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Tesipa

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Name: Tesipa

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Direct

Head Direction: First

Number of genders: 0

Declensions: No

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


For a dictionary of verbs, see Tesipa/Verbs. For nouns, see Tesipa/Nouns. For adjectives, see Tesipa/Adjectives. For adverbs, see Tesipa/Adverbs. Other (closed) classes can be found in the text of this page.

InformationEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No Yes No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No Yes No No No
Adpositions No Yes No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


PhonologyEdit

AlphabetEdit

Tesipa has twenty-two letters, composed of sixteen consonants and eight vowels. The Tesipa alphabet looks like this:

AEIOUÄËÜMNGBFDSZXPTKRJLW
aeiouäëümngbfdszxptkrjlw

ConsonantsEdit

This is a chart of all the consonants found in Tesipa and what letter represents them, in parentheses.

Bilabial Labiod. Dental Alveol. Postalv. Retrofl. Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn. Epiglot. Glottal
Nasals m (m) n (n) ŋ (g)
Plosives p (p) t (t) k (k)
Fricatives ɸ (b) f (f) θ (d) s (s) ʃ (z) x (x)
Approxim. ɹ (r) j (j)
Trills
Flaps / taps
Lateral Fric.
Lateral Appr. l (l)
Affricates
Co-art. approx. w (w) +velar w (w) +labiod

VowelsEdit

This is a chart of all the vowels found in Tesipa and what letter represents them, in parentheses. If in pairs, unrounded vowels are listed before rounded vowels. Tesipa has eight vowels, five with standard characters, and the other three with standard characters and an umlaut (except for I and O, which do not have an umlaut partner).

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i (i)
y (ë)
u (u)
Near-close
Close-mid o (o)
Mid
Open-mid ɛ (e) ʌ (ü)
Near-open
Open a (a)
ɶ (ä)

PhonotacticsEdit

Tesipa does not have many phonotactic rules. All word forms are free to be constructed in any way. Other word forms and prefixes and suffixes are free to end and start with consonants and vowels. In addition, no vowel to vowel diphthongs are allowed, so each vowel is pronounced separately. Vowel to Approximant diphthongs are allowed, so syllables like ej, oj, aj, üj (ay, oy, ye, igh) are allowed. Some Consonants of the same method of articulation may not be placed next to each other, unless in different syllables. Nasals may not be placed next to other consonants, unless in different syllables.

StressEdit

Stress is perfectly regular, with the accented syllable always being the penultimate syllable (except in the case of one syllable words). Stress is light, not heavy.

SpellingEdit

Tesipa is perfectly phonetic. The voicing and aspiration of consonants does not have an effect on spelling.

GrammarEdit

Sentence StructureEdit

Tesipa's sentence structure is very regular, consisting of either a Subject Verb Object order in the Active Voice or Object Verb Subject order in the Passive Voice. Tesipa also has prepositions (as opposed to postpositions) and adjectives come before nouns. Indirect objects follow direct objects in a sentence. The Morphosyntactic Alignment is Direct.

Affix HeirarchyEdit

The order of affixes usually does not apply, as for most parts of speech there is only one type of suffix and one type of prefix.

NEGATIVE PREFIX - DEPENDENT MORPHEMES - ROOT WORD(S) - GRAMMAR SUFFIX

This system works for all parts of speech.

VerbsEdit

Any verb morphemes can be combined into one verb. Verbs are fusional, with a single suffix for each tense-aspect-mood-voice possibility.

MoodEdit

Mood is formed by suffixes and is very important. There is a mood for five basic modalities, what is (indicative), what must be (imperative), what should be (optative), what would be (conditional), and what could be (potential). If one wants to make the meaning more specific, they should use another verb (like to be able to or to need) to make that meaning, and use the other verb in its infinitive form after the conjugated verb.

Each mood can be changed into negative form with the negative particle, ne or n- (with verbs beginning in vowels).

VoiceEdit

There are two voices, active and passive. Active has the Subject Verb Object word order, while Passive has the Object Verb Subject word order.

Tense/AspectEdit

Tense and Aspect are largely intertwined in Tesipa, and are similar to those in Ancient Greek. The tenses are: future (future events), present (present events), aorist (clean past events), imperfect (imperfect past events or events with no definite tense--except in a gnomic meaning), gnomic (events that are general truths), fluperfect (future perfect), perfect (looking at the result of the event), and pluperfect (past perfect). Progressiveness can also be formed by an adverb, though it is much rarer than it is in Germanic languages.

perfective aspect imperfective aspect perfect aspect gnomic aspect
future time future fluperfect gnomic
present time present perfect
past time aorist imperfect pluperfect

PersonEdit

There are no conjugations for person in Tesipa and verbs do not agree to any type of person. Instead, it is solely determined by nouns and pronouns.

Non-finite VerbsEdit

There are four forms of non-finite verb in Tesipa, which are the Infinitive, Participle, Gerund, and Supine. All types of these verbs function vaguely like moods. There are no gerundives.

InfinitivesEdit

Infinitives are the base form of a verb, essentially meaning the verb as a blunt meaning. In Tesipa, they are conjugated by leaving the verb root alone, with no conjugations. Infinitives function as nouns.

ParticiplesEdit

Participles may be either Adverbial or Adjectival in Tesipa, however, this does not make a difference in pronunciation or spelling. Participles function like a mood. Participles are also the only non-finite verb that can be conjugated by tense/aspect.

GerundsEdit

Gerunds are a noun form of verbs, as the noun that is the action of doing the verb. Gerunds function like a mood.

SupinesEdit

Supines are a noun form of a verb that are the purpose of an action (a finite verb). Supines function like a mood.

NegativeEdit

The Negative form of a verb is created by adding the prefix n- (or ne-) to the beginning of the verb. There is no adverb, unlike in English. The negative prefix works with all conjugations, as it is a prefix, not a suffix.

Conjugation TableEdit

There is a short pause between the actual word and its conjugation, but it is not written. The conjugations are also very regular. Many of the suffixes are only very rarely used, such as obscure aspects in the imperative and precative that are usually used more often in the indicative, however, they can still be used if the need arises. Almost every verb is conjugated regularly (the only irregular ones being af (to have), es (to be) and fol (to do)), and even then, it is considered acceptable to conjugate irregular verbs regularly, albeit slang-like.

Active Voice Present Aorist Imperfect Future Gnomic Perfect Pluperfect Fuperfect
Indicative -e -a -i -u -o
Conditional -ek -ak -ik -uk -ük -ok -ëk -äk
Optative -ep -ap -ip -up -üp -op -ëp -äp
Potential -en -an -in -un -ün -on -ën -än
Imperative -em -am -im -um -üm -om -ëm -äm
Infinitive No Suffix
Participle -et -at -it -ut -üt -ot -ët -ät
Gerund -or
Supine -är
Passive Voice Present Aorist Imperfect Future Gnomic Perfect Pluperfect Fuperfect
Indicative -le -la -li -lu -lü -lo -lë -lä
Conditional -lek -lak -lik -luk -lük -lok -lëk -läk
Optative -lep -lap -lip -lup -lüp -lop -lëp -läp
Potential -len -lan -lin -lun -lün -lon -lën -län
Imperative -lem -lam -lim -lum -lüm -lom -lëm -läm
Infinitive No Suffix
Participle -et -at -it -ut -üt -ot -ët -ät
Gerund -or
Supine -är

NounsEdit

Morphemes are often combined, for example, a dog kennel might be directly translated as "dog place". The order does not matter. Nouns do not have true declensions, and are essentially bare, unlike verbs.

CaseEdit

Case is not formed by declensions. Instead it is created by a mixture of word order and prepositions. Three cases, Nominative, Accusative, and Dative, are determined from the word order solely. For example, a sentence might run "I traded you apples", which is in the order Nominative, Verb, Accusative, Dative. Every sentence and subclause runs this way. Others cases are created by using prepositions.

GenitiveEdit

Genitive, the equivalent of Possessive in English, and in Tesipa is created by adding the particle "uf" between the possessor and the possessed. For example, in English, possessive can be created by the particle "of", which could create the noun House of John. In Tesipa, it would be translated literally into John of House, while having the same meaning as the English.

DefinitenessEdit

Definiteness is determined by the demonstrative in front of a noun, if any. If there is no demonstrative, indefiniteness exists.

AdjectivesEdit

ComparativeEdit

A comparative form is created by adding the word "mari" in front of the adjective.

SuperlativeEdit

A superlative form is created by adding the word "moli" in front of the adjective.

NegativeEdit

A negative form is created by adding the prefix n-, or ne-.

AdverbsEdit

Adverbs are not usually descended from adjectives.

IntensityEdit

An adverb's intensity can be increased the same way as an adjective, using the comparative and superlative. To make it more specific, extra morphemes, adverbs, or adjectives can be added.

NegativeEdit

A negative form is created by adding the prefix n- , or ne-.

PronounsEdit

Pronouns are very simple in Tesipa, and are as basic as possible. The main conjugation for them is for person (1st, 2nd, 3rd).

PersonalEdit

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person Indefinite Reflexive Reciprocal
Mi Ta Ku On Se De

There are no intensive pronouns, which is instead covered by modality. There is no difference between number, gender, or case. A dummy pronoun does not exist, instead, an impersonal verb just stands on its own.

PossessiveEdit

A possessive pronoun do not really exist, instead, the standard "uf" particle is used. A sentence would look like "Me of cat."

IndefiniteEdit

There is only one indefinite pronoun, On, but determiners may be added to modify it.

CorrelativesEdit

Tesipa has relatively few correlatives, and no quantifying correlatives, which are simply created by a determiner and a personal pronoun. Correlatives are regular.

Table of correlatives
interrogative ize- demonstrative eko-
determiner ize eko
human -ne izene ekone
nonhuman -na izena ekona
location -l izel ekol
amount -t izet ekot
time -m izem ekom
manner -r izer ekor
association uf- uf ize uf eko

Relative pronouns use the same set as the Interrogative pronouns. A reason proadverb (why) can be creating by using the literal translation "for what".

PrepositionsEdit

Prepositions are found before the noun/noun phrase in Tesipa and function similarly to how to function in English. They serve the purpose of grammatical case.

CopulasEdit

Copulas are very simple in Tesipa. The verb "to be" (es) serves as the copula for all types. It can be conjugated for tense/aspect and mood as well. Some sentences in English which would have a copula are completely served by moods as well, with no copula.

ConjunctionsEdit

There are five conjunctions in Tesipa. They are und (and), ind (nor), aps (but), olk (or), and osp (so). Conjunctions are placed between the two words or clauses they connect.

ModalityEdit

There are many modalities that are used in Tesipa. (Chart coming soon to viewers like you)

SyntaxEdit

ReflexiveEdit

Reflexive is achieved by using the pronoun Se as the object and the noun that is acting upon itself as the subject.

ObviateEdit

As a replacement to voices in Tesipa, the less important noun in a sentence can be marked as obviate with the prefix b-. This sets the obviated object as the less important item, so pronouns will usually refer to the non-obviated item and such.

Conditional SentencesEdit

Conditional Sentences are formed similarly to English, with two separate sentences, with both the first sentence being in the Conditional mood. A word for word translation might be "You(OB) heat(COND) water, it boil(IND)." The structure remains the same for various types of conditions and effects.

Dependent ClausesEdit

Noun clauses are formed by adding the demonstrative eko or a relative pronoun in front of an independent clause. They serve as a noun in a sentence

Adjective clauses are formed by changing the repeated noun in an independent clause to the demonstrative eko or a relative pronoun, and inserting the clause in front of the noun (unlike some English).

Adverb clauses are formed by putting a subordinating conjunction in front of the dependent clause and putting it before the independent clause.

DictionaryEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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