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Tesnafek Kuna-lia

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Tesnafek Kuna-lia (Singing Hollow) [tɛs͡nafɛk kuna.lia]

Name: Tesnafek Kuna-lia

Type: Agglutinative/Fusional

Alignment: Free or SVO

Head Direction: Mixture

Number of genders: 4 (Male, Female, Neuter, Other)

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Classification and Dialects(Kulas-bik Ane Es-kos-fif)Edit

Short Manner TekK-l

Full Manner TesnafekKuna-lia (哥ek洞穴) [tɛs͡nafɛk kuna.lia]


The name of the Language derives from the notion of the speakers that language was given from the hollow cavity of the Sound Organ(Tsa-lat) also known as the vocal cords hence Tesnafek(Singing) Kuna-lia(Hollow).

It was developed by the Tauale [tawalɛ] , a small tribal nation that inhabited the ancient Northern Sea (Portuguese: Mar do Norte, TekK-l: Aka-nolete Nale ) and Pyrenees (Portuguese: Pirinéus, TekK-l: Fileneus) and moved into modern day Indonesia in the Papua and Sumatra regions (Portuguese: Papua e Sumatra, TekK-l: Fafua Ane Sunatsa) throughout the age of colonization with the Portuguese and English.

With a population of about 5000 speakers, it is a declining language but with many new native language speakers around the world. This language has no known dialects as of yet.

The first alphabet of this language was actually a set of symbols that were in total 51 for all vowel and vowel diphthongs and consonant and consonant clusters as well as some symbols for the - and other marks, the language passed then through a usage of Chinese hanze and Japanese kanji and hiragana. This language now is written in Latin reduced alphabet or in a special Hanze-Kanji script and the Capital letters are used as a separator between words so actually the name of the language is TesnafekKuna-lia but for foreigners a space is added for less confusion while maintaining that Capital letters in the beginning of each word.

Some of the words in the language have been influenced by other languages like: Japanese, English, Portuguese, Latin, Italian, Danish and Mandarin.

The Official morphological type of this language is influenced by these languages, as such this language is a Fusional like in Portuguese, Italian, English and Latin but also Polysynthectic/Agglutinative like Japanese and Mandarin.

There are some loan words that have not been translated into Tesnafek Kuna-lia like the word Bear that comes from Danish(bjørn) Biotün that can also be written as Biotun for translation into Tesnafek Kuna-lia or the verb Notalo(see) from Italian/Portuguese/Latin from these are not treated as foreign words but as normal words.

Words that have an already defined meaning in TekK-l like Nola(Yes) or loan words that have more than 400 years of usage are normal words while other are foreign words.

At the moment the language has at least 60 words from these languages that were incorporated during the millennia.

Curiosities

Words like Dinosaur(Fial-sae, big monster) or Monster(Saesal) actually have a back story to why they are this way.

The Empires of Cartage and Rome were building their power during the time the language was developing, first when the tribe was in the Northern sea going towards the Navarre region of the Pyrenees, the word for monster is originated from the name Ceasar of the Roman Empire while the Dinosaur refers also to Elephants that the Cartage empire had when they started going south to the Spanish region of Gibraltar that was controlled by Cartage during the Punic Wars and later by the Romans, the bones that were first found by these tribes were of the Mammoths and Big Elephants so they received the name big monsters, to differentiate normally the natives use the now common word Fial-saekka( Big monster + kka suffix) that means Elephant to differentiate the two.

Phonology(Lat-nat)Edit

Consonants(Es-ask-nat)Edit

There are only 7 consonants in the Fif-nat(Alphabet:Language + Letters), these are:

  • F,K,L,T,N,S,B;
  • There is also a semi-vowel [w] and a foreign [h] sounds;
Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Velar Labial-Velar Glotal
Nasal n
Plosive b t k g
Fricative f s ʃ h
Lat. Approx l
Approximant w

Vowels(Es-osk-nat)Edit

There are 5 vowels that are always said in their total length: A,E,I,O,U and a short Ü that is only found in foreign language conversion. Example: Alfa -> Alüfa [alŭfa]

Front Back
Close i u,ŭ
Close-Mid
Open-Mid ɛ ɔ
Open a

Phonotactics(Nat-nia)Edit

Phonotactics is a singular word in TekK-l, therefore it doesn't need the radical Es before it.

Words can be form trough simple rules:

  • (C)C - Only two consonants can be directly together;
  • (V)V(V*) Vowels can be directly together; *repeat
  • (C)(C)V(V/C) - A word needs at least a vowel;
  • The rules for Consonant clusters and vowels clusters don't apply to Radical formed words; Nossa-nuk-bi, (to follow an animal verb);
  • When two consonants are together they are read as follows: Tesnafek: Te(sna)fek instead of Tes(na)fek;

Tesnafek Kuna-lia has a very restricted cluster for consonants:

Consonant Clusters F K L T N S B
- F K L T N S B
F FL FN
K KK KL KN
L
T TS
N
S SF SK SL ST SN SS SB
B BL

All vowel clusters are possible, the U letter when in clusters of vowels becomes a /w/ sound, special case Uu /wu/.


Writing System/Alphabet(Fif-nat)Edit

Letter Aa Ee Ii Oo Uu Hh/Üü Ff Kk Ll Tt Nn Ss
Sound [a] [ɛ] [i] [ɔ] [w~u] [h~ŭ] [f] [k] [l] [t] [n] [s]
Letter Bb Ss/ss Kk/kk
Sound [b] [ ʃ ] [g]
Letter
Sound

Numbers(Es-kaila)Edit

Numbers TekK-l
0 Tekon
1 Un
2 Bo
3 Sat
4 Se
5 Kut
6 Kekka
7 Flan
8 Okete
9 Nobet
10 Si
11 Si Un
25 Bo-si Kut
50 Kut-si
100 Biak
1.000 Uono
1.000.000 Lakka

The ordinal version of the numbers is just adding the radical "-kau" after the word. Example: 1st -> Un-kau

The decimal numbers are made by adding the radical "Keua-" to the beginning of that number's decimal part 10,45 -> Si Keua-se-si Kut

The numeral system used now in TekK-l is the Arabic number system that most of the world uses.

Grammar(Fif-nia)Edit

The Tesnafek Kuna-lia grammar divides itself in 8 categories, each having some special restrictions and Class, they are disposed in hierarchy:

  • Open Class:
    • Verb;
    • Noun
    • Verbal Form;
  • Closed Class:
    • Sentence Identifier;
  • Open Class(cont.):
    • Adjective;
    • Linker;
    • Radical;
    • Suffix;

Verbs(Es-taik-ak) Edit

Verbs are a very special type of word that are only used as verbs inside of the Taik sentence part, outside of it they may have different meanings.

Each verb can be formed by two ways:

  • -bi extension verb: An action verb that is formed by one or more radicals;
  • Natural verbs: verbs that are formed only by a word and nothing else, they normally represent a notion or a basic speech verb;

Examples:

  • Lat-bi: to sound/ sound + bi;
  • Etana-inake-bi: to mirror/ replicate + image + bi;
  • Ta-ki-bi: to chop/ Axe + bi;(could also be written as Ta-ki-ki-bi: Axe + tree + bi but the word becomes very hard to say)
  • Notalo: to see;
  • Lokna: to eat;
  • Kako: to want;
  • Nossa: to walk;
  • Na: to be;

There are 6 forms for each verb depending on the tense and function of the word, theses forms change in the presence of different vowels at the end.

Rules:

  • A verb must end in either A,I or O and it is called the Root of the verb;
  • Non-declined verbs are in the infinitive;
  • A verb is a word that can differ in meaning when used outside of the verb sentence part;
  • The Substantive or Participle can be used as an adjective of the verb;

Table of declensions: (+ or - are used to identify adding letters and erasing letters)

//////////////// Root Examples
Tenses A I O NA(to be) FI(to use) NATO(to mark)
Present +L +EL -O +IL Nal Fil Natil
Present Continuous +KE Nake Fike Natoke
Past Simple +LE Nale File Natole
Past Continuous +NA Nana Fina Natona
Future +NEA Nanea Finea Natonea
Substantive/Participle -A +EK +K -O +EK Nek Fik Natek

Passive Voice(Bitu-tel-ak) Edit

Bitu-tel-ak: : by + Subject marker noun

The passive voice in TekK-l is actually very easy to do as it follows the English way of forming it, the key word Keik is substituted by Bitu-(Object):

  • English: The ice cream was eaten by the kid.
  • English: The kid ate the ice cream.
  • TekK-l: Tel Saef Ise Külin Sal Taik Loknana( to eat + past continuous) Bitu-Kitout(by the kid)
  • TekK-l: Tel Kitout Taik Loknale Keik Saef Ise Külin Sal

Nouns(Es-tetak)Edit

Nouns are normally formed by two or more radicals, they sometimes form from Verbal forms that aren't inside the Verb sentence part, the default type of all words is the Noun, this includes numbers, prepositions, adverbs and others.

Examples:

  • Tsa-anata(Nose: Body part + to breathe);
  • Ska-tsa-ukie(Minute: Time + heart);
  • Tsa-ukie(Heart: Body part + blood);
  • Flan(7);
  • Ki-fan(Saturn: Tree + planet);
  • Nat: Both Letter(as in an alphabet) and Letter(Mail);

Pronouns(Es-subet-tetak) Edit

Pronouns are a subclass of the Noun in this language, there are 6 main types but also some complex types.

If in the Subject sentence part the word is a subject pronoun(example:I ) if in the Object part it is an object pronoun(example: me).

The We pronoun is special, it is combined with Tut(This: close to the receiver)/Teo(That: close to the speaker) for the inclusion or exclusion of the receiver of the message, as well as having the gender change, totalling in 7 different forms for the We pronoun, the stem has no default gender nor inclusion this can and will generate trouble if not used correctly.

TekK-l English Explanation
Sua I
Basna singular you
Nala-linat he
Utae-linat she
Linat it(stem genderless)
Uneu-linat it(other gender)
Uita we(stem genderless)
Uita-tut we(inclusion of receiver stem)
Uita-teo we(exclusion of receiver stem)
Basnatet plural you
Linatet they(stem genderless)
Nala-linatet they(males)
Utae-linatet they(females)
Uneu-linatet they(others)

In total there are 18 forms for the pronouns to take depending on the gender and inclusion, these are the same in Subject and Object.

Verbal Forms(Taik-ak Es-aota) Edit

This class normally is formed by Conjugated Verbs that serve other purposes in a sentence like a noun or an adjective.

  • Fina -> Fina(verb to use in Past continuous) Fina(User noun);

Sentence Identifiers(Es-telau-nato) Edit

This type is the only Closed Class, it contains all reserved words that mark certain parts of a sentence or alter the meaning of words.

Sentence part: a part of a sentence like Subject, Verb, Object

The position in sentence part is divided in three parts, Begin, Middle and End, these are relative to the words that compose that sentence part.

There is also a linkage part that is to see if the reserved word gains a "-" when it is used.

TekK-l English Explanation Position in the Sentence part
Begin Linkage Middle Linkage End
Aka Normal Adjective Marker Aka Yes Adjective ----- ----
Kno Not marker --------- --------- All Yes Kno
Tel Subject Marker Tel No All except Verbs ----- ----
Taik Verb Marker Taik No Only Verbs ----- ----
Keik Object Marker Keik No All except Verbs ----- ----
Uka Canceller of Markers Uka Yes Sentence Identifier ----- ----
Fieb Real Possession Marker (of) Posesser No Fieb No Posession
Saef ( ) Sal/Sale Foreign Word Encloser Saef No Foreign Word No Sal/Sale

Adjectives(Es-aka-kak) Edit

An adjective must be followed by the Sentence Identifier Aka-(adjective) except when the Adjective is the Participle of the Verb, Example: Aka-lia (Empty), Tesnafek (Participle equivalent to Singing).

Comparative and Superlative(Akatsa-kak Ane Akasla-kak) Edit

The comparative and superlative are very rare occurrences in this language but the syntax that they have is very simple:

  • English: The ox is bigger than the cow.
  • TekK-l: Tel Nala-bos Taik Nal Keik Akatsa-fial Utae-bos.
  • English The ox is the biggest.
  • TekK-l: Tel Nala-bos Taik Nal Keik Akasla-fial.

The comparative is formed by adding the tsa suffix(not to be confused by Tsa[part of body] radical) while the superlative is formed by adding the sla suffix.

Linkers(Es-linuka) Edit

As the name suggests this type of word links and relates the various words, Fieb is both a Sentence Identifier and a Linker of Possession.

They normally end with a "E" with some exceptions:

  • Fieb (of);
  • Titia (part of);
  • Nasfe-kno(Without);
  • Fiti (Equivalent to Can/ to be able to);

They have various sub-types like Possession, Condition, Ability.

Radicals(Es-labika)Edit

The most basic building block of this language, it can have various forms depending on where it is on the composite word.

The most basic examples are:

  • Tsa: Part of Body;
  • Sa: Foreign; Saef and Sal/Sale use this word and a suffix;
  • Fan: Planet;
  • Nuk/Nu: Animal;
  • [number]-kin: grand radical, for family use only; Example: great-grandparent -> Bo-kin-kesul( two grand parent);
  • Fial: Grand/Big;

Suffixes(Es-sufik)Edit

Simple Suffixes Edit

Alone it doesn't have any meaning so it has to join a word/radical in order to gain a complete meaning.

Example: Nuknat (Animal); "nat" here doesn't have a meaning to share to the word so it is considered to be a suffix;

This is what is called a completion type suffix, it has no meaning it only transforms a radical into a noun/other types, declension suffixes are less common but they convey a special meaning that changes the gender/plural or even the meaning of the word itself.

Example: Page Fakke -> Book(page plural suffix tet) Fakketet

Curiosity: Nuknat and Nuk-nat exist but they all have different meanings: Nuknat -> Animal, Nuk-nat -> Animal Mail Service( also written like Nu-nat for less ambiguity).

Complex Suffixes Edit

Normally words are composed by a suffix at the end but others have a suffix that doesn't follow this rule.

Example:

  • Ni[]l/Ni[]: Wheat Complex Suffix
    • Wheat: Nissul: Ni[]l + Ssu(Agriculture suffix);
  • L[]tusa: Fight Complex Suffix
    • Latusa: to fight with others
    • Letusa: to fight the Devil [  lɛtusa]
    • Litusa: to fight God [  litusa]
    • Lotusa: to fight with oneself
    • Lutusa: to fight with emotions
    • Laotusa: to fight

The verb to fight is formed by a complex suffix and a completer vowel cluster, in this case the complex suffix is the carrier of the meaning while the vowel is a completer of the meaning.

Genders(Es-benia)Edit

Gender in Tesnafek Kuna-lia is composed of four types with distinct uses:

  • Male: used when a male gender is present;
  • Female: used when a female gender is present;
  • Neuter/Absence of Gender: the default gender of the word only used in singular;
  • Other/Neutral gender: used in the singular and plural when the gender is or isn't present but is questionable;

By adding a Radical to the beginning of the word the type of gender differs and may change the meaning of the sentence.

Gender Radical
Male Nala
Female Utae
Other Uneu
Neuter Neut

Examples:

  • Pronoun for the third person singular(stem Linat):
    • It(Neuter): Linat / Neut-linat(redundant);
    • He(Male):Nala-linat;
    • She(Female):Utae-linat;
    • It(Other):Uneu-linat;
  • Cow(stem Bos):
    • Ox(Neuter): Bos / Neut-bos(redundant);
    • Bull(Male):Nala-bos;
    • Cow(Female): Utae-bos;
    • Cattle(Other + Plural): Uneus-bos;

Plurals(Es-fural)Edit

The plural of a word is mainly adding a small suffix after the gender word if specified or as a radical before the word if the word doesn't need a gender.

Singular Plural Example
Nala Nalas Nalas-bos(bulls)
Utae Utaes Utaes-bos(cows)
Uneu Uneus Uneus-bos(Cattles)
Neut -------- ----------
No gender Es/S S-ki/Es-ki(Trees)
Plural Pronouns/ rare words et/tet Linatet(they)

The Es radical only occurs when the S alone is difficult to pronounce when the anterior word has an S in the final letter or if the Speaker isn't comfortable in saying it.

The pronouns are some of the rare exceptions that have different suffixes added after for plural forms like Linat(you) -> Linatet(you), Basna(it) -> Basnatet(they), et and tet are added.

Syntax(Telau-nia)Edit

The sentence identifiers give this language a mostly free syntax but the normal is SVO.

The negative is formed by the Sentence identifier Kno meaning not/no after the verb in any tense.

The interrogative is formed in two ways:

  • V not V formation for Yes/No questions, the response is either No(Kno) or Yes(Nola);
  • Special question words like Where, How What that are put alone without a sentence marker, the Subject marker is substituted by the question marker in the function of the sentence;

Sentence(Telau) Examples:

  • Negative(Telau-kno):
    • Pluto isn't a Planet in the English language.
    • Tel Abat-fan Taik Nal-kno Keik Fan Kuate Saef Enükülis Sal Fif
    • Tel(Subject) Abat-fan(Pluto) Taik(Verb) Nal-kno( to be + present tense + negative) Keik(Object) Fan(Planet) Kuate(in/inside) Saef Enükülis Sal(Foreign word English) Fif(Language)
  • Affirmative(Telau-nola):
    • Pluto is a Planet in this Language.
    • Tel Abat-fan Taik Nal Keik Fan Kuate Tato-obe Fif
    • Tel(Subject) Abat-fan(Pluto) Taik(Verb) Nal( to be + present tense) Keik(Object) Fan(Planet) Kuate(in/inside) Tato-obe(this close to no one) Fif(Language)
  • Question(Laota):
    • 1st Interrogative(Telau-laota-nola-kno):
      • Do you want this car?
      • Tel Basna Taik Kakil-kno Kakil Keik Teo-obe Saef Cal Sal
      • Tel(Subject) Basna(You singular) Taik(Verb) Kakil-kno Kakil(to want + Present tense question) Keik(Object) Teo-obe(This close to the speaker) Saef Cal Sal(Foreign word Car)
    • 2nd Interrogative(Tealu-laota):
      • What are you?
      • Uena Basna Taik Nal
      • Uena(What + Subject) Basna(You singular) Taik(Verb) Nal( to be + present tense)

Lexicon(Funetik)Edit

Link here.

Example text(Ekanuf Tetune)Edit

Tongue-twister:

  • Tel Aka-ki-ta-ki Ta-ki Taik Ta-ki-biel Keik Ki. Tel Ki-ta-ki Taik Fina Kita Keik Kane Es-ta-ki.
  • [  tɛl  aka.ki.ta.ki  ta.ki  taik  ta.ki.biɛl  kɛik  ki ][ tɛl  ki.ta.ki  taik  fina  kita  kɛik  kanɛ  ɛs.ta.ki]
  • The wooden axe chops the tree. The wood is used to make more axes.

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