to point out key events.
The causative affix -yamwe- is used to indicate that the subject causes someone or something else to do or be something. It is used quite liberally. ex. Masru zem rutryeyamwe. "You caused this to be made."
- Active: Tranil chapchye. "The animal bit."
- Passive: Tranil chapchyer. "The animal was bitten."
- Reflexive: Tranil chapchyeyus. "The animal bit itself."
Nonfinite affixes Edit
Basic word order Edit
Questions are formed with a particle pwa, placed at the beginning of a sentence. ex. Pwa masru zem rutrye? "Did you make this?"